[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Background and study aims:
Ultra-thin caliber endoscopes (UTCEs) are versatile and applicable in various conditions. However, only limited data exist on the actual daily clinical use of UTCEs. The aim of our study was to determine indications for UTCEs in a large patient cohort. In turn, our 2 main objectives were (1) to evaluate patient comfort and safety and (2) to determine benefits and potential advantages associated with the use of UTCEs in this same cohort.
Patients and methods:
We performed a retrospective analysis of our prospective database of 1028 procedures with UTCEs in 457 patients. All procedures were carried out in the Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, VU University Medical Center, in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, between May 2008 and May 2014. In these procedures, either the Fujinon (Tokyo, Japan) EG-530N UTCE or the Olympus (Tokyo, Japan) GIF N-180 UTCE was used.
Mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of patients was 64 (20) years, and most (60 %) of the patients were men. Most (61 %) of the underlying diseases, requiring endoscopic procedures, were found in the esophagus. Of the procedures performed, 91 % were successful, and 82 % were therapeutic. In comparison with regular endoscopes, the most important advantage of the UTCE was the ability to pass a stenosis (37 %), followed by nasogastric feeding tube placement (13 %). Newer and more innovative uses of the UTCE were percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG)-jejunal extension placement with endoscope introduction through existing PEG tract, retrograde esophageal introduction through existing PEG tract, inspection of colonic neovagina stenosis, and direct inspection of the common bile duct.
In everyday clinical practice, the UTCE has specific advantages over conventional endoscopes because of its small caliber. The 3 main advantages are (1) introduction of high-grade strictures; (2) introduction of fistulas, including PEG fistula; and (3) increased patient comfort. The endoscopist should appreciate these advantages and consider use of the UTCE accordingly.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: A dedicated digestive disease endoscopy unit is structurally and functionally differentiating rapidly as a result of increasing diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities in the last 10-20 years. Publications with practical details are scarce, imposing a challenge in the construction of such a unit. The lack of authoritative information about endoscopy unit design means that architects produce their own design with or without consulting endoscopists working in such a unit. A working group of the World Endoscopy Organization discussed and outlined a practical approach fordesign and construction of a modern endoscopy unit. Designing the layout is extremely important, necessitating thoughtful planning to provide comfort to the endoscopy staff and patients, and efficient data archiving and transmission during endoscopic services.
Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Digestive Endoscopy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Goals and background:
Discriminating between patients with nonresponsive but otherwise uncomplicated celiac disease (CD) and patients with refractory celiac disease (RCD) and/or lymphoma is difficult, especially as many abnormalities encountered in complicated CD are not within reach of conventional gastroduodenoscopy. We aimed to describe video capsule endoscopy (VCE) findings in patients with CD and persisting or relapsing symptoms despite a gluten-free diet and to identify VCE findings associated with poor prognosis.
We retrospectively analyzed 48 VCE studies performed in adult patients with CD because of persisting or relapsing symptoms despite adherence to a gluten-free diet. Patients with either uncomplicated CD or RCD type I were considered to have a good prognosis, whereas patients with either RCD type II or enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma were considered to have a poor prognosis. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify VCE findings independently associated with either good or poor prognosis.
Proximal focal erythema (odds ratio, 6.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-38.7; P=0.033) and absence of progression of the capsule to the distal intestine (odds ratio, 16.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-224.9; P=0.035) were independently associated with poor prognosis. Of the 28 patients with none of these 2 features, none died during follow-up, compared with 2 (13.3%) of the 15 patients with one of both features, and 4 (80.0%) of the 5 patients with both the features.
VCE is a minimally invasive endoscopic modality that could be of use in identifying patients with nonresponsive CD who are at risk of poor prognosis.
No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Journal of clinical gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Little is known about the causes of overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) in patients using anti-thrombotic therapy. We aimed to describe video capsule endoscopy (VCE) findings and to identify factors associated with positive findings in these patients.
We carried out a retrospective study of 56 patients who underwent VCE for evaluation of previous overt OGIB during anti-thrombotic therapy. VCE studies were re-evaluated by a gastroenterologist blinded to clinical details. Clinical data included in the multivariate analysis were sex, age, indication for and type of anti-thrombotic therapy, hemodynamic instability on admission, type of blood loss, hemoglobin on admission, use of a proton pump inhibitor, NSAID use, time between bleeding episodes and VCE, and whether or not anti-thrombotic therapy was resumed before the VCE study.
A probable cause for gastrointestinal bleeding was identified in 28 (50%) of the 56 studies. Angiodysplasia was found in 19 patients. Twenty-two studies showed a possible cause in the small bowel. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that reinstitution of anti-thrombotic therapy before VCE was carried out was the only independent predictor of positive VCE findings (OR: 8.61, 95% CI: 1.20-60.42, P=0.032).
Small intestinal angiodysplasia was the most common cause for overt OGIB. Reinstitution of withdrawn anti-thrombotic drugs before the VCE examination was carried out was associated with positive VCE findings in multivariate analysis.
No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Digestive Endoscopy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Purpose
To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of MR enteroclysis and to compare it to video capsule endoscopy (VCE) in the analysis of suspected small-bowel disease.
We performed a retrospective analysis of 77 patients who underwent both MR enteroclysis and VCE and compared the findings of these studies with the findings of enteroscopy, surgery, or with the results of clinical follow-up lasting ≥2 years.
Findings included malignant neoplasms (n = 13), benign neoplasms (n = 10), refractory celiac disease (n = 4), Crohn’s disease (n = 2) and miscellaneous conditions (n = 10). Specificity of MR enteroclysis was higher than that of VCE (0.97 vs. 0.84, P = 0.047), whereas sensitivity was similar (0.79 vs. 0.74, P = 0.591). In 2/32 (6.3%) patients with both negative VCE and negative MR enteroclysis a positive diagnosis was established, compared to 5/11 (45.5%) patients in whom VCE was positive and MR enteroclysis was negative (likelihood ratio 8.1; P = 0.004), 9/11 (81.8%) patients in whom MR enteroclysis was positive and VCE was negative (likelihood ratio 23.5; P < 0.0001), and all 23 patients in whom both VCE and MR enteroclysis showed abnormalities (likelihood ratio 60.8; P < 0.0001).
VCE and MR enteroclysis are complementary modalities. In our study-population, MR enteroclysis was more specific than VCE, while both produced the same sensitivity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Case report
A 29-year-old wheelchair-bound woman was presented to us by the gastroenterologist with suspected osteomalacia. She had lived in the Netherlands all her life and was born of Moroccan parents. Her medical history revealed iron deficiency, growth retardation, and celiac disease, for which she was put on a gluten-free diet. She had progressive bone pain since 2 years, difficulty with walking, and about 15 kg weight loss. She had a short stature, scoliosis, and pronounced kyphosis of the spine and poor condition of her teeth. Laboratory results showed hypocalcemia, an immeasurable serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level, and elevated parathyroid hormone and alkaline phosphatase levels. Spinal radiographs showed unsharp, low contrast vertebrae. Bone mineral density measurement at the lumbar spine and hip showed a T-score of −6.0 and −6.5, respectively. A bone scintigraphy showed multiple hotspots in ribs, sternum, mandible, and long bones. A duodenal biopsy revealed villous atrophy (Marsh 3C) and positive antibodies against endomysium, transglutaminase, and gliadin, compatible with active celiac disease. A bone biopsy showed severe osteomalacia but normal bone volume. She was treated with calcium intravenously and later orally. Furthermore, she was treated with high oral doses of vitamin D and a gluten-free diet. After a few weeks of treatment, her bone pain decreased, and her muscle strength improved.
In this article, the pathophysiology and occurrence of osteomalacia as a complication of celiac disease are discussed. Low bone mineral density can point to osteomalacia as well as osteoporosis.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Archives of Osteoporosis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: To determine magnetic resonance (MR) enteroclysis findings in patients with uncomplicated celiac disease (CD), refractory CD (RCD) type I, and RCD type II, to develop and validate a scoring system to identify patients with RCD II and to determine the diagnostic accuracy of MR enteroclysis to detect CD-related malignancies.
This study was performed with approval of the institutional review board. One radiologist blinded to clinical details retrospectively evaluated quantitative and qualitative criteria of 28 studies obtained in symptomatic patients with CD (uncomplicated CD, n = 10; RCD I, n = 8; RCD II, n = 10). A scoring system was developed by using parameters identified in multivariate analysis to be associated with RCD II, which two radiologists evaluated in a second group of 40 symptomatic patients with CD. Accuracy to detect malignancy was assessed in the total study group. Cumulative survival was evaluated in the total study group by using the Kaplan-Meier method.
MR enteroclysis could not be used to discriminate between uncomplicated CD and RCD I. The presence of less than 10 folds per 5 cm jejunum, mesenteric fat infiltration, and bowel wall thickening were associated with RCD II. A positive MR score was defined as the presence of two or more of these features. In the validation group, the MR score was positive in 13 of 15 patients with RCD II (sensitivity, 0.87) and negative in 24 of 25 patients without RCD II (specificity, 0.96). The 5-year survival rate was 95% in patients with a negative MR score and 56% in patients with a positive MR score (P < .0001). MR enteroclysis helped to identify the presence of seven of eight malignancies and to diagnose absence of malignancy in 58 of 60 studies.
MR enteroclysis can be used to investigate the presence of RCD II or malignancy in symptomatic patients with CD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Capsule endoscopy is applicable to several clinical conditions, but obscure gastrointestinal bleeding remains the main indication. This study aims at determining the diagnostic yield of capsule endoscopy for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding using a structured terminology in a large cohort in an academic hospital.
In this retrospective study, 592 capsule endoscopy procedures performed in a tertiary hospital were analysed using the Capsule Endoscopy Structural Terminology. Main indications were gastrointestinal bleeding (n=142) and iron deficiency anaemia (n=240).
Capsule endoscopy identified abnormalities in 44% of patients with iron deficiency anaemia and in 58% of patients with gastrointestinal bleeding, resulting in a diagnostic yield of 49% for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. In 32 patients the cause was found in the stomach and in 8 in the colon.
Capsule endoscopy evidenced a diagnostic yield of 49% for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. Repeating endoscopy before capsule endoscopy should be considered since a reasonable proportion of lesions were found outside the small intestine.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2010 · Journal of gastrointestinal and liver diseases: JGLD
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Capsule retention in the small bowel is a known complication of small-bowel video capsule endoscopy. Surgery is the most frequently used method of capsule retrieval.
To determine the incidence and causes of capsule retention and to describe double-balloon endoscopy (DBE) as the primary technique used for capsule retrieval.
Retrospective analysis of all video capsule studies was performed at our center, and evaluation of the outcome of DBE was the first method used to retrieve entrapped video capsules.
Tertiary referral center.
A total of 904 patients who underwent small-bowel video capsule endoscopy.
Capsule retrieval by DBE.
The number of patients in whom capsule retention occurred and the number of patients in whom an entrapped capsule could be retrieved by using DBE.
Capsule retention occurred in 8 patients (incidence 0.88%; 95% CI, 0.41%-1.80%) and caused acute small-bowel obstruction in 6 patients. All retained capsules were successfully removed during DBE. Five patients underwent elective surgery to treat the underlying cause of capsule retention. One patient required emergency surgery because of multiple small-bowel perforations.
In our series, the incidence of capsule retention was low. DBE is a reliable method for removing retained capsules and might prevent unnecessary surgery. If surgery is required, preoperative capsule retrieval allows preoperative diagnosis, adequate staging in case of malignancy, and optimal surgical planning.
No preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Gastrointestinal endoscopy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and interobserver variance of magnetic resonance (MR) enteroclysis in the diagnosis of small-bowel neoplasms, with small-bowel endoscopy, surgery, histopathologic analysis, and follow-up serving as standards of reference, and to identify MR enteroclysis characteristics capable of enabling discrimination between benign and malignant small-bowel neoplasms. Materials and Methods: This study was performed in accordance with the guidelines of the institutional review board, and the requirement for informed consent was waived. MR enteroclysis studies of 91 patients (43 women, 48 men; age range, 18-83 years) were retrospectively evaluated by two radiologists blinded to clinical details. Only studies explicitly performed to investigate or exclude the presence of small-bowel neoplasms were included. Radiologic findings were compared with findings of double-balloon endoscopy (n = 45), surgery (n = 18), esophagogastroduodenoscopy (n = 3), ileocolonoscopy (n = 2), autopsy (n = 2), and clinical follow-up for more than 18 months (n = 21). Efficacy parameters were calculated with 95% confidence intervals. Tumor characteristics were compared with the Student t test and the Fisher exact test. Results: Readers 1 and 2 interpreted 31 and 33 studies, respectively, as depicting a small-bowel neoplasm and 19 and 17 studies, respectively, as depicting small-bowel malignancy. In 32 patients, the presence of small-bowel neoplasm was confirmed. In 19 of these patients, the neoplasm was malignant. Sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of small-bowel neoplasms was 0.91 and 0.95, respectively, for reader 1 and 0.94 and 0.97, respectively, for reader 2; the kappa value was 0.95. Factors associated with malignancy were the presence of longer solitary nonpedunculated lesions, mesenteric fat infiltration, and enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes. Conclusion: Eighty-six of 91 studies were correctly interpreted, resulting in an overall diagnostic accuracy of 0.95 for MR enteroclysis in the detection of small-bowel neoplasms. (c) RSNA, 2010 Supplemental material: http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.09090828/-/DC1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Two percent to 4% of all cases of colorectal cancer (CRC) are associated with Lynch syndrome. Dominant clustering of CRC (non-Lynch syndrome) accounts for 1%-3% of the cases. Because carcinogenesis is accelerated in Lynch syndrome, an intensive colonoscopic surveillance program has been recommended since 1995. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of this program.
The study included 205 Lynch syndrome families with identified mutations in one of the mismatch repair genes (745 mutation carriers). We also analyzed data from non-Lynch syndrome families (46 families, 344 relatives). Patients were observed from January 1, 1995, until January 1, 2009. End points of the study were CRC or date of the last colonoscopy.
After a mean follow-up of 7.2 years, 33 patients developed CRC under surveillance. The cumulative risk of CRC was 6% after the 10-year follow-up period. The risk of CRC was higher in carriers older than 40 years and in carriers of MLH1 and MSH2 mutations. After a mean follow-up of 7.0 years, 6 cases of CRC were detected among non-Lynch syndrome families. The risk of CRC was significantly higher among families with Lynch syndrome, compared with those without.
With surveillance intervals of 1-2 years, members of families with Lynch syndrome have a lower risk of developing CRC than with surveillance intervals of 2-3 years. Because of the low risk of CRC in non-Lynch syndrome families, a less intensive surveillance protocol can be recommended.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: To perform a single-center analysis of all double balloon endoscopy (DBE) related cases of pancreatitis identified prospectively from a recorded DBE-complication database.
From November 2003 until January 2007, 603 DBE procedures were performed on 412 patients, with data on complications recorded in a database. The setting was a tertiary care center offering DBE. DBE was performed from the antegrade or retrograde route. Outcome measurements included age, gender, medication, indication, DBE-endoscope type, insertion depth, procedure duration, findings, interventions, post-procedural abdominal pain, and post-procedural hospitalization.
This is the largest single-center study reporting on post-DBE pancreatitis prospectively. Six patients (1.0%) developed post-DBE pancreatitis, all after antegrade DBE. There was no association with gender, duration of the procedure or type of endoscope. The mean age was 51.9 years (range 25-78). Four patients had severe pancreatitis. Of these, two had inflammatory signs in the body-tail region, one had pancreatitis in the tail region, and the total pancreas was involved in one.
The incidence of post-DBE pancreatitis in our series is higher than previously reported. We found no relation with DBE-endoscope type. The inflammatory changes occurred in the body-tail region of the pancreas, suggesting that post-DBE pancreatitis is caused by repetitive mechanical strain on the pancreas.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2008 · World Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Capsule endoscopy has revoluzionized the study of the small bowel by providing a reliable method to evaluate, endoscopically, the entire small bowel. In the last six years several papers have been published exploring the possible role of this examination in different clinical conditions. At the present time capsule endoscopy is generally recommended as a third examination, after negative bidirectional endoscopy, in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. A growing body of evidence suggests also an important role for this examination in other clinical conditions such as Crohn's disease, celiac disease, small bowel polyposis syndromes or small bowel tumors. The main complication of this examination is the retention of the device at the site of a previously unknown small bowel stricture. However there are also some other open issues mainly due to technical limitations of this tool (which is not driven from remote control, is unable to take biopsies, to insufflate air, to suck fluids or debris and sometimes to correctly size and locate lesions). The recently developed double balloon enteroscope, owing to its capability to explore a large part of the small bowel and to take targeted biopsies, although being invasive and time consuming, can overcome some limitations of capsule endoscopy. At the present time, in the majority of clinical conditions (i.e. obscure GI bleeding), the winning strategy seems to be to couple these two techniques to explore the small bowel in a painless, safe and complete way (with capsule endoscopy) and to define and treat the lesions identified (with double balloon enteroscopy).
Full-text · Article · Jan 2008 · World Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding from jejunal and ileal lesions remains undiagnosed using traditional imaging techniques (radiologic, endoscopic). This prospective study compares the diagnostic detection rate of small-bowel lesions using wireless video capsule endoscopy (VCE) with the detection rate using double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). Tolerance, adverse events, endoscopic interventions, and prognosis were described as secondary aims.
Thirty-five consecutive patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding were evaluated (22 males and 13 females; mean age 63.2 yr; range, 19-86 yr). The detection rates of the Given M2A wireless VCE and DBE were compared.
Small-bowel abnormalities were detected using VCE in 28 (80%) of the 35 patients with OGIB, compared with 21 (60%) of the 35 patients using DBE (p = 0.01). Both examinations were well tolerated, but VCE was more acceptable to patients. No major adverse event occurred after either examination. Biopsies (n = 27), argon plasma coagulation (n = 19), tattoo injection (n = 8), and polypectomy (n = 2) were feasible with DBE when indicated in 27 of the 35 patients (77%). During a median (range) follow-up period of 5 (2-12) months, 26 (74%) patients remained clinically stable and did not require blood transfusions after DBE procedures. Eighteen (51%) of those who remained clinically stable had received APC therapy.
High detection rates of the causes of OGIB are feasible with VCE and DBE. Although the detection rate of VCE was superior, our results indicate that the procedures are complementary; an initial diagnostic imaging employing VCE might be followed by therapeutic and interventional DBE.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2006 · The American Journal of Gastroenterology