- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The clinical management of children with renal tumors including Wilms' tumor, clear cell sarcoma, rhabdoid tumor and other renal tumors in our center was designed according to the National Wilms' Tumor Study Group protocols. Methods: A total of 142 consecutive patients who had been diagnosed as having renal tumors at Shanghai Children's Medical Center were reviewed retrospectively in the period of December 1998 and September 2012. Diagnosis and treatment were decided by a multidisciplinary team including oncologists, surgeons, pathologists and sub-specialized radiologists. Results: The median age of the patients at the time of diagnosis was 27 months. The tumor stages of the patients were as follows: stage I 24.6%, stage II 23.2%, stage III 32.3%, stage IV 14.1%, and stage V 5.6%. Favorable histology was diagnosed in 80.3%, anaplasia in 4.2%, clear cell sarcoma in 9.8%, rhabdoid tumor in 4.9%, and other renal tumors in 0.7% of the patients. The eventfree and overall 5-year survival rates were 80% and 83%, respectively. Tumor relapse and progress was seen in 25 patients (17.6%). The median relapse time was 6 months (range: 2-37 months). Seven relapsing patients were retreated and four of them got second complete remission (three in stage II, one in stage I). Conclusion: A multi-disciplinary team work model is feasible in developing countries, and the renal tumors protocols basically from developed countries are safe in developing countries.
Dataset: Supplementary Material[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Supplementary Table 1. Treatment plan: Regime WT(1)-(5). Patients with Stage I-II favorable histology or with Stage I focal anaplastic histology received WT-1. Patients with Stage III-IV favorable histology, with Stage II-III focal anaplastic histology, or with Stage I diffuse anaplastic histology received WT-2. Patients with Stage II-III diffuse anaplastic histology, with Stage I-III clear cell sarcoma, or with Stage IV focal anaplastic histology received WT-3. Patients with Stage I-IV rhabdoid tumor or with Stage IV diffuse anaplastic histology and clear cell sarcoma received WT-4. Patients with Stage IV or unresectable Stage III tumor received WT-5.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here we investigated the establishment of multicenter cooperative treatment groups in China, as well as radiotherapy compliance and effectiveness among children with renal tumors. Medical records were reviewed for 316 children with renal tumors diagnosed by a multicenter cooperative group from 14 hospitals in China from 1998 to 2012. Median patient age was 29.5 months (range, 2-173 months old), and male-to-female ratio was 1.4 : 1. After a median follow-up of 22 months (range, 1-177 months), five-year event-free survival rates were 72% overall; 76.1% for favorable histology (251 cases); 59% for unfavorable histology (27 cases); and 91%, 75%, 71%, 53%, and 48.5%, respectively for Stages I, II, III, IV, and V. Following standardized criteria, radiation therapy was indicated for 153 patients, among whom five-year event-free survival was 72.8% for the 95 who received radiation and 24% for the 58 patients who did not. Our results are reasonable but can be further improved and show the feasibility of a multicenter cooperative group model for childhood renal tumor treatment in China. Radiation therapy is important for stage III and IV patients but remains difficult to implement in some parts of China. Government management departments and medical professionals must pay attention to this situation. This clinical trial is registered with ChiCTR-PRCH-14004372.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the long-term outcomes of childhood stage 4 neuroblastoma (NB) and its correlative prognostic factors. Methods: Comprehensive protocols including tumor resection, intensive chemotherapy, radiotherapy, autologous bone marrow transplantation and 13-cis-retinoid were designed and implemented. A total of 112 newly diagnosed NB stage 4 patients at Shanghai Children's Medical Center collected from June 1998 to December 2010 were treated. Their clinical features, therapeutic efficacies, long-term outcomes and prognostic factors were analyzed. Results: There were 69 males and 43 females with an age range of 4 months to 15 years. Among them, 12 improving patients didn't complete treatment because of parental decisions. Among those completing the comprehensive protocols, 62 cases (62.0%) achieved very good partial remission (VGPR), 20 (20.0%) achieved partial remission (PR) while another 18 (18.0%) progressed during treatment. The efficiency rate (including VGPR+PR) of treatment was 82.0 % (n = 82). The median follow-up period was 78 (56, 120) months. And 13 cases were lost after a median follow-up of 16 months. The 2, 3, 5-year event-free survival (EFS) was 56.2% (59/105) , 40.8% (40/98) and 21.1% (19/90) respectively. Age (>18 months), poor curative effect (achieving no VGPR at the end of treatment), elevated level of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (> 5 times normal value), bone marrow involvement and brain metastasis were poor prognostic factors (χ(2) = 12.01, 13.66, 6.29, 5.44, 16.18, all P < 0.05) . According to the multivariate estimates of hazards, age, high levels of LDH, poor curative effect and brain metastasis were associated with a worse survival (OR = 3.54, 1.89, 3.08, 3.45, all P < 0.05) . Brain metastasis predicted a worse outcome with 100% mortality rate (n = 6). Compared to traditional chemotherapy, topotecan-based chemotherapy could not improved the efficiency (52.6% (10/19) vs 63.2% (36/57) , P > 0.05) and long-term outcome (2 ys-EFS 42.1% (8/19) vs 56.4% (31/55) , P > 0.05). Conclusions: The prognosis remains poor for neuroblastoma of stage 4. Age (>18 months), poor curative effect (achieving no VGPR at the end of treatment), elevated LDH level (>5 times normal value) and bone marrow infiltration are associated with worse prognosis. Brain metastasis predicts the worst with 100% death rate. Topotecan included chemotherapy can not be proved more effective in this study.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For the first time, we conducted a 2-center retrospective study to show the efficacy of antithymocyte globulin (ATG)-Fresenius S plus cyclosporine treatment of children with severe aplastic anemia. From March 1997 to May 2011, a total of 124 patients (median age, 7.5 y; range, 1.5 to 16 y) from 2 centers with acquired AA treated with an immunosuppressive therapy (IST) regimen, consisting of ATG-Fresenius S (5 mg/kg per day for 5 d) and cyclosporine, were enrolled. The response rate was 55.6%. The median time between IST and response was 6 (0.5 to 18) months. After a median follow-up time of 29 (6 to 153) months, the rates of relapse and clonal evolution were 3.2% and 0.8%, respectively. Overall, 17 patients (13.7%) died in this study: 14 resulted from sepsis, 1 resulted from intracranial hemorrhage, 1 occurred after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and 1 resulted from clonal disease progression. The 5-year overall survival rate for the entire cohort was 74.7%. IST responders had a better survival rate (100%) than nonresponders (70.7%). The use of ATG-Fresenius S plus cyclosporine as a first-line immunosuppressive treatment appeared to be effective for children with severe aplastic anemia in our study. ATG-Fresenius S could be another option in the treatment arsenal, especially in countries where the other ATG products are harder to acquire.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This retrospective cohort study analysed the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with childhood lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL) treated in Shanghai, China. From 2001 to 2010, 108 evaluable patients ≤16 years of age who were newly diagnosed with biopsy-proven LBL were treated with one of three treatment protocols: CCCG-99, SCMC-T-NHL-2002, or LBL-CHOF-2006. Two patients had Stage I disease, 5 had Stage II, 55 had Stage III, and 46 had Stage IV. The immunophenotype was T-cell LBL in 92 patients (85.2%) and precursor B-cell LBL in 16 (14.8%). The abandonment rate was 11.5%. Twenty-five patients (23.2%) suffered from resistant disease, including 1 with isolated central nervous system (CNS) relapse. At a median follow-up of 40.4 months (range, 0-114 months), the 5-year probability of event-free survival (pEFS) was 63.9 ± 4.6% in all patients. The 5-year pEFS for patients with pB-LBL was better than for patients with T-LBL (100% vs. 61.3 ± 5.1%, P = 0.007). Patients who had achieved complete remission on day 33 of induction had significantly better pEFS than those who had not (78.8 ± 4.6% vs. 28.2 ± 9.0%, P = 0.000). Three of 25 patients who experienced resistant disease were alive at the end of the study period. The abandonment rate was lower for patients with LBL than for patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Prophylactic cranial radiation can be omitted for patients with LBL even when advanced-stage disease is present, as intensive systemic chemotherapy with intrathecal therapy is sufficient to prevent CNS relapse. The survival of patients with resistant disease was very poor. Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To summarize long-term outcomes of childhood lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL) with protocol CCCG-97 and -2002. From November 1998 to October 2010, 70 consecutive newly diagnosed childhood LBL (5 B-LBL and 65 T-LBL) were enrolled in this study, in which 22 received CCCG-97 and 48 CCCG-2002 protocols. St.Jude staging system was adopted. Patients were divided into three risk groups based on clinical stage and serum LDH, and received chemotherapy with different intensity. The factors, which were possibly associated with the prognosis, were analyzed. The survival rates were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier analysis. The patients were 1.5 to 14 years old with the median age of 8 years old. They were evaluated as stage I-II for 6 , stage III41, and stage IV23 (15 were BM positive and 8 multiple bone metastases). Until Dec.31th, 2011,the mean follow-up was 62.5 months (range, 14 to 161 months) with the median follow-up of 48 months. 1-year overall survival (OS) was 74.3%, and 5- year event-free survival (EFS) 64.1% (abundance as event). Thirteen patients were complicated with serious condition during chemotherapy and 1 died of complication. Univariate analysis indicated that delayed and/or non-completed response on days 33 and 63 of induction was the unfavorable prognostic factor. Primary LBL usually located in the mediastinum. 90% of the patients was at advanced stage III-IV at first presentation. The 5-year EFS was 64.1%. Patients not achieved CR at days 33 and 63 at the end of induction was a poor prognostic factor.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the long-term efficacy of SCMC-ALL-2005 protocol in treatment of low-risk childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). From May 1, 2005 to April 30, 2009, 387 patients enrolled into SCMC-ALL-2005 protocol. Based on the characteristics of cell morphology, immunology, cytogenetics and molecular biology and treatment response, 158 patients were fit into the low-risk treatment group. All the cases were registered in pediatric oncology network database (POND). The clinical characteristics and outcome were analyzed. Until December 31, 2012, the 5-year event free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) is (77.76±3.37)% and (89.55±2.83)%, respectively. Median follow-up time is 5.33 y (3.75-7.70 y). Five patients (3.16%) died of complication, all of them were severe infections. Twenty-seven patients (17.09%) relapsed, including 13 bone marrow relapse (8.23%), 5 testis relapse (5.32% of boys, 2 of unilateral and 3 bilateral), 6 central nerve system relapse (CNS, 3.80%), 1 relapse in both bone marrow and CNS, 1 relapse in both bone marrow and testis, and 1 right ovary and fallopian tube relapse. Relapse is related to positive minimal residual disease. Two cases (1.27%) occurred second tumors, 4 patients (2.53%) gave up treatment in complete remission without special reasons. The EFS and life quality of SCMC-ALL-2005 protocol in the treatment of childhood low-risk ALL is satisfactory. The treatment-related mortality rate is lower, and the long-term EFS is higher than that of XH-99 protocol.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To analyze outcomes and prognostic factors of children with B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL). Methods: One hundred and four newly diagnosed B-NHL children were enrolled in protocol of B-NHL 2001. The statistics were performed by SPSS 13.0. Results: Of 104 children (79 males, the median age of 7.1 years), 60, 32 and 4 patients were diagnosed with Burkitt lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and unclassifiable B-cell lymphoma, respectively. Four patients were in stage Ⅰ, 27 stage Ⅱ, 55 stage Ⅲ and 18 stage Ⅳ; 1, 26 and 77 patients were allocated into R1, R2 and R3 risk groups, respectively. Three patients never got complete remission (CR), 9 patients relapsed after CR with the duration of relapse from 1 to 7 months after chemotherapy. The estimated 5-year EFS of 104 patients was (86.7 ± 3.5)%. Univariable analyses identified that risk factors for recurrence were of higher staging, elevated LDH, serum ferritin and poor early response. Age, sex, pathologic diagnosis, original tumor, bone or marrow involvement, C-MYC and risk group were not found to be associated with the risk of failure to treatment. Multivariable COX regression models confirmed serum ferritin as a significant independent prognostic marker. Conclusion: B-NHL 2001 protocol was reasonable for B-NHL children. Higher staging, elevated LDH, serum ferritin and poor early response increased risk for recurrence.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Because procarbazine is not available in the mainland of China, a risk-adapted chemotherapy without the drug was adopted for children with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) in two tertiary referral centers for childhood cancer in Shanghai. The objective of the present study was to obtain the results comparable with those of previous studies. Methods: From January 1998 to December 2009, patients below 18 years with newly diagnosed, untreated HL were enrolled in the study. The patients were stratified into risk groups R1 (early stage), R2 (intermediate stage) and R3 (advanced stage). All the patients who had attained a complete remission were not given involved field radiotherapy. Results: Fifty-six patients were eligible for the study. The 4-year event-free survival (EFS) rate was 100%, 80.3%±7.2%, and 62.5%±12.1% for the risk groups R1, R2, and R3, respectively. There was statistically significant difference in EFS between patients with and those without B symptoms (P<0.001). In group R2, the EFS rate was higher for patients treated with chemotherapy combined with radiation (100% vs. 75%±8.8%). But no statistical difference was observed (P=0.177). At the time of evaluation (December 31, 2010), secondary malignancy was not observed. Conclusions: A significant fraction of children with early stage or intermediate stage HL can be cured with a chemotherapy regimen without procarbazine. Complete response to chemotherapy seems not to be a determinant to omit radiotherapy.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia includes T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). In children, T-ALL usually has a worse prognosis than B-ALL, although childhood T-ALL prognoses have improved remarkably. The varying outcomes among T-ALL cases suggest that an unrecognized biological heterogeneity may contribute to chemo-resistance. Deep exploration of T-lymphocyte development in recent years has found a subgroup of patients with a phenotype that resembles early T-cell precursor, which confers a much poorer prognosis than any other form of T-ALL. This novel subtype of T-ALL was called early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ETP-ALL). Flow cytometry data from T-ALL patients enrolled in Shanghai Children's Medical Center between July 2002 and October 2010 were assessed according to Dr. Campana's protocol. Among total 89 T-ALL cases, 74 cases had enough immunophenotype data available to differentiate between ETP (CD1a(-), CD8(-), CD5(dim), at least one marker of stem cell or myeloid lineage) and non-ETP. From these 74 subjects, 12 ETP-ALL cases (16.2%) were identified. The event-free survival (EFS) rate at 66.8 months was 11.1% ± 10.1% for ETP-ALL and 57.6% ± 5.6% for non-ETP-ALL (P = 0.003). The overall survival rates were 13.3% ± 11.0% for ETP-ALL and 64.7% ± 6.3% for non-ETP-ALL (P = 0.002). Our findings demonstrate that early T-cell precursor leukemia is a very high-risk subtype of acute lymphoblastic leukemia with poor prognosis.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To reduce the risk of therapy related complication during the treatment and keeps the long term event free survival, and to evaluate the results and risk factors of SCMC-lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)-2005 protocol. Designed the new protocol SCMC-ALL-2005 based on the previous protocol XH-99 for ALL. Divided the patients into low, median and high risk groups depends on risk factors including day 33 and 55 minimal residual disease (MRD) level. The higher risk group, the more intensive therapy was given. All the cases were registed on pediatric oncology network database (POND). All the abandonment patients were counted as event. From May 1(st) 2005 to April 30(th) 2009, 351 children who were newly diagnosed as B lineage ALL were enrolled in this study. The prognoses relating to risk grouping, age, mutation gene and MRD level were analyzed. Up to June 30, 2011, 273 patients were followed up with median time 49 months (range 26 to 74 months). Three hundred and forty-five patients (98.29%) achieved complete remission on day 35 induction. 12 cases were younger than 1 year old (3.42%), 285 cases between 1 and 9 years old (81.20%), 54 cases 10 to 18 years old (15.38%). Five year event-free survival (EFS) was 34%, 72% and 63%, respectively. One hundred and fifty-six cases belonged to lowere risk (44.44%), 177 to middle risk (50.43%) and 18 to higher risk (5.13%). Five year EFS was 78%, 64% and 30%, respectively. In this study, 18 patients were detected positive for BCR/ABL, 3 for MLL/AF4, 16 for PBX/E2A, and 36 for TEL/AML. The 5 year EFS were 11%, 66%, 75% and 74%, respectively. A total of 300 cases were tested for MRD levels on day 35. Of them, 241 cases were with MRD ≤ 0.01% (negative), and 59 cases > 0.01% (positive). The 5 year relapse free survival (RFS) was 79% and 58%, respectively. Total 6 patients died of complication (1.71%). 18 patients were abundant treatment with no disease progress. 70 patients relapsed (19.94%), including 52 bone marrow, 8 central nerve system (CNS), 1 both in bone marrow and CNS, 1 second caner (M(4)) and 8 testis. Five year overall survival (OS) and EFS are 84% and 69%. The risk of therapy related death is low with the protocol SCMC-ALL-2005. MRD affects the prognosis. The long term prognosis is poor for high risk group, with BCR/ABL and positive MRD.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore the incidence, clinical characteristics and prognosis of children and adolescents over 10 years of age with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). From May 1, 2005 to April 30, 2009, 67 newly diagnosed ALL children and adolescents over 10 years of age were enrolled in protocol of ALL-2005. All of the clinical characteristics of the patients were analyzed. The statistics was done by SPSS 13.0. There were 40 males (59.7%) and 27 females (40.3%). The mean age at diagnosis was 12.3 ± 1.7 (10.0 to 17.8) years with median age of 12.2 years. Of 67 patients, 48 were in medium risk group, and 19 in high risk group. During induction therapy, 83.6% and 86.6% patients had good response to prednisone and bone marrow blasts ≤ 5% at day 19, respectively. The overall hematologic response rate in these 67 patients was 88.1% (59) in complete remission (CR) after induction therapy, 15 patients relapsed with mean continuous CR period of (14.9 ± 9.9) months. The five-year event-free survivals (EFS) and overall survivals (OS) were (64.4 ± 6.3)% and (74.1 ± 6.1)%, respectively. According to univariate analysis, elevated serum ferritin, bcr-abl translocation, poor response to prednisone, high bone marrow blasts at day 19 or after induction therapy, and high minimal residual disease (MRD) after induction therapy increased risk for recurrence. Multivariate analysis indicated that high MRD after induction therapy was associated with recurrence (RR = 2.20, 95%CI 1.26 - 3.84, P < 0.01). Survival has improved for children and adolescents with ALL by ALL-2005 protocol. Analysis of serum ferritin and bcr-abl translocation at diagnosis, early responses to treatment and MRD detection during therapy are powerful prognostic indicators.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study quantitatively examined signal joint T-cell receptor rearrangement excision circles (sjTRECs) levels in peripheral blood of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) at different stages in order to evaluate the role of sjTRECs in predicting severe infection postchemotherapy. sjTRECs levels in peripheral blood were measured by fluorescent quantitation-polymerase chain reaction in 30 children with newly diagnosed ALL, 36 children with ALL who accepted chemotherapy but were not infected, 30 children with ALL who had severe infection after chemotherapy, and 50 normal children. Blood sjTRECs levels in the normal group (394 ± 270 copies/103 MNC) were significantly higher than those in the other three groups (P<0.05). Blood sjTRECs levels in the chemotherapy group without infection (96 ± 78 copies/103 MNC) were significantly lower than those in the newly diagnosed ALL group (210 ± 219 copies/103 MNC) (P<0.05). The chemotherapy group with severe infection showed the lowest blood sjTRECs levels (48 ± 40 copies/103 MNC) in the four groups. The measurement of blood sjTRECs levels might be helpful for predicting the occurrence of severe infection postchemotherapy in children with ALL.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Postoperative chylous leakage is a rare complication that results from disruption of either mediastinal or retroperitoneal lymphatic channels during dissection or from obstruction by original lesions such as a malignancy. There is lack of clinical experience in pediatric patients about how to manage the leakage and what the result will be. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical outcomes of 5 children with neuroblastoma (NB) (stage 4 in 4 children and stage 1-2 in 1 child) who had received non-surgical treatment of chylothorax and/or chylous ascites after retroperitoneal/posterior mediastinal extensive radical resection of NB for complete tumor removal. Conservative therapy with low-fat diet, medium-chain triglyceride and/or total parenteral nutrition was the mainstay treatment for chylous leakage. Four of the 5 children recovered after 6-32 days of conservative treatment, and the last one who did not respond was cured by surgical management for chylous fistula 45 days after primary surgery. Postoperative imaging showed that more than 90% of tumors were resected and all of them showed very good partial remission (VGPR). Among the 4 patients in stage 4, 3 relapsed after radical resection of NB. The patient of stage 1-2 was still in VGPR. The majority of patients with chylous ascites/chylothorax after extensive radical surgery for posterior mediastinum/retroperitoneum NB could be cured by non-surgical treatment. But the final result of original disease has not been greatly changed by intensive surgery for stage 4 NB.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Homoharringtonine (HHT) is one of several cephalotaxine alkaloids that has shown clinical efficacy in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of HHT for de novo pediatric AML. Patients entered in this study were treated with a regimen including HHT 3.5 mg/m(2) day for 9 days for 6-8 cycles after induction and consolidation with cytarabine plus daunorubicin (DA). One hundred and seventy-one eligible patients, with a median age of 7.58 years, were enrolled. Complete response was obtained in 140/171 (81.9%) cases within 60 days (2 cycles) after DA induction. The 5-year event-free survival was 52.75%. Severe myelosuppression was seen in all patients, with an average minimum WBC count of 686/μl. Following the HHT-including regimen, one patient suffered severe pancreatitis, and a second with a history of congenital hepatitis B suffered liver failure. No significant drug-induced hypotension, fluid retention, hyperglycemia, or cardiac toxicity was detected in this study. Other toxicities, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and mucositis, were mild. HHT-including protocols may emerge as useful therapeutic options in future clinical trials.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This pilot study focused on whether flow cytometry (FCM) detection of minimal residual disease in bone marrow (BM) could predict the outcome of patients with advanced neuroblastoma (NB). Fifty-seven stage 4 NB patients with BM infiltration were enrolled in this study. All of them received NB-2001 protocol. BM samples were examined for tumor cell contamination by both morphology and FCM with CD45-FITC/CD81-PE/CD56-PECy5 monoclonal antibodies cocktail at diagnosis and after 4 courses of chemotherapy. BM samples of all patients were positive at diagnosis by FCM, and samples from 30 patients became negative after 4 courses of chemotherapy, 10 patients relapsed (33.3%) in mean 45.5 months, range 7 to 69. Another 27 patients remained positive, and 20 of them relapsed (74.1%) in mean 24.2 months, range 8 to 48. There was a statistically significant difference in event-free survival between the 2 groups (P = 0.002). Persistence of minimal residual disease in BM may work as a chemotherapy response marker and predict the prognosis in advanced NB.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the outcomes of childhood acute monocytic leukemia (AML-M5) and explore the indications of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) for children with AML-M5. Seventy-five AML-M5 patients and 201 non-AML-M5 AML patients were enrolled in this retrospective analysis. Event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were estimated by Kaplan-Meier method and prognostic factors were evaluated by COX regression with SPSS. (1) Twelve patients gave up treatment after confirmed diagnosis. Two patients died on the second day after chemotherapy. Of the 61 patients, 73.8% (45/61) achieved complete remission (CR) after two courses of chemotherapy. The 5-year EFS rate was 34.5% ± 6.8%. But of the 117 non-AML-M5/M3 AML patients, the 5-year EFS rate was 51.0% ± 4.9%. (2) Multivariate analysis showed that age ≥ 10 y, the proportion of bone marrow blast cell counts ≥ 15% after the first induction therapy, not CR after two courses of chemotherapy were risk factors for the long-term prognosis. (3) Of the 20 patients whose bone marrow blast cell counts ≥ 15% after the first induction therapy, 5 patients who choose allo-HSCT had a better OS than the other 15 patients who choose chemotherapy only (60.0% ± 21.9% vs. 7.3% ± 7.1%, P = 0.024). Children with AML-M5 had a poorer prognosis than the other AML patients; patients whose bone marrow blast cell counts ≥ 15% after the first induction therapy chose allo-HSCT had a better prognosis. At present, there is no enough evidence to support that patients whose bone marrow blast cell counts < 15% after the first induction therapy should choose unrelated donor for allo-HSCT.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To analyze the outcome of childhood aplastic anemia received allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and immunosuppressive therapy (IST). METHODS: The clinical data of 125 consecutive children with aplastic anemia (AA) in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: According to the clinical manifestations, the 125 AA children were divided into two groups: SAA (n = 79) and NSAA (n = 46). There was no significant difference between the two groups in sex, age and follow-up duration (P > 0.05). The median follow-up was 25 (6 - 89) months. 103 cases received IST and 22 received allogenic HSCT. In SAA group, the response rate was better in patients received allogenic HSCT (n = 21) than in those received IST (n = 58) (85.7% vs 53.4%, P < 0.01). SAA patients received IST were further divided into two groups: 47 received antithymocyte globulin (ATG) and cyclosporine-A (CsA) combined therapy, 11 received CsA alone. There was no significant difference in total response rates (55.3% vs 45.5%, P = 0.555) and cure rates (42.6% vs 27.3%, P = 0.499) between the two groups. In NSAA group, 45 patients received IST and 1 received allogenic HSCT. In the IST treated NSAA patients, there was also no statistic significance in cure rates (36.4% vs 32.4%, P = 0.806) and total effective rates (63.6% vs 64.7%, P = 0.949) between ATG and CsA combined therapy (n = 11) and CsA alone therapy (n = 34). CONCLUSION: The outcome of children with AA received allogenic HSCT was obviously better than those received IST. IST is still the choice for patients without suitable donors for HSCT.
Shanghai's Children's Medical CenterShanghai, Shanghai Shi, China