[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: This population-based prospective study was undertaken in Mahatma Gandhi Medical College to estimate the renal function in young healthy Indian adults. A young healthy heterogeneous Indian cohort comprising 978 individuals, predominantly medical students, was assessed by a detailed questionnaire, and variables such as height, weight, body mass index (BMI), birth weight, and blood pressure were documented. Laboratory investigations included serum creatinine, serum cystatin C, blood sugar, urine protein, and imaging of the kidneys with ultrasound. The mean age of the cohort was 25±6 years, comprising 672 males and 306 females. The estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) by the Cockcroft–Gault formula for BMI <18.5 kg/m², 18.5–24.99 kg/m², 25–29.99 kg/m², and ≥30 kg/m² were 71.29±10.45 mL/min, 86.38±13.46 mL/min, 98.88±15.29 mL/min, and 109.13±21.57 mL/min, respectively; the eGFRs using cystatin C for the four groups of BMI were 84.53±18.14 mL/min, 84.01±40.11 mL/min, 79.18±13.46 mL/min, and 77.30±10.90 mL/min, respectively. This study attempts to establish a normal range of serum creatinine and cystatin C values for the Indian population and shows that in young healthy Indian adults, eGFR and kidney volume vary by BMI and sex.
Article · Sep 2016 · International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Background
Diabetic kidney disease is the leading cause of stage 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD) in India. Renal replacement therapy (RRT) is accessible to very few patients because of socioeconomic deprivation. We studied the effect of diabetes and socioeconomic status on the outcome of patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD).
We retrospectively analyzed the outcome of 897 patients (629 males/268 females; mean age ± standard deviation 48.69 ± 14.27 years) initiated on MHD from 2003 to 2009 at five dialysis centers in south India. There were 335 type 2 diabetic patients and 562 non-diabetic patients. Group 1 comprised the self-paying patients (518 patients) and Group 2 included the TANKER Foundation charity dialysis patients (379 patients). We compared the 5-year survival rates of Group 1 versus Group 2 and also those of diabetic versus non-diabetic patients, using the Kaplan–Meier survival estimator.
Of the 897 patients, 166 patients survived, 350 died, 234 were lost to follow-up, 137 had renal transplantation and 10 patients were transferred to peritoneal dialysis. The 5-year survival rates after censoring were 20.7 and 38.2% for diabetic and non-diabetic patients, respectively (P < 0.001). The survival rate of diabetic patients was significantly lower, compared with non-diabetic patients, in Group 2 (P < 0.001), but not significantly lower in Group 1 (P = 0.226).
Diabetic patients have poor survival rates on MHD, especially those from poor socioeconomic groups. Due to scarce RRT facilities and poor survival rates of diabetic patients, prevention, early detection and management of diabetic CKD patients should be the way to go forward.
Full-text available · Article · Aug 2016 · CKJ: Clinical Kidney Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health problem in India. The CKD registry of India has been formed to understand the epidemiology of CKD in India. Due to health economics in India, the majority of CKD-affected patients cannot afford renal replacement therapy (RRT) services. There is an unmet need to improve the awareness of kidney disease in India, and the focus should be on prevention and early detection of CKD by screening high risk populations. The Tamilnad Kidney Research (TANKER) Foundation is a charitable trust established in 1993 with the aim to improve awareness and provide quality affordable treatment to underprivileged patients. TANKER is supported by contributions from well-wishers. It has three arms: i) treatment arm, ii) research arm, and iii) awareness and screening arm. TANKER Foundation offers free and subsidized dialysis twice weekly to 227 underprivileged patients. TANKER dialysis has been supported by state government funding schemes. TANKER actively supports and conducts research in nephrology. More than 100,000 people have benefitted from TANKER's kidney awareness programs. The screening programs have provided for early detection of CKD in both urban and rural areas. TANKER award functions are held annually to recognize research and exemplary service to society. The TANKER Foundation can be used as a model for developing countries to address the unmet needs in CKD management.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Renal replacement therapy (RRT) resources are scarce in India, with wide urban-rural and interstate disparities. The burden of end-stage renal disease is expected to increase further due to increasing prevalence of risk factors like diabetes mellitus. Renal transplantation, the best RRT modality, is increasing in popularity, due to improvements made in public education, the deceased donor transplantation (DDT) programme and the availability of free and affordable transplant services in government hospitals and certain non-governmental philanthropic organizations. There are about 120000 haemodialysis patients and 10000 chronic peritoneal dialysis patients in India, the majority of them waiting for a donor kidney. Shortage of organs, lack of transplant facilities and high cost of transplant in private facilities are major barriers for renal transplantation in India. The DDT rate in India is now 0.34 per million population, among the lowest in the world. Infrastructural development in its infancy and road traffic rules not being strictly implemented by the authorities, have led to road traffic accidents being very common in urban and rural India. Many patients are declared brain dead on arrival and can serve as potential organ donors. The DDT programme in the state of Tamil Nadu has met with considerable success and has brought down the incidence of organ trade. Government hospitals in Tamil Nadu, with a population of 72 million, provide free transplantation facilities for the underprivileged. Public private partnership has played an important role in improving organ procurement rates, with the help of trained transplant coordinators in government hospitals. The DDT programmes in the southern states of India (Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Pondicherry) are advancing rapidly with mutual sharing due to public private partnership providing vital organs to needy patients. Various health insurance programmes rolled out by the governments in the southern states are effective in alleviating financial burden for the transplantation. Post-transplant immunological and pathological surveillance of recipients remains a challenge due to the scarcity of infrastructure and other facilities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: A 63-year-old African male with end stage renal disease who received a renal transplantation from his daughter after successful treatment of hepatitis C virus, type 1 genotype developed metastatic Kaposi's sarcoma and subsequently adenocarcinoma of the prostate. He was successfully treated with chemotherapy and reduction of immunosuppression and switch over to rapamycin.
Full-text available · Article · Mar 2016 · Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation: an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: In many developing countries in the South Asian region, screening for chronic diseases in the community has shown a widely
varying prevalence. However, certain geographical regions have shown a high prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) of
unknown etiology. This predominantly affects the young and middle-aged population with a lower socioeconomic status. Here,
we describe the hotspots of CKD of undiagnosed etiology in South Asian countries including the North, Central and Eastern
provinces of Sri Lanka and the coastal region of the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. Screening of these populations has
revealed cases of CKD in various stages. Race has also been shown to be a factor, with a much lower prevalence of CKD in whites
compared to Asians, which could be related to the known influence of ethnicity on CKD development as well as environmental
factors. The difference between developed and developing nations is most stark in the realm of healthcare, which translates
into CKD hotspots in many regions of South Asian countries. Additionally, the burden of CKD stage G5 remains unknown due to
the lack of registry reports, poor access to healthcare and lack of an organized chronic disease management program. The population
receiving various forms of renal replacement therapy has dramatically increased in the last decade due to better access to
point of care, despite the disproportionate increase in nephrology manpower. In this article we will discuss the nephrology
care provided in various countries in South Asia, including India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and Afghanistan.
Full-text available · Article · Nov 2015 · CKJ: Clinical Kidney Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Kidney transplant recipients may develop new-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) and transplant-associated hyperglycemia (TAH) (NODAT or new-onset impaired glucose tolerance-IGT). We studied 251 consecutive renal transplant South Asian recipients for incidence of NODAT and its risk factors between June 2004 and January 2009. Pre-transplant glucose tolerance test (GTT) identified non-diabetics (n = 102, IGT-24, NGT-78) for analysis. Baseline immunosuppression along with either cyclosporine (CsA) (n = 70) or tacrolimus (Tac) (n = 32) was given. Patients underwent GTT 20 days (mean) post-transplant to identify NODAT, normal (N) or IGT. TAH was observed in 40.2% of the patients (40% in CsA and 40.6% in Tac) (P = 0.5). NODAT developed in 13.7% of the patients (12.9% in CsA and 15.6% in Tac) (P = 0.5). Overall, Hepatitis C (P = 0.007), human leukocyte antigen (HLA) B52 (P = 0.03) and lack of HLA A28 (A68/69) (P = 0.03) were associated with TAH. In the Tac group, higher Day 1 dosage (P <0.001), HLA A1 (P = 0.04), B13 (P = 0.03) and lack of DR2 (P = 0.004) increased the risk of TAH. In the CsA group, HLA A10 (P = 0.03), failure of triglyceride (P = 0.001) or low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (P = 0.03) to lower or high-density lipoprotein to rise (P = 0.001), and higher post-transplant LDL (P <0.001) and cholesterol levels (P = 0.02) were associated with NODAT or TAH. Post-transplant fasting plasma glucose on Day 1 had sensitivity-54.5%, specificity-50.1%, positive predictive value-18.1% and negative predictive value-84.8% for detecting NODAT. In conclusion, there is a genetic predisposition to NODAT and TAH in South Asia as seen by the HLA associations, and a predisposition exists to the individual diabetogenic effects of Tac and CsA based on HLA type. This could lead to more careful selection of calcineurin inhibitors based on HLA types in the South Asian population.
Full-text available · Article · Nov 2015 · Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation: an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia