[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Streptococcus pneumoniae, a major causative bacterial pathogen of community-acquired pneumonia, possesses a thick polysaccharide capsule. Host defense against this bacterium is mediated by activation of innate immune cells that sense bacterial components. Recently, C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) have garnered much attention in elucidating the recognition mechanism of pathogen-derived polysaccharides.
In the present study, we first compared the clinical course and neutrophil accumulation in the lungs of Dectin-2 knock-out (KO) and wild type (WT) mice. Mice were infected intratracheally with a serotype 3 strain of S. pneumoniae, and S. pneumoniae bacterial engulfment by neutrophils and inflammatory cytokine and anti-pneumococcal polysaccharide-specific IgG levels were evaluated in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). We also examined the effect of Dectin-2 deficiency on interleukin (IL)-12 production by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DCs) stimulated with the bacterial components.
S. pneumonia-infected Dectin-2KO mice had a shorter survival time, larger bacterial burden and lower interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production in the lungs than WT mice. Although neutrophilic infiltration in the lungs was equivalent between Dectin-2KO mice and WT mice, S. pneumonia engulfment by neutrophils was attenuated in Dectin-2KO mice compared to WT mice. The anti-pneumococcal polysaccharide-specific IgG and IgG3 levels in BALF were lower in Dectin-2KO mice than in WT mice. When BM-DCs were stimulated with S. pneumoniae culture supernatant or its Concanavalin A (ConA)-bound fraction, IL-12 production was abrogated in Dectin-2KO mice compared to WT mice.
We demonstrated that Dectin-2 is intimately involved in the host defense against infection with a serotype 3 strain of S. pneumoniae. Dectin-2-dependent IL-12 production may contribute to IFN-γ synthesis and subsequent production of serotype-specific anti-capsular polysaccharide IgG after S. pneumoniae infection, which may promote S. pneumoniae bacterial opsonization for engulfment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives and design:
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a pulmonary disease caused by repeated exposure to various aspiration antigens, including bacteria and fungi. Although TLRs are known to be required for the generation of HP triggered by bacteria, the significance of fungal receptors remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate whether Dectin-1 and Dectin-2 contribute to the development of experimental HP triggered by the fungus Trichosporon asahii (T. asahii) that causes summer-type HP.
Materials and methods:
We investigated the binding between Dectin-Fc protein and T. asahii by a dot blot assay. We performed the histological and flow cytometric analysis in the HP model using Dectin-1-deficient (Dectin-1(-/-)) and Dectin-2(-/-) mice. We also investigated Th17/Th1 responses in lung cells, and measured an IL-17-promoting cytokine IL-23 from bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) by ELISA.
Dectin-1 bound more strongly to T. asahii than Dectin-2. Dectin-1(-/-) mice barely developed HP, whereas both wild-type mice and Dectin-2(-/-) mice developed similar lung diseases. Dectin-1 deficiency decreased the infiltration of neutrophils and monocyte-derived macrophages and repressed the expansion of lung CD4(+)IL-17A(+) cells. The production of IL-23 p19 was reduced in Dectin-1(-/-) BMDCs.
These data suggested Dectin-1 plays a critical role in the development of fungus-induced HP.
No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Agents and Actions
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The complement system is important for the host defence against infection as well as for the development of inflammatory diseases. Here we show that C1q/TNF-related protein 6 (CTRP6; gene symbol C1qtnf6) expression is elevated in mouse rheumatoid arthritis (RA) models. C1qtnf6(-/-) mice are highly susceptible to induced arthritis due to enhanced complement activation, whereas C1qtnf6-transgenic mice are refractory. The Arthus reaction and the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis are also enhanced in C1qtnf6(-/-) mice and C1qtnf6(-/-) embryos are semi-lethal. We find that CTRP6 specifically suppresses the alternative pathway of the complement system by competing with factor B for C3(H2O) binding. Furthermore, treatment of arthritis-induced mice with intra-articular injection of recombinant human CTRP6 cures the arthritis. CTRP6 is expressed in human synoviocytes, and CTRP6 levels are increased in RA patients. These results indicate that CTRP6 is an endogenous complement regulator and could be used for the treatment of complement-mediated diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin-17 (IL-17)-producing γδ T (γδ17) cells have been implicated in inflammatory diseases, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we show that both CD4(+) and γδ17 cells are required for the development of autoimmune arthritis in IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra)-deficient mice. Specifically, activated CD4(+) T cells direct γδ T-cell infiltration by inducing CCL2 expression in joints. Furthermore, IL-17 reporter mice reveal that the Vγ6(+) subset of CCR2(+) γδ T cells preferentially produces IL-17 in inflamed joints. Importantly, because IL-1Ra normally suppresses IL-1R expression on γδ T cells, IL-1Ra-deficient mice exhibit elevated IL-1R expression on Vγ6(+) cells, which play a critical role in inducing them to produce IL-17. Our findings demonstrate a pathogenic mechanism in which adaptive and innate immunity induce an autoimmune disease in a coordinated manner.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Nature Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transplant recipients on calcineurin inhibitors are at high risk of invasive fungal infection. Understanding how calcineurin inhibitors impair fungal immunity is a key priority for defining risk of infection. Here, we show that the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus impairs clearance of the major mould pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus from the airway, by inhibiting macrophage inflammatory responses. This leads to defective early neutrophil recruitment and fungal clearance. We confirm these findings in zebrafish, showing an evolutionarily conserved role for calcineurin signalling in neutrophil recruitment during inflammation. We find that calcineurin–NFAT activation is phagocytosis dependent and collaborates with NF-κB for TNF-α production. For yeast zymosan particles, activation of macrophage calcineurin–NFAT occurs via the phagocytic Dectin-1–spleen tyrosine kinase pathway, but for A. fumigatus, activation occurs via a phagosomal TLR9-dependent and Bruton's tyrosine kinase-dependent signalling pathway that is independent of MyD88. We confirm the collaboration between NFAT and NF-κB for TNF-α production in primary alveolar macrophages. These observations identify inhibition of a newly discovered macrophage TLR9–BTK–calcineurin–NFAT signalling pathway as a key immune defect that leads to organ transplant-related invasive aspergillosis.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · EMBO Molecular Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) are a group of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize carbohydrate structures in microbes, including fungi and bacteria, as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). They are expressed mainly in dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages, and among these CLRs, DC-associated C-type lectin-1 (Dectin-1), DC-associated C-type lectin-2 (Dectin-2), macrophage-inducible C-type lectin (Mincle), and macrophage C-type lectin (Mcl) transduce their signaling through phosphorylation of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk). On the other hand, human DC-specific intracellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) and its mouse homologue SIGN-related gene 3 (SIGNR3), members of the DC-SIGN superfamily of CLRs, transduce their signaling through intracellular tyrosine-containing motif. In addition to pathogen recognition, Mincle, DC-SIGN, and SIGNR3 have been shown to recognize molecules from self, suggesting pleiotropic roles of CLRs in the homeostasis of the body. Here, we review each of these receptors in detail describing their expression, ligand recognition, signaling, and associated human diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Destruction of the pulmonary epithelium is a major feature of lung diseases caused by the mould pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Although it is widely postulated that tissue invasion is governed by fungal proteases, A. fumigatus mutants lacking individual or multiple enzymes remain fully invasive, suggesting a concomitant requirement for other pathogenic activities during host invasion. In this study we discovered, and exploited, a novel, tissue non-invasive, phenotype in A. fumigatus mutants lacking the pH-responsive transcription factor PacC. Our study revealed a novel mode of epithelial entry, occurring in a cell wall-dependent manner prior to protease production, and via the Dectin-1 β-glucan receptor. ΔpacC mutants are defective in both contact-mediated epithelial entry and protease expression, and significantly attenuated for pathogenicity in leukopenic mice. We combined murine infection modelling, in vivo transcriptomics, and in vitro infections of human alveolar epithelia, to delineate two major, and sequentially acting, PacC-dependent processes impacting epithelial integrity in vitro and tissue invasion in the whole animal. We demonstrate that A. fumigatus spores and germlings are internalised by epithelial cells in a contact-, actin-, cell wall- and Dectin-1 dependent manner and ΔpacC mutants, which aberrantly remodel the cell wall during germinative growth, are unable to gain entry into epithelial cells, both in vitro and in vivo. We further show that PacC acts as a global transcriptional regulator of secreted molecules during growth in the leukopenic mammalian lung, and profile the full cohort of secreted gene products expressed during invasive infection. Our study reveals a combinatorial mode of tissue entry dependent upon sequential, and mechanistically distinct, perturbations of the pulmonary epithelium and demonstrates, for the first time a protective role for Dectin-1 blockade in epithelial defences. Infecting ΔpacC mutants are hypersensitive to cell wall-active antifungal agents highlighting the value of PacC signalling as a target for antifungal therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycobacteria possess various immunomodulatory molecules on the cell wall. Mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (Man-LAM), a major lipoglycan of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has long been known to have both inhibitory and stimulatory effects on host immunity. However, the direct Man-LAM receptor that explains its pleiotropic activities has not been clearly identified. Here, we report that a C-type lectin receptor Dectin-2 (gene symbol Clec4n) is a direct receptor for Man-LAM. Man-LAM activated bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) to produce pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, whereas it was completely abrogated in Clec4n–/– BMDCs. Man-LAM promoted antigen-specific T cell responses through Dectin-2 on DCs. Furthermore, Man-LAM induced experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) as an adjuvant in mice, whereas Clec4n–/– mice were resistant. Upon mycobacterial infection, Clec4n–/– mice showed augmented lung pathology. These results demonstrate that Dectin-2 contributes to host immunity against mycobacterial infection through the recognition of Man-LAM
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycobacteria possess various immunomodulatory molecules on the cell wall. Mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (Man-LAM), a major lipoglycan of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has long been known to have both inhibitory and stimulatory effects on host immunity. However, the direct Man-LAM receptor that explains its pleiotropic activities has not been clearly identified. Here, we report that a C-type lectin receptor Dectin-2 (gene symbol Clec4n) is a direct receptor for Man-LAM. Man-LAM activated bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) to produce pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, whereas it was completely abrogated in Clec4n–/– BMDCs. Man-LAM promoted antigen-specific T cell responses through Dectin-2 on DCs. Furthermore, Man-LAM induced experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) as an adjuvant in mice, whereas Clec4n–/– mice were resistant. Upon mycobacterial infection, Clec4n–/– mice showed augmented lung pathology. These results demonstrate that Dectin-2 contributes to host immunity against mycobacterial infection through the recognition of Man-LAM.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The eradication of tumor cells requires communication to and signaling by cells of the immune system. Natural killer (NK) cells are essential tumor-killing effector cells of the innate immune system; however, little is known about whether or how other immune cells recognize tumor cells to assist NK cells. Here, we show that the innate immune receptor Dectin-1 expressed on dendritic cells and macrophages is critical to NK-mediated killing of tumor cells that express N-glycan structures at high levels. Receptor recognition of these tumor cells causes the activation of the IRF5 transcription factor and downstream gene induction for the full-blown tumoricidal activity of NK cells. Consistent with this, we show exacerbated in vivo tumor growth in mice genetically deficient in either Dectin-1 or IRF5. The critical contribution of Dectin-1 in the recognition of and signaling by tumor cells may offer new insight into the anti-tumor immune system with therapeutic implications. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04177.001
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dectin-1 is a membrane-bound pattern recognition receptor for β-glucans, which are the main constituents of fungal cell walls. Detection of β-glucans by dectin-1 triggers an effective innate immune response. In this study, we have used a systems biology approach to provide the first comprehensive characterization of the secretome and associated intracellular signaling pathways involved in activation of dectin-1/Syk in human macrophages. Transcriptome and secretome analysis revealed that the dectin-1 pathway induced significant gene expression changes and robust protein secretion in macrophages. The enhanced protein secretion correlated only partly with increased gene expression. Bioinformatics combined with functional studies revealed that the dectin-1/Syk pathway activates both conventional and unconventional, vesicle-mediated, protein secretion. The unconventional protein secretion triggered by the dectin-1 pathway is dependent on inflammasome activity and an active autophagic process. In conclusion, our results reveal that unconventional protein secretion has an important role in the innate immune response against fungal infections.
Full-text · Article · May 2014 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Il1rn(-/-) mice spontaneously develop arthritis and aortitis by an autoimmune mechanism and also develop dermatitis by an autoinflammatory mechanism. Here, we show that Rag2(-/-)Il1rn(-/-) mice develop spontaneous colitis with high mortality, making a contrast to the suppression of arthritis in these mice. Enhanced IL-17A expression in group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) was observed in the colon of Rag2(-/-)Il1rn(-/-) mice. IL-17A-deficiency prolonged the survival of Rag2(-/-)Il1rn(-/-) mice, suggesting a pathogenic role of this cytokine in the development of intestinal inflammation. Although IL-17A-producing T cells were increased in Il1rn(-/-) mice, these mice did not develop colitis, because CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cell population was also expanded. Thus, excess IL-1 signaling and IL-1-induced IL-17A from ILC3s cause colitis in Rag2(-/-)Il1rn(-/-) mice in which Treg cells are absent. These observations suggest that the balance between IL-17A-producing cells and Treg cells is important to keep the immune homeostasis of the colon.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rationale: The fact that sensitization against fungi is closely related to the severity of asthma suggests that immune systems recognizing fungi are involved in the pathogenesis of severe asthma. Recently, Dectin-2 (gene symbol Clec4n), a C-type lectin receptor, has been shown to function as not only a major pattern recognition receptor for fungi but also a receptor for some components of house dust mite (HDM) extract, a major allergen for asthma. However, the roles of Dectin-2 in the induction of HDM-induced allergic airway inflammation remain largely unknown. Objectives: To determine the roles of Dectin-2 in HDM-induced allergic airway inflammation. Methods: We examined the roles of Dectin-2 in the induction of HDM-induced Th2 and Th17 cell differentiation and subsequent allergic airway inflammation by using Clec4n-deficient (Clec4n-/-) mice. We also investigated Dectin-2-expressing cells in the lung and their roles in HDM-induced allergic airway inflammation. Main Results: Clec4n-/- mice showed significantly attenuated HDM-induced allergic airway inflammation and decreased Th2 and Th17 cell differentiation. Dectin-2 mRNA, together with Dectin-3 and FcRγ mRNAs, was expressed in CD11b+ dendritic cells (DCs) but not in CD4+ T cells or epithelial cells in the lung. CD11b+ DCs isolated from Clec4n-/- mice expressed lower levels of proinflammatory cytokines and co-stimulatory molecules which could lead to Th2 and Th17 cell differentiation than those from wild-type (WT) mice. HDM-pulsed Clec4n-/- DCs were less efficient for the induction of allergic airway inflammation than HDM-pulsed WT DCs. Conclusion: Dectin-2 expressed on CD11b+ DCs promotes HDM-induced Th2 and Th17 cell differentiation and allergic airway inflammation.
No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CpG DNA, a ligand for Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), has been one of the most promising immunotherapeutic agents. Although there are several types of potent humanized CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN), developing "all-in-one" CpG ODNs activating both B cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells forming a stable nanoparticle without aggregation has not been successful. In this study, we generated a novel nanoparticulate K CpG ODN (K3) wrapped by the nonagonistic Dectin-1 ligand schizophyllan (SPG), K3-SPG. In sharp contrast to K3 alone, K3-SPG stimulates human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to produce a large amount of both type I and type II IFN, targeting the same endosome where IFN-inducing D CpG ODN resides without losing its K-type activity. K3-SPG thus became a potent adjuvant for induction of both humoral and cellular immune responses, particularly CTL induction, to coadministered protein antigens without conjugation. Such potent adjuvant activity of K3-SPG is attributed to its nature of being a nanoparticle rather than targeting Dectin-1 by SPG, accumulating and activating antigen-bearing macrophages and dendritic cells in the draining lymph node. K3-SPG acting as an influenza vaccine adjuvant was demonstrated in vivo in both murine and nonhuman primate models. Taken together, K3-SPG may be useful for immunotherapeutic applications that require type I and type II IFN as well as CTL induction.
Preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The myeloid C-type lectin receptor Dectin-2 directs the generation of Th2 and Th17 immune responses to the house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae through the generation of cysteinyl leukotrienes and proinflammatory cytokines, respectively, but a role for Dectin-2 in effector phase responses has not been described. In this study, we demonstrate that administration of the Dectin-2 mAb solely at the time of D. farinae challenge abrogated eosinophilic and neutrophilic inflammation in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and Th1, Th2, and Th17 inflammation in the lung of previously sensitized mice. Furthermore, Dectin-2 null mice (Clec4n(-/-)) sensitized with the adoptive transfer of D. farinae-pulsed wild-type (WT) bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) also had less D. farinae-elicited pulmonary inflammation, supporting an effector function for Dectin-2. The protection from pulmonary inflammation seen with the Dectin-2 mAb or in Clec4n(-/-) mice was associated with little or no reduction in lung-draining lymph node cells or their cytokine production and with no reduction in serum IgE. WT and Clec4n(-/-) mice recipients, sensitized with D. farinae-pulsed WT bone marrow-derived DCs, had comparable levels of D. farinae-elicited IL-6, IL-23, TNF-α, and cysteinyl leukotrienes in the lung. By contrast, D. farinae-elicited CCL4 and CCL8 production from pulmonary CD11c(+)CD11b(+)Ly6C(+) and CD11c(+)CD11b(+)Ly6C(-)CD64(+) monocyte-derived DCs was reduced in Clec4n(-/-) recipients. Addition of CCL8 at the time of D. farinae challenge abrogated the protection from eosinophilic, neutrophilic, and Th2 pulmonary inflammation seen in Clec4n(-/-) recipients. Taken together, these results reveal that Dectin-2 regulates monocyte-derived DC function in the pulmonary microenvironment at D. farinae challenge to promote the local inflammatory response.
Preview · Article · Jan 2014 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IL-1R antagonist-deficient (Il1rn(-/-)) mice develop autoimmune arthritis in which IL-17A plays a crucial role. Although many studies have shown that Th17 cell differentiation is dependent on TGF-β and IL-6, we found that Th17 cells developed normally in Il1rn(-/-)Il6(-/-) mice in vivo. Then, we analyzed the mechanisms of Th17 cell differentiation in Il1rn(-/-)Il6(-/-) mice. We found that IL-21 production was increased in the lymph nodes of Il1rn(-/-) mice, naive Il6(-/-) CD4(+) T cells differentiated into Th17 cells when cultured with TGF-β and IL-21, and the differentiation was greatly enhanced when IL-1 was added to the culture. Th17 cell differentiation was not induced by either TGF-β or IL-1 alone or in combination. IL-21 induced IL-1R expression in naive CD4(+) T cells, and IL-1 inhibited TGF-β-induced Foxp3 expression, resulting in the promotion of Th17 cell differentiation. Furthermore, IL-1 augmented the expression of Th17 cell-specific transcription factors such as Nfkbiz and Batf. These results indicate that excess IL-1 signaling can overcome the requirement of IL-6 in the differentiation of Th17 cells by suppressing Foxp3 expression and inducing Th17 cell-specific transcription factors.
Preview · Article · Jan 2014 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vaccine immunity to the endemic mycoses of North America requires Th17 cells, but the pattern recognition receptors and signaling pathways that drive these protective responses have not been defined. We show that C-type lectin receptors exert divergent contributions to the development of antifungal Th17 cells and vaccine resistance against Blastomyces dermatitidis, Histoplasma capsulatum, and Coccidioides posadasii. Acquired immunity to B. dermatitidis requires Dectin-2, whereas vaccination against H. capsulatum and C. posadasii infection depends on innate sensing by Dectin-1 and Dectin-2, but not Mincle. Tracking Ag-specific T cells in vivo established that the Card9 signaling pathway acts indispensably and exclusively on differentiation of Th17 cells, while leaving intact their activation, proliferation, survival, and migration. Whereas Card9 signaling is essential, C-type lectin receptors offer distinct and divergent contributions to vaccine immunity against these endemic fungal pathogens. Our work provides new insight into innate immune mechanisms that drive vaccine immunity and Th17 cells.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · The Journal of Immunology