[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CharProtDB (http://www.jcvi.org/charprotdb/) is a curated database of biochemically characterized proteins. It provides a source of direct rather than transitive assignments
of function, designed to support automated annotation pipelines. The initial data set in CharProtDB was collected through
manual literature curation over the years by analysts at the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI) [formerly The Institute of Genomic
Research (TIGR)] as part of their prokaryotic genome sequencing projects. The CharProtDB has been expanded by import of selected
records from publicly available protein collections whose biocuration indicated direct rather than homology-based assignment
of function. Annotations in CharProtDB include gene name, symbol and various controlled vocabulary terms, including Gene Ontology
terms, Enzyme Commission number and TransportDB accession. Each annotation is referenced with the source; ideally a journal
reference, or, if imported and lacking one, the original database source.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Nucleic Acids Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mauve alignment of the four Pseudomonas aeruginosa genomes PA7, PAO1, PA14 and LESB58. The height of the column alignment entropy bars show the degree of variation between conserved genes in these strains.
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[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phylogenetic trees based on the MLST schema genes for (A) AcsA, (B) AroE, (C) GuaA, (D) MutL, (E) NuoD, (F) PpsA and (G) TrpE respectively. These Neighbor-Joining gene trees were generated from protein sequences aligned with ClustalX outgrouped with homologs from Vibrio cholerae N16961 except for NuoD, which uses the Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 homolog as there isn't one in V. cholerae N16961. The outer nodes are labeled with Uniprot codes. The cluster representing the Pseudomonas aeruginosa species is shown with a vertical bar, P. aeruginosa PA7 is underlined. PSEA7 is PA7, PSEAB is PA14, PSEA8 is LESB58, PSEAE is either PAO1, PA2192, or C3719 (very similar P. aeruginosa members). These genes are used for the MLST schema, and are thus housekeeping genes evenly distributed around the genome, and on that basis reflect the evolutionary history of the genomes. Numbers at the inner nodes are bootstrap values generated from 1000 iterations of the bootstrap procedure.
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[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA7 is a non-respiratory human isolate from Argentina that is multiresistant to antibiotics. We first sequenced gyrA, gyrB, parC, parE, ampC, ampR, and several housekeeping genes and found that PA7 is a taxonomic outlier. We report here the complete sequence of the 6,588,339 bp genome, which has only about 95% overall identity to other strains. PA7 has multiple novel genomic islands and a total of 51 occupied regions of genomic plasticity. These islands include antibiotic resistance genes, parts of transposons, prophages, and a pKLC102-related island. Several PA7 genes not present in PAO1 or PA14 are putative orthologues of other Pseudomonas spp. and Ralstonia spp. genes. PA7 appears to be closely related to the known taxonomic outlier DSM1128 (ATCC9027). PA7 lacks several virulence factors, notably the entire TTSS region corresponding to PA1690-PA1725 of PAO1. It has neither exoS nor exoU and lacks toxA, exoT, and exoY. PA7 is serotype O12 and pyoverdin type II. Preliminary proteomic studies indicate numerous differences with PAO1, some of which are probably a consequence of a frameshift mutation in the mvfR quorum sensing regulatory gene.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pathema (http://pathema.jcvi.org) is one of the eight Bioinformatics Resource Centers (BRCs) funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease
(NIAID) designed to serve as a core resource for the bio-defense and infectious disease research community. Pathema strives
to support basic research and accelerate scientific progress for understanding, detecting, diagnosing and treating an established
set of six target NIAID Category A–C pathogens: Category A priority pathogens; Bacillus anthracis and Clostridium botulinum, and Category B priority pathogens; Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Clostridium perfringens and Entamoeba histolytica. Each target pathogen is represented in one of four distinct clade-specific Pathema web resources and underlying databases
developed to target the specific data and analysis needs of each scientific community. All publicly available complete genome
projects of phylogenetically related organisms are also represented, providing a comprehensive collection of organisms for
comparative analyses. Pathema facilitates the scientific exploration of genomic and related data through its integration with
web-based analysis tools, customized to obtain, display, and compute results relevant to ongoing pathogen research. Pathema
serves the bio-defense and infectious disease research community by disseminating data resulting from pathogen genome sequencing
projects and providing access to the results of inter-genomic comparisons for these organisms.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · Nucleic Acids Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The complete genomes of three strains from the phylum Acidobacteria were compared. Phylogenetic analysis placed them as a unique phylum. They share genomic traits with members of the Proteobacteria, the Cyanobacteria, and the Fungi. The three strains appear to be versatile heterotrophs. Genomic and culture traits indicate the use of carbon sources that span simple sugars to more complex substrates such as hemicellulose, cellulose, and chitin. The genomes encode low-specificity major facilitator superfamily transporters and high-affinity ABC transporters for sugars, suggesting that they are best suited to low-nutrient conditions. They appear capable of nitrate and nitrite reduction but not N(2) fixation or denitrification. The genomes contained numerous genes that encode siderophore receptors, but no evidence of siderophore production was found, suggesting that they may obtain iron via interaction with other microorganisms. The presence of cellulose synthesis genes and a large class of novel high-molecular-weight excreted proteins suggests potential traits for desiccation resistance, biofilm formation, and/or contribution to soil structure. Polyketide synthase and macrolide glycosylation genes suggest the production of novel antimicrobial compounds. Genes that encode a variety of novel proteins were also identified. The abundance of acidobacteria in soils worldwide and the breadth of potential carbon use by the sequenced strains suggest significant and previously unrecognized contributions to the terrestrial carbon cycle. Combining our genomic evidence with available culture traits, we postulate that cells of these isolates are long-lived, divide slowly, exhibit slow metabolic rates under low-nutrient conditions, and are well equipped to tolerate fluctuations in soil hydration.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2009 · Applied and Environmental Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is a major participant in consortia of microorganisms used for the industrial recovery of copper (bioleaching or biomining). It is a chemolithoautrophic, gamma-proteobacterium using energy from the oxidation of iron- and sulfur-containing minerals for growth. It thrives at extremely low pH (pH 1-2) and fixes both carbon and nitrogen from the atmosphere. It solubilizes copper and other metals from rocks and plays an important role in nutrient and metal biogeochemical cycling in acid environments. The lack of a well-developed system for genetic manipulation has prevented thorough exploration of its physiology. Also, confusion has been caused by prior metabolic models constructed based upon the examination of multiple, and sometimes distantly related, strains of the microorganism.
The genome of the type strain A. ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 was sequenced and annotated to identify general features and provide a framework for in silico metabolic reconstruction. Earlier models of iron and sulfur oxidation, biofilm formation, quorum sensing, inorganic ion uptake, and amino acid metabolism are confirmed and extended. Initial models are presented for central carbon metabolism, anaerobic metabolism (including sulfur reduction, hydrogen metabolism and nitrogen fixation), stress responses, DNA repair, and metal and toxic compound fluxes.
Bioinformatics analysis provides a valuable platform for gene discovery and functional prediction that helps explain the activity of A. ferrooxidans in industrial bioleaching and its role as a primary producer in acidic environments. An analysis of the genome of the type strain provides a coherent view of its gene content and metabolic potential.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report here the sequencing and analysis of the genome of the nitrogen-fixing endophyte, Klebsiella pneumoniae 342. Although K. pneumoniae 342 is a member of the enteric bacteria, it serves as a model for studies of endophytic, plant-bacterial associations due to its efficient colonization of plant tissues (including maize and wheat, two of the most important crops in the world), while maintaining a mutualistic relationship that encompasses supplying organic nitrogen to the host plant. Genomic analysis examined K. pneumoniae 342 for the presence of previously identified genes from other bacteria involved in colonization of, or growth in, plants. From this set, approximately one-third were identified in K. pneumoniae 342, suggesting additional factors most likely contribute to its endophytic lifestyle. Comparative genome analyses were used to provide new insights into this question. Results included the identification of metabolic pathways and other features devoted to processing plant-derived cellulosic and aromatic compounds, and a robust complement of transport genes (15.4%), one of the highest percentages in bacterial genomes sequenced. Although virulence and antibiotic resistance genes were predicted, experiments conducted using mouse models showed pathogenicity to be attenuated in this strain. Comparative genomic analyses with the presumed human pathogen K. pneumoniae MGH78578 revealed that MGH78578 apparently cannot fix nitrogen, and the distribution of genes essential to surface attachment, secretion, transport, and regulation and signaling varied between each genome, which may indicate critical divergences between the strains that influence their preferred host ranges and lifestyles (endophytic plant associations for K. pneumoniae 342 and presumably human pathogenesis for MGH78578). Little genome information is available concerning endophytic bacteria. The K. pneumoniae 342 genome will drive new research into this less-understood, but important category of bacterial-plant host relationships, which could ultimately enhance growth and nutrition of important agricultural crops and development of plant-derived products and biofuels.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The dimorphic prosthecate bacteria (DPB) are α-proteobacteria that reproduce in an asymmetric manner rather than by binary
fission and are of interest as simple models of development. Prior to this work, the only member of this group for which genome
sequence was available was the model freshwater organism Caulobacter crescentus. Here we describe the genome sequence of Hyphomonas neptunium, a marine member of the DPB that differs from C. crescentus in that H. neptunium uses its stalk as a reproductive structure. Genome analysis indicates that this organism shares more genes with C. crescentus than it does with Silicibacter pomeroyi (a closer relative according to 16S rRNA phylogeny), that it relies upon a heterotrophic strategy utilizing a wide range
of substrates, that its cell cycle is likely to be regulated in a similar manner to that of C. crescentus, and that the outer membrane complements of H. neptunium and C. crescentus are remarkably similar. H. neptunium swarmer cells are highly motile via a single polar flagellum. With the exception of cheY and cheR, genes required for chemotaxis were absent in the H. neptunium genome. Consistent with this observation, H. neptunium swarmer cells did not respond to any chemotactic stimuli that were tested, which suggests that H. neptunium motility is a random dispersal mechanism for swarmer cells rather than a stimulus-controlled navigation system for locating
specific environments. In addition to providing insights into bacterial development, the H. neptunium genome will provide an important resource for the study of other interesting biological processes including chromosome segregation,
polar growth, and cell aging.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2006 · Journal of Bacteriology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coastal aquatic environments are typically more highly productive and dynamic than open ocean ones. Despite these differences, cyanobacteria from the genus Synechococcus are important primary producers in both types of ecosystems. We have found that the genome of a coastal cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. strain CC9311, has significant differences from an open ocean strain, Synechococcus sp. strain WH8102, and these are consistent with the differences between their respective environments. CC9311 has a greater capacity to sense and respond to changes in its (coastal) environment. It has a much larger capacity to transport, store, use, or export metals, especially iron and copper. In contrast, phosphate acquisition seems less important, consistent with the higher concentration of phosphate in coastal environments. CC9311 is predicted to have differences in its outer membrane lipopolysaccharide, and this may be characteristic of the speciation of some cyanobacterial groups. In addition, the types of potentially horizontally transferred genes are markedly different between the coastal and open ocean genomes and suggest a more prominent role for phages in horizontal gene transfer in oligotrophic environments.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2006 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clostridium perfringens is a Gram-positive, anaerobic spore-forming bacterium commonly found in soil, sediments, and the human gastrointestinal tract. C. perfringens is responsible for a wide spectrum of disease, including food poisoning, gas gangrene (clostridial myonecrosis), enteritis necroticans, and non-foodborne gastrointestinal infections. The complete genome sequences of Clostridium perfringens strain ATCC 13124, a gas gangrene isolate and the species type strain, and the enterotoxin-producing food poisoning strain SM101, were determined and compared with the published C. perfringens strain 13 genome. Comparison of the three genomes revealed considerable genomic diversity with >300 unique "genomic islands" identified, with the majority of these islands unusually clustered on one replichore. PCR-based analysis indicated that the large genomic islands are widely variable across a large collection of C. perfringens strains. These islands encode genes that correlate to differences in virulence and phenotypic characteristics of these strains. Significant differences between the strains include numerous novel mobile elements and genes encoding metabolic capabilities, strain-specific extracellular polysaccharide capsule, sporulation factors, toxins, and other secreted enzymes, providing substantial insight into this medically important bacterial pathogen.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anaplasma (formerly Ehrlichia) phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and Neorickettsia (formerly Ehrlichia) sennetsu are intracellular vector-borne pathogens that cause human ehrlichiosis, an emerging infectious disease. We present the complete genome sequences of these organisms along with comparisons to other organisms in the Rickettsiales order. Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma spp. display a unique large expansion of immunodominant outer membrane proteins facilitating antigenic variation. All Rickettsiales have a diminished ability to synthesize amino acids compared to their closest free-living relatives. Unlike members of the Rickettsiaceae family, these pathogenic Anaplasmataceae are capable of making all major vitamins, cofactors, and nucleotides, which could confer a beneficial role in the invertebrate vector or the vertebrate host. Further analysis identified proteins potentially involved in vacuole confinement of the Anaplasmataceae, a life cycle involving a hematophagous vector, vertebrate pathogenesis, human pathogenesis, and lack of transovarial transmission. These discoveries provide significant insights into the biology of these obligate intracellular pathogens.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report here the sequencing and analysis of the genome of the thermophilic bacterium Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans Z-2901. This species is a model for studies of hydrogenogens, which are diverse bacteria and archaea that grow anaerobically utilizing carbon monoxide (CO) as their sole carbon source and water as an electron acceptor, producing carbon dioxide and hydrogen as waste products. Organisms that make use of CO do so through carbon monoxide dehydrogenase complexes. Remarkably, analysis of the genome of C. hydrogenoformans reveals the presence of at least five highly differentiated anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenase complexes, which may in part explain how this species is able to grow so much more rapidly on CO than many other species. Analysis of the genome also has provided many general insights into the metabolism of this organism which should make it easier to use it as a source of biologically produced hydrogen gas. One surprising finding is the presence of many genes previously found only in sporulating species in the Firmicutes Phylum. Although this species is also a Firmicutes, it was not known to sporulate previously. Here we show that it does sporulate and because it is missing many of the genes involved in sporulation in other species, this organism may serve as a "minimal" model for sporulation studies. In addition, using phylogenetic profile analysis, we have identified many uncharacterized gene families found in all known sporulating Firmicutes, but not in any non-sporulating bacteria, including a sigma factor not known to be involved in sporulation previously.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of efficient and inexpensive genome sequencing methods has revolutionized the study of human bacterial pathogens and improved vaccine design. Unfortunately, the sequence of a single genome does not reflect how genetic variability drives pathogenesis within a bacterial species and also limits genome-wide screens for vaccine candidates or for antimicrobial targets. We have generated the genomic sequence of six strains representing the five major disease-causing serotypes of Streptococcus agalactiae, the main cause of neonatal infection in humans. Analysis of these genomes and those available in databases showed that the S. agalactiae species can be described by a pan-genome consisting of a core genome shared by all isolates, accounting for approximately 80% of any single genome, plus a dispensable genome consisting of partially shared and strain-specific genes. Mathematical extrapolation of the data suggests that the gene reservoir available for inclusion in the S. agalactiae pan-genome is vast and that unique genes will continue to be identified even after sequencing hundreds of genomes.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2005 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola, a gram-negative bacterial plant pathogen, is the causal agent of halo blight of bean. In this study, we
report on the genome sequence of P. syringae pv. phaseolicola isolate 1448A, which encodes 5,353 open reading frames (ORFs) on one circular chromosome (5,928,787 bp)
and two plasmids (131,950 bp and 51,711 bp). Comparative analyses with a phylogenetically divergent pathovar, P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000, revealed a strong degree of conservation at the gene and genome levels. In total, 4,133 ORFs were identified
as putative orthologs in these two pathovars using a reciprocal best-hit method, with 3,941 ORFs present in conserved, syntenic
blocks. Although these two pathovars are highly similar at the physiological level, they have distinct host ranges; 1448A
causes disease in beans, and DC3000 is pathogenic on tomato and Arabidopsis. Examination of the complement of ORFs encoding virulence, fitness, and survival factors revealed a substantial, but not
complete, overlap between these two pathovars. Another distinguishing feature between the two pathovars is their distinctive
sets of transposable elements. With access to a fifth complete pseudomonad genome sequence, we were able to identify 3,567
ORFs that likely comprise the core Pseudomonas genome and 365 ORFs that are P. syringae specific.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2005 · Journal of Bacteriology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The completion of the 5,373,180-bp genome sequence of the marine psychrophilic bacterium Colwellia psychrerythraea 34H, a model for the study of life in permanently cold environments, reveals capabilities important to carbon and nutrient cycling, bioremediation, production of secondary metabolites, and cold-adapted enzymes. From a genomic perspective, cold adaptation is suggested in several broad categories involving changes to the cell membrane fluidity, uptake and synthesis of compounds conferring cryotolerance, and strategies to overcome temperature-dependent barriers to carbon uptake. Modeling of three-dimensional protein homology from bacteria representing a range of optimal growth temperatures suggests changes to proteome composition that may enhance enzyme effectiveness at low temperatures. Comparative genome analyses suggest that the psychrophilic lifestyle is most likely conferred not by a unique set of genes but by a collection of synergistic changes in overall genome content and amino acid composition.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2005 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 is a plant commensal bacterium that inhabits the rhizosphere and produces secondary metabolites that suppress soilborne plant pathogens. The complete sequence of the 7.1-Mb Pf-5 genome was determined. We analyzed repeat sequences to identify genomic islands that, together with other approaches, suggested P. fluorescens Pf-5's recent lateral acquisitions include six secondary metabolite gene clusters, seven phage regions and a mobile genomic island. We identified various features that contribute to its commensal lifestyle on plants, including broad catabolic and transport capabilities for utilizing plant-derived compounds, the apparent ability to use a diversity of iron siderophores, detoxification systems to protect from oxidative stress, and the lack of a type III secretion system and toxins found in related pathogens. In addition to six known secondary metabolites produced by P. fluorescens Pf-5, three novel secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters were also identified that may contribute to the biocontrol properties of P. fluorescens Pf-5.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2005 · Nature Biotechnology