[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major health issue for HIV-positive individuals, associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Development and implementation of a risk score model for CKD would allow comparison of the risks and benefits of adding potentially nephrotoxic antiretrovirals to a treatment regimen and would identify those at greatest risk of CKD. The aims of this study were to develop a simple, externally validated, and widely applicable long-term risk score model for CKD in HIV-positive individuals that can guide decision making in clinical practice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: After structured treatment interruption (STI) of treatment for HIV-1, a fraction of patients maintain suppressed viral loads. Prospective identification of such patients might improve HIV-1 treatment, if selected patients are offered STI. METHODS: We analysed the effect of previously identified genetic modulators of HIV-1 disease progression on patients' ability to suppress viral replication after STI. Polymorphisms in the genes killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor 3DLI (KIR3DL1)/KIR3DS1, human leucocyte antigen B (HLA-B) and HLA Complex P5 (HCP5), and a polymorphism affecting HLA-C surface expression were analysed in 130 Swiss HIV Cohort Study patients undergoing STI. Genotypes were correlated with viral load levels after STI. RESULTS: We observed a statistically significant reduction in viral load after STI in carriers of HLA-B alleles containing either the Bw480Thr or the Bw480Ile epitope (mean adjusted effect on post-STI viral load: -0.82 log HIV-1 RNA copies/ml, P < 0.001; and -1.12 log copies/ml, P < 0.001, respectively). No significant effects were detected for the other polymorphisms analysed. The likelihood of being able to control HIV-1 replication using a prespecified cut-off (viral load increase < 1000 copies/ml) increased from 39% in Bw4-negative patients to 53% in patients carrying Bw4-80Thr, and to 65% in patients carrying Bw4-80Ile (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: These data establish a significant impact of HLA-Bw4 on the control of viral replication after STI.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to determine the antibody responses and effect on viral load of the AS03-adjuvanted pandemic H1N1 vaccine in HIV-infected patients.
A total of 121 HIV-infected patients and 138 healthy subjects were enrolled in a prospective, open-label study. Healthy subjects received one dose and HIV-infected patients two doses of the AS03-adjuvanted split influenza A/09/H1N1 vaccine (Pandemrix®; GlaxoSmithKline, Brentford, United Kingdom.) at an interval of 3-4 weeks. The study was extended in 2010/2011 for 66 patients. Geometric mean titres (GMTs), seroprotection rates (post-vaccination titre ≥ 1:40) and HIV-1 RNA levels were measured before and 4 weeks after immunization.
After two immunizations, the seroprotection rate (94.2 vs. 87%, respectively) and GMT (376 vs. 340, respectively) in HIV-infected patients were as high as in healthy subjects after one dose, regardless of CD4 cell count. Four weeks after immunization, HIV RNA was detected in plasma samples from 40 of 68 (58.0%) previously aviraemic patients [median 152 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL; interquartile range (IQR) 87-509 copies/mL]. Subsequent measures indicated that HIV RNA levels had again declined to <20 copies/mL in most patients (27 of 34; 79.4%). Following (nonadjuvanted) influenza immunization in 2010/2011, HIV RNA levels only slightly increased (median final level 28 copies/mL) in three of 66 (4.5%) previously aviraemic patients, including two of 25 (8%) patients in whom an increase had been elicited by AS03-adjuvanted vaccine the year before.
Most HIV-infected patients developed seroprotection after two doses of AS03-adjuvanted pandemic vaccine. A transient effect on HIV RNA levels was observed in previously aviraemic patients. A booster dose of the nonadjuvanted influenza vaccine containing the A/09/H1N1 strain the following year did not reproduce this finding, indicating a non-antigen-specific adjuvant effect.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serologic testing algorithms for recent HIV seroconversion (STARHS) provide important information for HIV surveillance. We have shown that a patient's antibody reaction in a confirmatory line immunoassay (INNO-LIA HIV I/II Score, Innogenetics) provides information on the duration of infection. Here, we sought to further investigate the diagnostic specificity of various Inno-Lia algorithms and to identify factors affecting it.
Plasma samples of 714 selected patients of the Swiss HIV Cohort Study infected for longer than 12 months and representing all viral clades and stages of chronic HIV-1 infection were tested blindly by Inno-Lia and classified as either incident (up to 12 m) or older infection by 24 different algorithms. Of the total, 524 patients received HAART, 308 had HIV-1 RNA below 50 copies/mL, and 620 were infected by a HIV-1 non-B clade. Using logistic regression analysis we evaluated factors that might affect the specificity of these algorithms.
HIV-1 RNA < 50 copies/mL was associated with significantly lower reactivity to all five HIV-1 antigens of the Inno-Lia and impaired specificity of most algorithms. Among 412 patients either untreated or with HIV-1 RNA ≥ 50 copies/mL despite HAART, the median specificity of the algorithms was 96.5% (range 92.0-100%). The only factor that significantly promoted false-incident results in this group was age, with false-incident results increasing by a few percent per additional year. HIV-1 clade, HIV-1 RNA, CD4 percentage, sex, disease stage, and testing modalities exhibited no significance. Results were similar among 190 untreated patients.
The specificity of most Inno-Lia algorithms was high and not affected by HIV-1 variability, advanced disease and other factors promoting false-recent results in other STARHS. Specificity should be good in any group of untreated HIV-1 patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using new sensitive quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA is often detectable in the plasma of immunosuppressed patients. We investigated the prognostic value of a positive CMV DNA test for the development of CMV end-organ disease, other AIDS-defining events and mortality.
A survival analysis was performed, using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards models, for patients prospectively followed in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study, from January 1996 to December 2007, who were CMV-seropositive, had a CD4 count of ≤ 100 cells/μL, and had a plasma sample available for the measurement of baseline CMV DNA with an ultrasensitive PCR. The outcome analysed was an AIDS-defining event, including CMV end-organ disease, or death. Variables analysed at the time of CMV measurement were demographic variables, CD4 cell counts, HIV-1 RNA loads, and use and type of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
Of 1128 patients, 208 (18%) presented an AIDS-defining event and 246 (22%) died. A total of 368 patients (34% of samples) had detectable CMV DNA at baseline, with DNA concentrations of up to 38 800 copies/mL. In the multivariate analysis, CMV DNA predicted evolution not only towards CMV end-organ disease [hazard ratio (HR) 12.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.27-37.41], but also towards other AIDS-defining events (HR 2.6; 95% CI 1.60-4.33) and death (HR 1.9; 95% CI 1.10-3.34).
Quantitative CMV DNA detected in the plasma of HIV-infected patients with CD4 counts ≤ 100 cells/μL is a predictor for HIV disease progression, CMV disease and death. A single low value of 80 copies/mL identifies patients at low but significantly increased risk during the following months, after the measurement.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV-infected children have impaired antibody responses after exposure to certain antigens. Our aim was to determine whether HIV-infected children had lower varicella zoster virus (VZV) antibody levels compared with HIV-infected adults or healthy children and, if so, whether this was attributable to an impaired primary response, accelerated antibody loss, or failure to reactivate the memory VZV response.
In a prospective, cross-sectional and retrospective longitudinal study, we compared antibody responses, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), elicited by VZV infection in 97 HIV-infected children and 78 HIV-infected adults treated with antiretroviral therapy, followed over 10 years, and 97 age-matched healthy children. We also tested antibody avidity in HIV-infected and healthy children.
Median anti-VZV immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels were lower in HIV-infected children than in adults (264 vs. 1535 IU/L; P<0.001) and levels became more frequently unprotective over time in the children [odds ratio (OR) 17.74; 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.36-72.25; P<0.001]. High HIV viral load was predictive of VZV antibody waning in HIV-infected children. Anti-VZV antibodies did not decline more rapidly in HIV-infected children than in adults. Antibody levels increased with age in healthy (P=0.004) but not in HIV-infected children. Thus, antibody levels were lower in HIV-infected than in healthy children (median 1151 IU/L; P<0.001). Antibody avidity was lower in HIV-infected than healthy children (P<0.001). A direct correlation between anti-VZV IgG level and avidity was present in HIV-infected children (P=0.001), but not in healthy children.
Failure to maintain anti-VZV IgG levels in HIV-infected children results from failure to reactivate memory responses. Further studies are required to investigate long-term protection and the potential benefits of immunization.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We characterized lipid and lipoprotein changes associated with a lopinavir/ritonavir-containing regimen. We enrolled previously antiretroviral-naive patients participating in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. Fasting blood samples (baseline) were retrieved retrospectively from stored frozen plasma and posttreatment (follow-up) samples were collected prospectively at two separate visits. Lipids and lipoproteins were analyzed at a single reference laboratory. Sixty-five patients had two posttreatment lipid profile measurements and nine had only one. Most of the measured lipids and lipoprotein plasma concentrations increased on lopinavir/ritonavir-based treatment. The percentage of patients with hypertriglyceridemia (TG >150 mg/dl) increased from 28/74 (38%) at baseline to 37/65 (57%) at the second follow-up. We did not find any correlation between lopinavir plasma levels and the concentration of triglycerides. There was weak evidence of an increase in small dense LDL-apoB during the first year of treatment but not beyond 1 year (odds ratio 4.5, 90% CI 0.7 to 29 and 0.9, 90% CI 0.5 to 1.5, respectively). However, 69% of our patients still had undetectable small dense LDL-apoB levels while on treatment. LDL-cholesterol increased by a mean of 17 mg/dl (90% CI -3 to 37) during the first year of treatment, but mean values remained below the cut-off for therapeutic intervention. Despite an increase in the majority of measured lipids and lipoproteins particularly in the first year after initiation, we could not detect an obvious increase of cardiovascular risk resulting from the observed lipid changes.
Full-text · Article · May 2011 · AIDS research and human retroviruses
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most clinical guidelines recommend that AIDS-free, HIV-infected persons with CD4 cell counts below 0.350 × 10(9) cells/L initiate combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), but the optimal CD4 cell count at which cART should be initiated remains a matter of debate.
To identify the optimal CD4 cell count at which cART should be initiated.
Prospective observational data from the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration and dynamic marginal structural models were used to compare cART initiation strategies for CD4 thresholds between 0.200 and 0.500 × 10(9) cells/L.
HIV clinics in Europe and the Veterans Health Administration system in the United States.
20, 971 HIV-infected, therapy-naive persons with baseline CD4 cell counts at or above 0.500 × 10(9) cells/L and no previous AIDS-defining illnesses, of whom 8392 had a CD4 cell count that decreased into the range of 0.200 to 0.499 × 10(9) cells/L and were included in the analysis.
Hazard ratios and survival proportions for all-cause mortality and a combined end point of AIDS-defining illness or death.
Compared with initiating cART at the CD4 cell count threshold of 0.500 × 10(9) cells/L, the mortality hazard ratio was 1.01 (95% CI, 0.84 to 1.22) for the 0.350 threshold and 1.20 (CI, 0.97 to 1.48) for the 0.200 threshold. The corresponding hazard ratios were 1.38 (CI, 1.23 to 1.56) and 1.90 (CI, 1.67 to 2.15), respectively, for the combined end point of AIDS-defining illness or death. Limitations: CD4 cell count at cART initiation was not randomized. Residual confounding may exist.
Initiation of cART at a threshold CD4 count of 0.500 × 10(9) cells/L increases AIDS-free survival. However, mortality did not vary substantially with the use of CD4 thresholds between 0.300 and 0.500 × 10(9) cells/L.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · Annals of internal medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study assessed genital shedding of HIV in patients on intermittent combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and assessed predictors of having detectable genital HIV RNA in 156 Thai patients with CD4 > 350 cells/μL and HIV RNA ≤50 copies/mL who were randomized to continuous therapy (CT, n = 65) or CD4-guided cART (n = 91). There were 383 matched genital and plasma HIV RNA samples (CT: 158, CD4 guided: 225). In 14 samples collected within eight weeks of treatment interruption, detectable HIV RNA was present in 29% of genital samples and 71% of plasma samples. In 55 samples collected after eight weeks of treatment interruption, detectable HIV RNA was present in 60% of genital samples and 98% of plasma samples. In 110 samples collected up to 96 weeks after treatment re-initiation, detectable genital HIV RNA was found in 8% of samples and all of these were within the first 17 weeks. Independent predictors of detectable genital HIV RNA were increasing age and increasing concentrations of HIV RNA in plasma. These findings support the role of cART in maintaining undetectable HIV RNA in genital secretions.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · International Journal of STD & AIDS
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Darunavir was designed for activity against HIV resistant to other protease inhibitors (PIs). We assessed the efficacy, tolerability and risk factors for virological failure of darunavir for treatment-experienced patients seen in clinical practice.
We included all patients in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study starting darunavir after recording a viral load above 1000 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL given prior exposure to both PIs and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. We followed these patients for up to 72 weeks, assessed virological failure using different loss of virological response algorithms and evaluated risk factors for virological failure using a Bayesian method to fit discrete Cox proportional hazard models.
Among 130 treatment-experienced patients starting darunavir, the median age was 47 years, the median duration of HIV infection was 16 years, and 82% received mono or dual antiretroviral therapy before starting highly active antiretroviral therapy. During a median patient follow-up period of 45 weeks, 17% of patients stopped taking darunavir after a median exposure of 20 weeks. In patients followed beyond 48 weeks, the rate of virological failure at 48 weeks was at most 20%. Virological failure was more likely where patients had previously failed on both amprenavir and saquinavir and as the number of previously failed PI regimens increased.
As a component of therapy for treatment-experienced patients, darunavir can achieve a similar efficacy and tolerability in clinical practice to that seen in clinical trials. Clinicians should consider whether a patient has failed on both amprenavir and saquinavir and the number of failed PI regimens before prescribing darunavir.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The long-term outcome of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is not assessed in controlled trials. We aimed to analyse trends in the population effectiveness of ART in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study over the last decade.
We analysed the odds of stably suppressed viral load (ssVL: three consecutive values <50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL) and of CD4 cell count exceeding 500 cells/μL for each year between 2000 and 2008 in three scenarios: an open cohort; a closed cohort ignoring the influx of new participants after 2000; and a worst-case closed cohort retaining lost or dead patients as virological failures in subsequent years. We used generalized estimating equations with sex, age, risk, non-White ethnicity and era of starting combination ART (cART) as fixed co-factors. Time-updated co-factors included type of ART regimen, number of new drugs and adherence to therapy.
The open cohort included 9802 individuals (median age 38 years; 31% female). From 2000 to 2008, the proportion of participants with ssVL increased from 37 to 64% [adjusted odds ratio (OR) per year 1.16 (95% CI 1.15-1.17)] and the proportion with CD4 count >500 cells/μL increased from 40 to >50% [OR 1.07 (95% CI 1.06-1.07)]. Similar trends were seen in the two closed cohorts. Adjustment did not substantially affect time trends.
There was no relevant dilution effect through new participants entering the open clinical cohort, and the increase in virological/immunological success over time was not an artefact of the study design of open cohorts. This can partly be explained by new treatment options and other improvements in medical care.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipoatrophy can complicate thymidine analogue nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (tNRTI)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART). Lipoatrophy may be less likely with ART including ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r). Small, placebo-controlled studies found that uridine (in tNRTI recipients) and pravastatin improved HIV lipoatrophy over 12 weeks. Today, most patients with lipoatrophy receive non-tNRTI-based ART; the effect of uridine in such patients is unknown.
We performed a prospective, randomized trial in lipoatrophic adults with plasma HIV RNA<50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL on tNRTI-sparing ART including LPV/r. Patients received uridine [36 g three times a day (tid) on 10 consecutive days per month; n=10], pravastatin [40 mg every night (nocte); n=12], uridine plus pravastatin (n=11) or neither (n=12) for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint was mean change in limb fat mass as assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). With 20 patients per intervention, the study had 80% power to detect a mean difference between a treatment and the control of 0.5 kg, assuming a standard deviation of 0.9 and an alpha threshold equal to 5% (two-sided).
Of 45 participants (all men, with median age 49.5 years and median limb fat 2.6 kg), two discontinued pravastatin and one participant stopped both pravastatin and uridine. The difference between the mean changes in limb fat mass for uridine vs. no uridine was 0.03 kg [95% confidence interval (CI) -0.35, +0.28; P=0.79]. The respective difference for pravastatin was -0.03 kg (95% CI -0.29, +0.34; P=0.84). Pravastatin slightly decreased total cholesterol (0.44 mmol/L; P=0.099). Visceral adipose tissue measured by computed tomography did not change significantly.
In this population and at the doses used, neither uridine nor pravastatin for 24 weeks significantly increased limb fat mass.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The epidemiology of HIV associated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) was investigated in 6550 European patients with AIDS. NHL was diagnosed in 3.5% of all patients at the time of the AIDS diagnosis. Although the probability of being diagnosed with NHL at AIDS diagnosis was significantly higher among intravenous drug users than among homosexual men, and was associated with increasing age, the observed incidences of NHL were more strikingly similar than any differences.
The rate of developing NHL after a previous AIDS diagnosis was 2.4 per 100 patient years of follow-up, and remained constant during a 5-year follow-up period. While primary brain lymphomas comprised only 9% of NHL diagnosed at the time of AIDS, they comprised 38% of NHL diagnosed after AIDS (p<0.001).
The prognosis for patients with NHL at AIDS diagnosis was poor with a median survival of 5 months. A diagnosis of primary brain lymphoma was uniformly associated with a poor outcome.
It is concluded that the probability of developing NHL in late stage HIV infection is lower than previously anticipated from the results of small studies on patients receiving long-term anti-retroviral therapy.
No preview · Article · Oct 2009 · European Journal Of Haematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:
Activation and coagulation biomarkers were measured within the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) trial. Their associations with opportunistic disease (OD) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients were examined.
Inflammatory (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP], interleukin-6 [IL-6], amyloid-A, and amyloid-P) and coagulation (D-dimer and prothrombin-fragment 1+2) markers were determined. Conditional logistic regression analyses were used to assess associations between these biomarkers and risk of OD.
The 91 patients who developed an OD were matched to 182 control subjects. Patients with an hsCRP level > or =5 microg/mL at baseline had a 3.5 higher odds of OD (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-8.1) than did those with an hsCRP level <1 microg/mL (P=.003, by test for trend) and patients with an IL-6 level > or =3 pg/mL at baseline had a 2.4 higher odds of OD (95% CI, 1.0-5.4) than did those with an IL-6 level <1.5 pg/mL (P=.02, by test for trend). No other baseline biomarkers predicted development of an OD. Latest follow-up hsCRP level for those with an hsCRP level > or =5 microg/mL (compared with a level <1 microg/mL; odds ratio [OR], 7.6; 95% CI, 2.0-28.5; [P=.002, by test for trend), latest amyloid-A level for those with an amyloid-A level > or =6 mg/L (compared with a level <2 mg/L; OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.1-13.4; P=.03, by test for trend), and latest IL-6 level for those with an IL-6 level > or =3 pg/mL (compared with a level <1.5 pg/mL; OR 2.4; 95% CI, 0.7-8.8; P=.04, by test for trend) were also associated with development of an OD.
Higher IL-6 and hsCRP levels independently predicted development of OD. These biomarkers could provide additional prognostic information for predicting the risk of OD.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · The Journal of Infectious Diseases