Ai-Young Lee

Dongguk University, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (54)181.04 Total impact

  • Yunseok Choi · Joon Ho Lee · Hyok Bu Kwon · Susun An · Ai-Young Lee
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    ABSTRACT: Incidence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to para-phenylenediamine (PPD)/paratoluenediamine (PTD) hair dyes is increasing. Hair dyes utilizing gallic acid (GA) may be a safe alternative. However, pretesting is recommended. We investigated the contact sensitivity to ingredients of a dye product; GA, monoethanolamine thioglycolate (MT), l-cystein and ferrous sulfate, and an appropriate pretest method in 31 patients reactive to PPD and/or PTD. An open test was performed with the test dye following the patch test. Subsequently, a use test was performed twice, with a 4-week interval. One subject showed a positive reaction to ferrous sulfate in the patch test. Another subject reacted to the first compound alone in the open test. Thirteen subjects manifesting cutaneous lesions from previous regular hair dyeing, showed reactions at the first use of the test dye; and six had reactions with reduced severity at the second test. GA and MT are safe for use in ACD patients reactive to PPD and/or PTD. For predicting contact allergy to hair dyes, the open test appeared to be a better pretest method than the patch test.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · The Journal of Dermatology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Light emitting diode (LED) phototherapy and water bath therapy have beneficial effect on atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin disease. However, not all current treatments work well and alternative therapies are need. The contribution of combination therapy with low-dose 850 nm LED and water bath was investigated on dermatophagoides farina (Df)-induced dermatitis in NC/Nga mice. Methods: Low-dose LED (10, 15, and 20 J/cm(2) ) irradiation, water bath (36±1°C) were administered separately and together to the Df-induced NC/Nga mice in acrylic jar once a day for 2 weeks. Results: Combined therapy with low-dose LED therapy and water bath therapy significantly ameliorated the development of AD-like skin lesions. These effects were correlated with the suppression of total IgE, NO, histamine, and Th2-mediated immune responses. Furthermore, combination therapy significantly reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells and the induction of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) in the skin lesions. The beneficial therapeutic effects of this combination therapy might regulate by the inhibition of various immunological responses including Th2-mediated immune responses, inflammatory mediators such as IgE, histamine, and NO, as well as inflammatory cells. Conclusions: The combination therapy of LED and water bath might be used as an efficacious, safe, and steroid-free alternative therapeutic strategy for the treatment of AD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Photodermatology Photoimmunology and Photomedicine
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    ABSTRACT: The SLC45A2 gene encodes a Membrane-Associated Transporter Protein (MATP). Mutations of this gene cause oculocutaneous albinism type 4 (OCA4). However, the molecular mechanism of its action in melanogenesis has not been elucidated. Here, we discuss the role of MATP in melanin production. The SLC45A2 gene is highly enriched in human melanocytes and melanoma cell lines, and its protein, MATP, is located in melanosomes. The knockdown of MATP using siRNAs reduced melanin content and tyrosinase activity without any morphological change in melanosomes or the expression of melanogenesis-related proteins. Interestingly, the knockdown of MATP significantly lowered the melanosomal pH, as verified through DAMP analysis, suggesting that MATP regulates melanosomal pH and therefore affects tyrosinase activity. Finally, we found that the reduction of tyrosinase activity associated with the knockdown of MATP was readily recovered by copper treatment in the in vitro L-DOPA oxidase activity assay of tyrosinase. Considering that copper is an important element for tyrosinase activity and that its binding to tyrosinase depends on melanosomal pH, MATP may play an important role in regulating tyrosinase activity via controlling melanosomal pH.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · PLoS ONE
  • Chang-Hyun Kim · Ji-Young Kim · Ai-Young Lee
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    ABSTRACT: Although cyclosporine A (CsA) is a potent immunomodulating agent and is commonly used as a systemic agent for the management of psoriasis patients, current clinical treatments are not always effective due to the clinical inefficacy of low-doses and numerous harmful effects of higher doses. Currently, the combined use of two other systemic drugs often has better therapeutic efficacy and is safer than low or high dose of a single drug. Glucosamine (Glu) also has immunomodulatory properties for autoimmune diseases. The aims of our study were to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of Glu in combination with low-dose CsA on imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis-like dermatitis in mice and to determine its immunomodulatory mechanism. We found that combined treatment with Glu (300mg/kg) and low-dose (10 or 20mg/kg) CsA strongly ameliorated the development of psoriasis-like skin lesions and reduced the levels of Th1 cytokine (TNF-α) and Th17 cytokines (IL-17, IL-22, and IL-23) in the serum and dorsal skin. Histological findings also showed that the thickening of epidermis, stratum corneum, and inflammatory cell infiltration. Particularly, these combined treatments increased the number of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells in splenic. These results suggest that use of a combination of each drug might be used as an efficacious and safe alternative therapeutic strategy, as well as may provide an immunomodulatory approach for T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases, including psoriasis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · European journal of pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a cell-mediated immune response that involves skin sensitization in response to contact with various allergens. Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis both play roles in the allergic sensitization process. Epidermal keratinocytes can produce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in response to UV irradiation and during wound healing. However, the effect of haptenic chemical allergens on the VEGF production of human keratinocytes, which is the primary contact site of toxic allergens, has not been thoroughly researched. We systematically investigated whether immune-regulatory cytokines and chemical allergens would lead to the production of VEGF in normal human keratinocytes (NHKs) in culture. VEGF production significantly increased when NHKs were treated with IFNγ, IL-1α, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17A, IL-22 or TNFα. Among the human sensitizers listed in the OECD Test Guideline (TG) 429, we found that CMI/MI, DNCB, 4-phenylenediamine, cobalt chloride, 2-mercaptobenzothiazole, citral, HCA, cinnamic alcohol, imidazolidinyl urea and nickel chloride all significantly upregulated VEGF production in NHKs. In addition, common human haptenic allergens such as avobenzone, formaldehyde and urushiol, also induced the keratinocyte-derived VEGF production. VEGF upregulation by pro-inflammatory stimuli, IFNγ, DNCB or formaldehyde is preceded by the production of IL-8, an acute inflammatory phase cytokine. Lymphangiogenic VEGF-C gene transcription was significantly increased when NHKs were treated with formaldehyde, DNCB or urushiol, while transcription of VEGF-A and VEGF-B did not change. Therefore, the chemical allergen-induced VEGF upregulation is mainly due to the increase in lymphangiogenic VEGF-C transcription in NHKs. These results suggest that keratinocyte-derived VEGF may regulate the lymphangiogenic process during the skin sensitization process of ACD.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
  • Ai-Young Lee
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    ABSTRACT: Melasma is a pigmentation disorder characterized by common clinical findings. However, the pathogenic mechanisms involved are heterogeneous in different individuals and ethnic groups. We have reviewed the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in melasma. Although the pathogenesis has not entirely been elucidated thus far, new findings are being identified by research groups. Epidemiologic studies may provide clues on the involvement of genetic factor(s), UV irradiation, or hormones in melasma. Some of the mechanisms of altered skin pigmentation, such as UV-induced pigmentation, may also be applicable to the pathogenesis of melasma. In fact, an increase in similar keratinocyte-derived melanogenic factors and their receptors occur in both UV-induced melanogenesis and melasma. Increased expression of female sex hormone receptors and the identification of the PDZ domain containing 1 (PDZK1) signaling mechanism provide insights to further our understanding of melasma. In addition to keratinocyte-derived paracrine factors, the role of paracrine factors from dermal fibroblasts, such as stem cell factor (SCF) and Wnt inhibitory factor-1 (WIF-1), is elucidated in melasma. Furthermore, the involvement of ion exchangers and microRNAs (miRNAs), such as H19 miRNA (miR-675), are also suggested.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Dermatologica Sinica
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    ABSTRACT: Many tissues of the human body encounter hyperosmotic stress. The effect of extracellular osmotic changes on melanin production has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we determined that hyperosmotic stress induced by organic osmolytes results in reduced melanin production in human melanoma MNT-1 cells. Under hyperosmotic stress, few pigmented mature melanosomes were detected, but there was an increase in swollen vacuoles. These vacuoles were stained with an anti-M6PR antibody that recognizes late endosomal components and with anti-TA99 and anti-HMB45 antibodies, implying that melanosome formation was affected by hyperosmotic stress. Electron microscopic analysis revealed that the M6PR-positive swollen vacuoles were multi-layered and contained melanized granules, and they produced melanin when L-DOPA was applied, indicating that these vacuoles were still capable of producing melanin, but the inner conditions were not compatible with melanin production. The vacuolation phenomenon induced by hyperosmotic conditions disappeared with treatment with the PI3K activator 740 Y-P, indicating that the PI3K pathway is affected by hyperosmotic conditions and is responsible for the proper formation and maturation of melanosomes. The microarray analysis showed alterations of the vesicle organization and transport under hyperosmotic stress. Our findings suggest that melanogenesis could be regulated by physiological conditions, such as osmotic pressure.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Background Hydroquinone (HQ) with or without retinoic acid (RA) is routinely used for the treatment of hyperpigmented conditions. Skin irritation is a major problem with popular depigmenting agents, resulting in postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Objective To examine the molecular mechanism associated with skin irritation by RA or HQ. Methods A genome-wide transcriptional profiling analysis was performed using monolayer cultures of human keratinocytes treated with or without irritant doses of RA, HQ, or sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), a representative irritant. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were mapped on human chromosomes using a Manhattan plot. For the validation of candidate DEGs, the chemicals with different concentrations of varying irritation intensities were applied in vitro and in vivo and analyzed using real time-PCR and Western blotting. Results DEGs mapped to the 1q21 locus, which is composed of a cluster of genes encoding the cornified envelope precursors, showed an inverse expression pattern in response to HQ and RA. Concentrations of RA and HQ that induced a broad range of irritant responses in cultured cells or mice skin also induced inverse effects on the expression of cornified envelope-associated proteins. Conclusions Genetic modulation on cornified envelope-associated proteins by RA-induced irritation, which may be involved in physiological skin barrier disturbance, could be inverse to that by HQ- or SLS-induced irritation.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Journal of Dermatological Science
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    ABSTRACT: Vitiligo is a pigmentary disorder induced by a loss of melanocytes. In addition to replacement of pure melanocytes, cocultures of melanocytes with keratinocytes have been used to improve the repigmentation outcome in vitiligo treatment. We previously identified by in vitro studies, that adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) could be a potential substitute for keratinocytes in cocultures with melanocytes. In this study, the efficacy of pigmentation including durability of grafted melanocytes and short-term safety was examined in the nude mouse and Sprague-Dawley rat after grafting of primary cultured human melanocytes, with or without different ratios of primary cultured human ADSCs. Simultaneous grafting of melanocytes and ADSCs, which were separately cultured and mixed on grafting at the ratios of 1:1, 1:2, or 1:3, showed better efficacy than that of pure melanocytes. Grafting of melanocytes cocultured with ADSCs resulted in a similar outcome as the grafting of cell mixtures. Skin pigmentation by melanocytes : ADSCs at the ratios of 1:1 and 1:2 was better than at 1:3. No significant difference was observed between the 1-week and 2-week durations in coculturing. Time-course microscopic examination showed that the grafted melanocytes remained a little longer than 6-week post-grafting. No inflammatory cell infiltration was observed in the grafted skin and no melanocytes were detectable in other organs. Collectively, grafting of melanocytes and ADSCs was equally safe and more effective than grafting of melanocytes alone. Despite the absence of significant differences in efficacy between the group of 1:1 and that of 1:2 ratio, 1:2 ratio for 1-week coculturing may be better for clinical use from the cost-benefit viewpoint.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Biomolecules and Therapeutics
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    ABSTRACT: Hyper-pigmentation causes skin darkness and medical disorders, such as post-inflammatory melanoderma and melasma. Therefore, the development of anti-melanogenic agents is important for treating these conditions and for cosmetic production. In our previous paper, we demonstrated that the anti-diabetic drug voglibose, a valiolamine derivative, is a potent anti-melanogenic agent. In addition, we proposed an alternative screening strategy to identify valiolamine derivatives with high skin permeability that act as anti-melanogenic agents when applied topically. In this study, we synthesized several valiolamine derivatives with enhanced lipophilicity and examined their inhibitory effects in a human skin model. N-(2-hydroxycyclohexyl)valiolamine (HV) possesses a stronger inhibitory effect on melanin production than voglibose in a human skin model, suggesting that HV is a more potent anti-melanogenic agent for the skin.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Cadherin 11 (CDH11) was identified as a target of miR-675 by using a luciferase reporter assay. CDH11 expression and miR-675 expression were inversely correlated. CDH11 expression was not detected in melanocytes, but CDH11 expression in fibroblasts and keratinocytes positively influenced melanogenesis via the canonical Wnt and AKT activation pathways in cocultured melanocytes. CDH11 in fibroblasts or keratinocytes induced N-cadherin and Twist1 expression, while decreasing E-cadherin expression. This suggests a role for CDH11 in epithelial-mesenchymal transition. CDH11 in fibroblasts also induced the migration of cocultured melanocytes. N-cadherin knockdown abolished the tyrosinase expression that was induced in CDH11-overexpressing fibroblasts. Collectively, our data indicate that CDH11 in fibroblasts and keratinocytes is a target of miR-675, and could be involved in melanogenesis through the induction of N-cadherin during epithelial-mesenchymal transition.Journal of Investigative Dermatology accepted article preview online, 18 June 2014; doi:10.1038/jid.2014.257.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Investigative Dermatology
  • Kyung Ah Cheong · Minsoo Noh · Chang-Hyun Kim · Ai-Young Lee
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    ABSTRACT: Skin irritation is one of the most common adverse reactions in hydroquinone (HQ) and retinoic acid (RA). Although melanocytes have rarely been considered to be involved in skin irritation, RA and particularly HQ could induce melanocyte toxicity, resulting in depigmentation. We chose S100B as a candidate gene for melanocytotoxicity from a genome-wide transcriptional profiling analysis after applying irritant doses of HQ, RA, and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) to cultures of keratinocytes and/or melanocytes. In this study, the role of S100B on melanocyte viability and cytotoxicity was examined. S100B was detected in melanocytes, but not in keratinocytes or fibroblasts. Melanocytes after treatment with increasing concentrations of HQ, RA, SLS, and urushiol showed significant increases in intracellular and extracellular S100B expression with reduced viable cell number and increased release of lactate dehydrogenase. No RAGE expression and no significant function of CD166/ALCAM in melanocyte survival and cytotoxicity favored the role of intracellular S100B in chemically irritated melanocytes. S100B knockdown increased apoptosis through inhibition of PI3K/AKT, NF-κB, and ERK activation, suggesting the increased intracellular S100B expression by chemical irritation as a compensatory reaction to reduce cytotoxicity. The numerical decrease in S100B/c-kit-double positive melanocytes was also examined in human skin epidermis irritated by HQ or RA with stronger staining intensities of S100B. Collectively, the decrease in viable cell number by reduced intracellular S100B levels in vitro and by chemical irritation in vivo suggests that S100B could be a potential biomarker for melanocytes cytotoxicity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Experimental Dermatology
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    ABSTRACT: Basement membrane (BM) disruption and dermal changes (elastosis, collagenolysis, vascular ectasia) have been reported in melasma. Although ultraviolet (UV) irradiation can induce these changes, UV is not always necessary for melasma development. Cadherin 11 (CDH11), which is upregulated in some melasma patients, has previously been shown to stimulate melanogenesis. Because CDH11 action requires cell-cell adhesion between fibroblasts and melanocytes, BM disruption in vivo should facilitate this. The aim of this study was to examine whether CDH11 overexpression leads to BM disruption and dermal changes, independent of UV irradiation. Immunohistochemistry/immunofluorescence, real-time PCR, Western blotting, and zymography suggested that BM disruption/dermal changes and related factors were present in the hyperpigmented skin of CDH11-upregulated melasma patients and in CDH11-overexpressing fibroblasts/keratinocytes. The opposite was seen in CDH11-knockdown cells. UV irradiation of the cultured cells did not increase CDH11 expression. Collectively, these data demonstrate that CDH11 overexpression could induce BM disruption and dermal changes in melasma, regardless of UV exposure.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Acta Dermato Venereologica
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    ABSTRACT: H19 non-coding RNA downregulation stimulates melanogenesis in melasma patients. However, its mechanism is unclear. In this study, the potential role of a H19 microRNA, miR-675, in melanogenesis was examined. Real-time PCR using cultured normal human skin keratinocytes, melanocytes, and fibroblasts with or without H19 knockdown showed accompanying changes between expression levels of H19 and those of miR-675 in keratinocytes. MiR-675 was also detected in concentrated culture supernatants and showed expression levels parallel with those of cell lysates. In addition to RNase resistance, FACS analysis showed anti-CD63-positive exosomes in culture supernatants, suggesting miR-675 could be released extracellularly and delivered to neighboring cells without degradation. In western blot analysis, the miR-675 mimic reduced the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and phosphorylation of cAMP-responsive element-binding protein, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and apoptosis signal-regulating kinase, whereas these expressions were increased by the miR-675 inhibitor. Although H19 was not a miR-675 target, luciferase reporter assay showed a direct binding of miR-675 to 3'-untranslated region of MITF. In addition, localized in vivo miR-675 overexpression in mouse using a cationic polymer transfection reagent showed reduced mRNA expression levels of MITF, tyrosinase, tyrosine-related protein-1 (Trp-1), and Trp-2. Collectively, the results suggest that miR-675 derived from keratinocytes could be involved in H19-stimulated melanogenesis using MITF as a target of miR-675.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication, 12 December 2013; doi:10.1038/jid.2013.478.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Journal of Investigative Dermatology
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    ABSTRACT: There exists a treatment challenge with periungual warts. Topical immunotherapy with diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP) has recently been reported to be an effective treatment for recalcitrant warts, including periungual types. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and preference of topical immunotherapy with DPCP in treating periungual warts. Twenty-seven patients with periungual warts who were treated with DPCP immunotherapy (2007 through 2010; Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Goyang, Korea) were retrospectively recruited. Other treatment modalities were also used in some patients. Lesions were grouped into the types according to the following locations: proximal nail fold, lateral nail fold and hyponychium. Total and group clearance rates as well as treatment periods according to location and disease duration were evaluated. A patient questionnaire was performed to assess the satisfaction for the treatments in those who received multiple therapies. Total success rates were 85% (by subjects) and 91% (by individual lesions). Success rate and treatment period for proximal nail fold type seemed more desirable than other locations. Success rate decreased and treatment period increased as disease duration increased. The questionnaire revealed a significantly higher satisfaction rate for DPCP immunotherapy than for cryotherapy and pulsed-dye laser. Topical immunotherapy with DPCP is an effective and preferred method in the treatment of periungual warts.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Annals of Dermatology
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    ABSTRACT: A fixed drug eruption (FDE) is not difficult to diagnose, given its clinical characteristics. However, the causative agent can be difficult to identify, particularly when the patient denies ingestion of any drugs. To the best of our knowledge, we present herein the first reported case of an FDE caused by antibiotics taken in food; doxycycline and erythromycin contained in pork and fish. A 57-year-old female experienced repeated episodes of well-demarcated erythematous patches covering her entire body. She denied taking any medications, but she thought that the lesions appeared after consuming pork and/or fish. An oral provocation test showed positive results for doxycycline and erythromycin, commonly used antibiotics in live-stock farming and in the fishing industry. Because of the antibiotics' thermostability, cooking does not guarantee the elimination of residual drugs. From the patient's history, we concluded that doxycycline and erythromycin contained in the pork and fish that she ate were the cause of the FDE.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Allergy, asthma & immunology research
  • Chang-Hyun Kim · Kyung Ah Cheong · Ai-Young Lee
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    ABSTRACT: Light emitting diode (LED) phototherapy is an effective alternative for the treatment of inflammatory skin disorders. Tacrolimus (FK-506) is a potent immunomodulating agent, which has been used to treat AD. Combination therapy is often used in the treatment of AD to improve therapeutic efficacy or to reduce the dose of each drug. To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of monotherapy with either 850nm LED phototherapy or low-dose FK-506, and combination therapy in dermatophagoides farina (Df)-induced AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. The Df-induced NC/Nga mice with a clinical score of 7 were used for treatment with LED (10 and 25J/cm(2)) alone, low-dose FK-506 (1mg/kg) or in combination. The synergistic effects of combined therapy were evaluated by dermatitis scores, skin histology, skin barrier function, and immunological parameters, such as IgE, NO, Th2-mediated cytokines and chemokines. Combination therapy with 850nm (25J/cm(2)) LED and low-dose FK-506 showed a significant reduction in the severity of skin lesions. Combined therapy decreased in the serum level of IgE, NO, and in the splenic level of Th2-mediated cytokines and chemokines. Combination therapy significantly also reduced the inflammatory cellular infiltrate into the skin lesions. Moreover, combination therapy led to recovery of skin barrier function in the skin lesions. The use of combination of LED phototherapy and low-dose immunosuppressant improved Df-induced AD-like skin lesions in an NC/Nga mouse model by dominantly reducing IgE, NO, suppressing Th2-mediated immune responses, and inhibiting inflammatory cells, as well as improving skin barrier function.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Journal of dermatological science
  • Yunseok Choi · Won-Suk Lim · Ai-Young Lee · Seung-Ho Lee

    No preview · Article · May 2013 · Indian journal of dermatology, venereology and leprology
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    Kyung Ah Cheong · Nan-Hyung Kim · Minsoo Noh · Ai-Young Lee
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic susceptibility is involved in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. Association studies with a whole genome-based approach instead of a single or a few candidate genes may be useful for discovering new susceptible genes. Although the etiology of non-segmental and segmental types is different, the association between gene polymorphisms and vitiligo has been reported, without defining types or in non-segmental type. Whole genome-based single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were examined in patients with non-segmental and segmental types of vitiligo using the Affymetrix GeneChip 500K mapping array, and 10 functional classes of significant SNPs were selected. Genotyping and data analysis of selected 10 SNPs was performed using real-time PCR. Genotype and allele frequencies were significantly different between both types of vitiligo and three of the target SNPs, DNAH5 (rs2277046), STRN3 (rs2273171), and KIAA1005 (rs3213758). A stronger association was suggested between the mutation in KIAA1005 (rs3213758) and the segmental type compared to the non-segmental type of vitiligo. DNAH5 (rs2277046), STRN3 (rs2273171), and KIAA1005 (rs3213758) may be new vitiligo-related SNPs in Korean patients, either non-segmental or segmental type.
    Preview · Article · May 2013 · Journal of Korean medical science
  • Ai-Young Lee · Minsoo Noh
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    ABSTRACT: Abnormal pigmentation, particularly hyperpigmentation, is major issue of concern for people with colored skin. Several hypopigmenting agents, which exert their action by inhibiting tyrosinase activity and/or transcription, have been used for treatment. However, results have been discouraging. To manage abnormal pigmentation properly, the mechanisms of melanogenesis should be understood. Endogenous and exogenous factors affect melanogenesis via intracellular machineries. cAMP and PKC are critical factors of important transduction pathways and cross-talk between them could amplify the melanogenic effect. Here, factors involved in melanogenesis regulation via cAMP and/or PKC pathways are reviewed with their action mechanisms.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Archives of Pharmacal Research