Tom Rea

University of Washington Seattle, Seattle, Washington, United States

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Publications (29)252.88 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: The national field trauma triage guidelines have been widely implemented in US trauma systems, but never prospectively validated. We sought to prospectively validate the guidelines, as applied by out-of-hospital providers, for identifying high-risk trauma patients. Study design: This was an out-of-hospital prospective cohort study from January 1, 2011 through December 31, 2011 with 44 Emergency Medical Services agencies in 7 counties in 2 states. We enrolled injured patients transported to 28 acute care hospitals, including 7 major trauma centers (Level I and II trauma hospitals) and 21 nontrauma hospitals. The primary exposure term was Emergency Medical Services' use of one or more field triage criteria in the national field triage guidelines. Outcomes included Injured Severity Score ≥16 (primary) and critical resource use within 24 hours of emergency department arrival (secondary). Results: We enrolled 53,487 injured children and adults transported by Emergency Medical Services to an acute care hospital, 17,633 of which were sampled for the primary analysis; 13.9% met field triage guidelines, 3.1% had Injury Severity Score ≥16, and 1.7% required early critical resources. The sensitivity and specificity of the field triage guidelines were 66.2% (95% CI, 60.2-71.7%) and 87.8% (95% CI, 87.7-88.0%) for Injury Severity Score ≥16 and 80.1% (95% CI, 65.8-89.4%) and 87.3% (95% CI 87.1-87.4%) for early critical resource use. Triage guideline sensitivity decreased with age, from 87.4% in children to 51.8% in older adults. Conclusions: The national field triage guidelines are relatively insensitive for identifying seriously injured patients and patients requiring early critical interventions, particularly among older adults.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of the American College of Surgeons
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: The role of chest compression fraction (CCF) in resuscitation of shockable out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is uncertain. We evaluated the relationship between CCF and clinical outcomes in a secondary analysis of the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium PRIMED trial. Methods: We included patients presenting in a shockable rhythm who suffered OHCA prior to EMS arrival. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between CCF and survival to hospital discharge, return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), and neurologically intact survival. We also performed a secondary analysis restricted to patients without ROSC in the first 10min of EMS resuscitation. Results: Among the 2011 patients, median (IQR) age was 65 (54, 75) years, 78.2% were male, and mean (SD) CCF was 0.71 (0.14). Compared to the reference group (CCF<0.60), the odds ratio (OR) for survival was 0.49 (95%CI: 0.36, 0.68) for CCF 0.60-0.79 and 0.30 (95%CI: 0.20, 0.44) for CCF≥0.80. Results were similar for outcomes of ROSC and neurologically intact survival. Conversely, when restricted to the cohort who did not achieve ROSC during the first 10min (n=1633), compared to the reference group (CCF<0.60), the OR for survival was 0.79 (95%CI: 0.53, 1.18) for CCF 0.60-0.79 and OR 0.88 (95%CI: 0.56, 1.36) for CCF≥0.80. Conclusions: In this study of OHCA patients presenting in a shockable rhythm, CCF was paradoxically associated with lower odds of survival. CCF is a complex measure and taken by itself may not be a consistent predictor of good clinical outcomes.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Resuscitation
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    ABSTRACT: The large regional variation in survival after treatment of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is incompletely explained. Communities respond to OHCA with differing number of emergency medical services (EMS) personnel who respond to the scene. The effect of different numbers of EMS personnel on-scene upon outcomes is unclear. We sought to evaluate the association between number of EMS personnel on-scene and survival after OHCA. We performed a retrospective review of prospectively collected data on 16,122 EMS-treated OHCA events from December 1, 2005 through May 31, 2007 from a combined population over 21 million people residing in an area of over 33,000 square miles in Canada and the United States. Number of EMS personnel on-scene was defined as the number of EMS personnel who responded to the scene of OHCA within 15minutes after 9-1-1 call receipt and prior to patient death or transport away from the scene. Associations with survival to hospital discharge were assessed by using generalized estimating equations to construct multivariable logistic regression models. Compared to a reference number of EMS personnel on-scene of 5 or 6, 7 or 8 EMS personnel on-scene was associated with a higher rate of survival to hospital discharge, adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.35 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.73). There was no significant difference in survival between 5 or 6 personnel on-scene vs. fewer. More EMS personnel on-scene within 15minutes of 9-1-1 call was associated with improved survival of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. It is unlikely that this finding was mediated solely by earlier CPR or earlier defibrillation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Resuscitation

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Journal of Investigative Medicine

  • No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association
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    ABSTRACT: Despite their wide use, whether antiarrhythmic drugs improve survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is not known. The ROC-ALPS is evaluating the effectiveness of these drugs for OHCA due to shock-refractory ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VF/VT). ALPS will randomize 3,000 adults across North America with nontraumatic OHCA, persistent or recurring VF/VT after ≥1 shock, and established vascular access to receive up to 450 mg amiodarone, 180 mg lidocaine, or placebo in the field using a double-blind protocol, along with standard resuscitation measures. The designated target population is all eligible randomized recipients of any dose of ALPS drug whose initial OHCA rhythm was VF/VT. A safety analysis includes all randomized patients regardless of their eligibility, initial arrhythmia, or actual receipt of ALPS drug. The primary outcome of ALPS is survival to hospital discharge; a secondary outcome is functional survival at discharge assessed as a modified Rankin Scale score ≤3. The principal aim of ALPS is to determine if survival is improved by amiodarone compared with placebo; secondary aim is to determine if survival is improved by lidocaine vs placebo and/or by amiodarone vs lidocaine. Prioritizing comparisons in this manner acknowledges where differences in outcome are most expected based on existing knowledge. Each aim also represents a clinically relevant comparison between treatments that is worth investigating. Results from ALPS will provide important information about the choice and value of antiarrhythmic therapies for VF/VT arrest with direct implications for resuscitation guidelines and clinical practice.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · American heart journal

  • No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association
  • Mickey Eisenberg · Tom Rea

    No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Heart (British Cardiac Society)
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background. Improving survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is an ongoing challenge for emergency medical services (EMS). Various strategies for shortening the time from collapse to defibrillation have been used, and one is to equip police officers with defibrillators. Objective. We evaluated the programmatic implementation of police defibrillation to determine if such a program could improve the process of care in a high-functioning and mature EMS system. Methods. We conducted a prospective observational study of implementation of a police defibrillation in two police departments in King County, Washington, from March 1, 2010 to March 31, 2012. The program was designed to dispatch police specifically to cases with a high suspicion of cardiac arrest, defined as a patient who was unconscious and not breathing normally. We included all nontraumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest events that occurred prior to EMS arrival and within the city limits of the two cities. We collected both EMS and police dispatch reports to document times of call receipt, dispatch, and arrival of both agencies. We obtained rhythm recordings when the automated external defibrillators (AEDs) were used by the police. Descriptive statistics were used to measure frequency of police dispatch and to compare times to treatment between patients with a police response and those without. Results. During the study period there were 231 cases of cardiac arrest that occurred prior to EMS arrival eligible for police response in the study communities. Police were dispatched to 124 (54%) of these cases. Of the 124, the police arrived before EMS 37 times, or 16% of the 231 cases. Police performed CPR in 29 of these cases and applied the AED in 21 of them. Of the 21 cases in which the AED was applied for cardiac arrest, a shock was delivered on first analysis for 6 patients. Although the response interval between dispatch to scene arrival was similar for EMS and police (4.5 minutes versus 4.6 minutes respectively, p = 0.08), police were dispatched considerably slower than EMS (1.8 minutes versus 0.6 minutes, p < 0.001). Conclusions. In the current programmatic implementation, police had a measurable but limited involvement in resuscitation. Efforts to address dispatch challenges may improve police involvement.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Prehospital Emergency Care
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Antiarrhythmic drugs like lidocaine are usually given to promote return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) during ongoing out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) from ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia (VF/VT). Whether administering such drugs prophylactically for post-resuscitation care after ROSC prevents re-arrest and improves outcome is unstudied. Methods: We evaluated a cohort of 1721 patients with witnessed VF/VT OHCA who did (1296) or did not receive prophylactic lidocaine (425) at first ROSC. Study endpoints included re-arrest, hospital admission and survival. Results: Prophylacic lidocaine recipients and non-recipients were comparable, except for shorter time to first ROSC and higher systolic blood pressure at ROSC in those receiving lidocaine. After initial ROSC, arrest from VF/VT recurred in 16.7% and from non-shockable arrhythmias in 3.2% of prophylactic lidocaine recipients, 93.5% of whom were admitted to hospital and 62.4% discharged alive, as compared with 37.4%, 7.8%, 84.9% and 44.5%, of corresponding non-recipients (all p<0.0001). Adjusted for pertinent covariates, prophylactic lidocaine was independently associated with reduced odds of re-arrest from VF/VT, odds ratio, (95% confidence interval) 0.34 (0.26-0.44) and from nonshockable arrhythmias (0.47 (0.29-0.78)); a higher hospital admission rate (1.88, (1.28-2.76)) and improved survival to discharge (1.49 (1.15-1.95)). However in a propensity score-matched sensitivity analysis, lidocaine's only beneficial association with outcome was in a lower incidence of recurrent VF/VT arrest. Conclusions: Administration of prophylactic lidocaine upon ROSC after OHCA was consistently associated with less recurrent VF/VT arrest, and therapeutic equipoise for other measures. The prospect of a promising association between lidocaine prophylaxis and outcome, without evidence of harm, warrants further investigation.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Resuscitation
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    ABSTRACT: Perishock pauses are pauses in chest compressions before and after defibrillatory shock. We examined the relationship between perishock pauses and survival to hospital discharge. We included out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients in the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium Epistry-Cardiac Arrest who suffered arrest between December 2005 and June 2007, presented with a shockable rhythm (ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia), and had cardiopulmonary resuscitation process data for at least 1 shock (n=815). We used multivariable logistic regression to determine the association between survival and perishock pauses. In an analysis adjusted for Utstein predictors of survival, the odds of survival were significantly lower for patients with preshock pause ≥20 seconds (odds ratio, 0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.27 to 0.82) and perishock pause ≥40 seconds (odds ratio, 0.54; 95% confidence interval, 0.31 to 0.97) compared with patients with preshock pause <10 seconds and perishock pause <20 seconds. Postshock pause was not independently associated with a significant change in the odds of survival. Log-linear modeling depicted a decrease in survival to hospital discharge of 18% and 14% for every 5-second increase in both preshock and perishock pause interval (up to 40 and 50 seconds, respectively), with no significant association noted with changes in the postshock pause interval. In patients with cardiac arrest presenting in a shockable rhythm, longer perishock and preshock pauses were independently associated with a decrease in survival to hospital discharge. The impact of preshock pause on survival suggests that refinement of automatic defibrillator software and paramedic education to minimize preshock pause delays may have a significant impact on survival.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Circulation
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the effect of the 2005 American Heart Association guidelines on survival in the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium (ROC) Cardiac Arrest Epistry. We surveyed 174 EMS agencies from 8 of 10 ROC sites to determine 2005 AHA guideline implementation, or crossover, date. Two sites with 2005 compatible treatment algorithms prior to guideline release, and agencies that did not adopt the new guidelines during the study period were excluded. Non-traumatic adult cardiac arrests that were not witnessed by EMS, and did not have do not resuscitate orders were included. A linear mixed effects model was applied for survival controlling for time and agency. The "crossover" date was added to the model to determine the effect of the 2005 guidelines. Of 174 agencies, 85 contributed cases to both cohorts during the 18 month period between 2005/12/01 and 2007/05/31. Of 7779 cases, 5054 occurred during the 13 month (median) interval before crossover and 2725 occurred in the five month (median) interval after crossover. The overall survival rate was 6.1%; 5.8% in the old cohort vs. 6.5%, p=0.23. For VF/VT patients, survival was 14.6% vs. 18.0%, p=0.063. Our model estimated no increase in survival over time (monthly OR 1.014, 95% CI 0.988, 1.041, p=0.28). This study found no significant change in survival rate over time in the early months after implementation. Further longitudinal study is needed to determine the full impact of the guidelines on survival and methods to translate knowledge quickly and effectively in EMS.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Resuscitation
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to test whether an automated external defibrillator (AED) training program would positively affect the mental health of family members of high-risk patients. A total of 305 patients with ischemic heart disease and their family members were randomized to 1 of 4 AED training programs: 2 video-based training programs and 2 face-to-face training programs that emphasized self-efficacy and perceived control. Patients and family members were surveyed at baseline and 3 and 9 months postischemic event on demographic characteristics, measures of quality of life (Short Form-36), self-efficacy, and perceived control. For this study, family members were the focus rather than the patients. Regression analyses showed that family members in the face-to-face training programs did not score better on any of the mental health status variables than family members who participated in the other training programs except for an increase in self-efficacy beliefs at 3 months after training. The findings suggest that a specifically designed AED training program emphasizing self-efficacy and perceived control beliefs is not likely to enhance family member mental health.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Heart & lung: the journal of critical care

  • No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · The Lancet

  • No preview · Article · Aug 2010 · Resuscitation
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    ABSTRACT: Survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOHCA) varies between regions, but the contribution of different factors to this variability is unknown. This study examined whether survival to hospital discharge was related to receiving hospital characteristics, including bed number, capability of performing cardiac catheterization and hospital volume of OOHCA cases. Prospective observational database of non-traumatic OOHCA assessed by emergency medical services was created in 8 US and 2 Canadian sites from December 1, 2005 to July 1, 2007. Subjects received hospital care after OOHCA, defined as either (1) arriving at hospital with pulses, or (2) arriving at hospital without pulses, but discharged or died > or =1 day later. A total of 4087 OOHCA subjects were treated at 254 hospitals, and 32% survived to hospital discharge. A majority of subjects (68%) were treated at 116 (46%) hospitals capable of cardiac catheterization. Unadjusted survival to discharge was greater in hospitals performing cardiac catheterization (34% vs. 27%, p=0.001), and in hospitals that received > or =40 patients/year compared to those that received <40 (37% vs. 30%, p=0.01). Survival was not associated with hospital bed number, teaching status or trauma center designation. Length of stay (LOS) for surviving subjects was shorter at hospitals performing cardiac catheterization (p<0.01). After adjusting for all variables, there were no independent associations between survival or LOS and hospital characteristics. Some subsets of hospitals displayed higher survival and shorter LOS for OOHCA subjects but there was no independent association between hospital characteristics and outcome.
    Full-text · Article · May 2010 · Resuscitation
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated 9-1-1 telecommunicators' perceptions of communication difficulties with callers who have limited English proficiency (LEP) and the frequency and outcomes of specific communication behaviors. A survey was administered to 150 telecommunicators from four 9-1-1 call centers of a metropolitan area in the Pacific Northwest to assess their experience working with LEP callers. In addition, 172 9-1-1 recordings (86 of which were labeled by telecommunicators as having a "language barrier") were abstracted for telecommunicators' communication behaviors and care delivery outcomes. All recordings were for patients who were in presumed cardiac arrest (patient unconscious and not breathing). Additionally, computer-assisted dispatch (CAD) reports were abstracted to assess dispatch practices with regard to timing of basic life support (BLS) and advanced life support (ALS) dispatch. One hundred twenty-three of the telecommunicators (82%) filled out the survey. The majority (70%) reported that they encounter LEP callers almost daily and most (78%) of them reported that communication difficulties affect the medical care these callers receive. Additionally, the telecommunicators reported that calls with LEP callers are often (36%) stressful. The number one strategy for communication with LEP callers reported by telecommunicators was the use of a telephone interpreter line known as the Language Line. However, the Language Line was utilized in only 13% of LEP calls abstracted for this study. The analysis of 9-1-1 recordings suggests that the LEP callers received more repetition, rephrasing, and slowing of speech than the non-LEP callers. Although there was no difference in time from onset of call to dispatching BLS, there was a significant difference in simultaneous dispatching of BLS and ALS between the LEP calls (20%) and non-LEP calls (38%, p < 0.05). Our study shows that 9-1-1 telecommunicators believe language barriers with LEP callers negatively impact communication and care outcomes. More research needs to be conducted on "best practices" for phone-based emergency communication with LEP callers. Additionally, LEP communities need to better understand the 9-1-1 system and how to effectively communicate during emergencies.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2010 · Prehospital Emergency Care
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    ABSTRACT: Early identification and treatment of patients with severe sepsis improves outcome, yet the role of out-of-hospital intravenous (IV) fluid is unknown. To determine if the delivery of out-of-hospital fluid in patients with severe sepsis is associated with reduced time to achievement of goal-oriented resuscitation in the emergency department (ED). We performed a secondary data analysis of a retrospective cohort study in a metropolitan, tertiary care, university-based medical center supported by a two-tiered system of out-of-hospital emergency medical services (EMS) providers. We studied the association between delivery of out-of-hospital fluid by advanced life support (ALS) providers and the achievement of resuscitation endpoints (central venous pressure [CVP] > or =8 mmHg, mean arterial pressure [MAP] > or =65 mmHg, and central venous oxygen saturation [ScvO(2)] > or =70%) within six hours after triage during early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) in the ED. Twenty five (48%) of 52 patients transported by ALS with severe sepsis received out-of-hospital fluid. Data for age, gender, source of sepsis, and presence of comorbidities were similar between patients who did and did not receive out-of-hospital fluid. Patients receiving out-of-hospital fluid had lower out-of-hospital mean (+/- standard deviation) systolic blood pressure (95 +/- 40 mmHg vs. 117 +/- 29 mmHg; p = 0.03) and higher median (interquartile range) Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores in the ED (7 [5-8] vs. 4 [4-6]; p = 0.01) than patients not receiving out-of-hospital fluid. Despite greater severity of illness, patients receiving out-of-hospital fluid approached but did not attain a statistically significant increase in the likelihood of achieving MAP > or =65 mmHg within six hours after ED triage (70% vs. 44%, p = 0.09). On average, patients receiving out-of-hospital fluid received twice the fluid volume within one hour after ED triage (1.1 L [1.0-2.0 L] vs. 0.6 L [0.3-1.0 L]; p = 0.01). No difference in achievement of goal CVP (72% vs. 60%; p = 0.6) or goal ScvO(2) (54% vs. 36%; p = 0.25) was observed between groups. Less than half of patients with severe sepsis transported by ALS received out-of-hospital fluid. Patients receiving out-of-hospital IV access and fluids approached but did not attain a statistically significant increase in the likelihood of achieving goal MAP during EGDT. These preliminary findings require additional investigation to evaluate the optimal role of out-of-hospital resuscitation in treating patients with severe sepsis.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2010 · Prehospital Emergency Care
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    ABSTRACT: Early recognition and treatment in severe sepsis improve outcomes. However, out-of-hospital patient characteristics and emergency medical services (EMS) care in severe sepsis is understudied. Our goals were to describe out-of-hospital characteristics and EMS care in patients with severe sepsis and to evaluate associations between out-of-hospital characteristics and severity of organ dysfunction in the emergency department (ED). We performed a secondary data analysis of existing data from patients with severe sepsis transported by EMS to an academic medical center. We constructed multivariable linear regression models to determine if out-of-hospital factors are associated with serum lactate and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) in the ED. Two hundred sixteen patients with severe sepsis arrived by EMS. Median serum lactate in the ED was 3.0 mmol/L (interquartile range, 2.0-5.0) and median SOFA score was 4 (interquartile range, 2-6). Sixty-three percent (135) of patients were transported by advanced life support providers and 30% (62) received intravenous fluid. Lower out-of-hospital Glasgow Coma Scale score was independently associated with elevated serum lactate (P < .01). Out-of-hospital hypotension, greater respiratory rate, and lower Glasgow Coma Scale score were associated with greater SOFA (P < .01). Out-of-hospital fluid resuscitation occurred in less than one third of patients with severe sepsis, and routinely measured out-of-hospital variables were associated with greater serum lactate and SOFA in the ED.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2010 · Journal of critical care

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Apr 2009

Publication Stats

1k Citations
252.88 Total Impact Points


  • 2003-2015
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Medicine
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2011
    • Trinity Washington University
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2006
    • Miami County Emergency Medical Services
      Miami, Florida, United States