A Nerlich

Klinikum Bogenhausen, München, Bavaria, Germany

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Publications (317)1063.45 Total impact

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Forensic Sciences
  • Raffaella Bianucci · Adauto Araujo · Carsten M Pusch · Andreas G Nerlich
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    ABSTRACT: The comprehensive analysis of human remains from various places and time periods, either by immunological or molecular approaches, provide circumstantial evidence that malaria tropica haunted mankind at least since dynastic ancient Egypt. Here we summarize the "actual state-of-the-art" of these bio-molecular investigations and offer a solid basis for the discussion of the paleopathology of malaria in human history.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Acta tropica
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    ABSTRACT: The monastery of Attel, Upper Bavaria, which was founded in AD 1030, harbours a series of crypt burials from the time period between AD 1700 and 1750. Due to a restoration of the church, 16 crypts had to be removed and were subjected to an extensive anthropological-paleopathological and isotope analysis. The 16 crypts contained 19 burials in open wooden coffins. All bodies were covered by an extensive layer of calcium carbonate. Despite this "treatment," bone and teeth were excellently preserved (mean degree of conservation > 75%, completeness > 85%). The anthropological investigation revealed a mean age of 38.5 years and a body height of 1.71 m. Paleopathologically, a surprisingly high rate of trauma was seen (13 injuries in 7 different individuals, i.e., 36.8% of individuals affected), 2 cases presented signs of extensive arthritis urica (gout), and several monks were affected by arthrosis of shoulder and knee joints. Extensive dental attrition, numerous foci of dental caries, and dentogenic abscesses coincided with considerable dental calculus indicating poor oral hygienic conditions. Stable isotope analysis showed adequate mixed carnivore-herbivore nutrition, comparable to that of contemporaneous upper class individuals. This extensive combined analysis provides considerable insight into the nutrition and disease pattern of a middle-class monastery of early 18th century South Germany.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015
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    Christina Grove · Oliver Peschel · Andreas G. Nerlich
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    ABSTRACT: The application of histology to soft tissue remains offers an important technique to obtain diagnostically important information on various physiological and pathological conditions in paleopathology. In a series of 29 cases with mummified tissue ranging between 16 months and c. 5.200 years of postmortem time interval, we systematically investigated paleohistology and the preservation of various tissues. We established a reproducible histological ranking system for the evaluation of mummified tissue preservation. The application of this scheme to the series showed good tissue preservation of tissues with high connective tissue content but also fat tissue and connective tissue rich organs, such as lung tissue, while most other internal organs were less well preserved despite highly different postmortem time intervals. There are some organs with only poor conservation even in short term periods such as the kidneys and CNS. Artificial mummification does not provide better conservation than naturally mummified tissues; “cold” mummies may be much better conserved than those from desert areas. The identification of specific pathologies underlines the potential power of paleohistology.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Ancient Egyptian mummies represent a powerful source of information on past diseases. Here we report on the cause of death of Nebiri, Chief of the Stables under the reign of Thutmoses III. His plundered tomb (QV30) was discovered by E. Schiaparelli between February and March 1904. Only the head (S.5109) and the canopic chest (S.5110, S.5111/02, S.5112, S.5113) were preserved and are currently housed at Turin’s Fondazione Museo delle Antichità Egizie. Multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCT) showed that Nebiri was middle aged - 45 to 60 years old- when he died and that he was affected by a severe periodontal disease with several abscesses. There is evidence of calcification in the right internal carotid artery. A 3 dimensional brain surface reconstruction showed a strong asymmetry in the vascularisation and shape of both hemispheres, especially level with the anterior and middle meningeal vessels although no major pathologic alterations of the outer meninges could be pinpointed. Conversely, based on the presence of small aggregates of hemosiderin containing “heart-failure” cells and pulmonary oedema, it can be confidently concluded that Nebiri died from an acute cardiac failure after having experienced a chronic cardiac insufficiency. Evidence of vascular disease, often associated, with hypertension is provided.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Aug 2015
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    DESCRIPTION: In autumn 2010 and spring 2011 German Archaeological Institute, Cairo and the Free University of Berlin undertook a small test excavation in the so-called workmen's village south of the Red Pyramid. Further research was done on the lower causeway of the Bent Pyramid. A detailed study of the pottery resulted in the dating of the two building phases within the Old Kingdom. The sand in the wadi of the Bent Pyramid gradually accumulated starting already in the Old Kingdom and continuing until the New Kingdom. New Kingdom pottery within a limestone sledgeway allows to fix the date of the dismantling of the lower temple of the Bent Pyramid to the late 18th Dynasty or to the Ramesside Period. Three recently discovered relief fragments from the lower temple of the Bent Pyramid are discussed and offer additional information to the understanding of the decoration of the lower temple of the Bent Pyramid.
    Full-text · Research · Jun 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The paleopathological analysis of a well-preserved young adult female skeleton from the AD 7-8th century (Avar Age) in Hungary revealed multiple lytic lesions in all of the thoracic and lumbar vertebral bodies. The lesions were characterized by smooth marginal zones and space-occupying mass appearance. The considerable loss of spongy bone in the thoracolumbar vertebrae resulted in angular deformity and fusion, characteristic of the healing stage of TB. Osteolytic lesions were also observed on the vertebral processes, ribs and sternum. On the endocranial surface, abnormal blood vessel impressions were revealed, indicating some kind of meningitis. The X-ray and CT analysis of the affected bones detected abnormal structures and cystic zones of destruction. The lesions were however not always bordered by areas of increased density, which is typical in cystic TB. Vertebral remains were also subjected to biomolecular analysis in two different laboratories, which attested the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) DNA and supported the paleopathological diagnosis of TB. Spoligotyping analysis confirmed the presence of MTBC DNA and more specifically an infection caused by bacteria belonging to the M. tuberculosis lineage. This case study provides new data for the paleoepidemiology of TB in this geographical area and historical period, and draws attention to the great variability of TB lesions in the human skeleton. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Tuberculosis
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    ABSTRACT: Trichuris trichiura is a soil-transmitted helminth which is prevalent in warm, moist, tropical and subtropical regions of the world with poor sanitation. Heavy whipworm can result either in Trichuris dysenteric syndrome - especially in children - or in a chronic colitis. In heavy infections, worms can spread proximally and may cause ileitis. Here we provide first microscopic evidence for a T. trichiura adult worm embedded in the rectum of a post-Colonial Brazilian adult mummy. During Colonial and post-Colonial times, many European chroniclers described a parasitic disease named Maculo whose symptomatology coincides with heavy helminthiasis. Based on our findings and on comparison of ancient textual evidence with modern description of heavy whipworm, we feel confident in considering that the two syndromes are expressions of the same pathological condition.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
  • G W Omlor · A G Nerlich · U K Tirlapur · J P Urban · T Guehring
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Embryonic notochordal disc nucleus cells (NC) have been identified to protect disc tissue against disc degeneration but in human beings NC phenotype gets lost with aging and the pathophysiological mechanisms are poorly understood. NC may stimulate other cells via soluble factors, and NC-conditioned medium can be used to stimulate matrix production of other disc cells and mesenchymal stem cells and thus may be of special interest for biological disc repair. As this stimulatory effect is associated with the NC phenotype, we investigated how cell morphology and gene-expression of the NC phenotype changes with time in 3D-cell culture.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: The paleopathological, paleoradiological, histological, molecular and forensic investigation of a female mummy (radiocarbon dated 1451-1642 AD) provides circumstantial evidence for massive skull trauma affecting a young adult female individual shortly before death along with chronic infection by Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease). The mummy (initially assumed to be a German bog body) was localized by stable isotope analysis to South America at/near the Peruvian/Northern Chilean coast line. This is further supported by New World camelid fibers attached to her plaits, typical Inca-type skull deformation and the type of Wormian bone at her occiput. Despite an only small transverse wound of the supraorbital region computed tomography scans show an almost complete destruction of face and frontal skull bones with terrace-like margins, but without evidence for tissue reaction. The type of destruction indicates massive blunt force applied to the center of the face. Stable isotope analysis indicates South American origin: Nitrogen and hydrogen isotope patterns indicate an extraordinarily high marine diet along with C4-plant alimentation which fits best to the coastal area of Pacific South America. A hair strand over the last ten months of her life indicates a shift to a more "terrestric" nutrition pattern suggesting either a move from the coast or a change in her nutrition. Paleoradiology further shows extensive hypertrophy of the heart muscle and a distended large bowel/rectum. Histologically, in the rectum wall massive fibrosis alternates with residual smooth muscle. The latter contains multiple inclusions of small intracellular parasites as confirmed by immunohistochemical and molecular ancient DNA analysis to represent a chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection. This case shows a unique paleopathological setting with massive blunt force trauma to the skull nurturing the hypothesis of a ritual homicide as previously described in South American mummies in an individual that suffered from severe chronic Chagas disease.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic inflammation is a major risk factor for the development and metastatic progression of cancer. We have previously reported that the chemopreventive polyphenol Curcumin inhibits the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines CXCL1 and -2 leading to diminished formation of breast and prostate cancer metastases. In the present study, we have analyzed the effects of Curcumin on miRNA expression and its correlation to the anti-tumorigenic properties of this natural occurring polyphenol. Using microarray miRNA expression analyses, we show here that Curcumin modulates the expression of a series of miRNAs, including miR181b, in metastatic breast cancer cells. Interestingly, we found that miR181b down-modulates CXCL1 and -2 through a direct binding to their 3'-UTR. Overexpression or inhibition of miR181b in metastatic breast cancer cells has a significant impact on CXCL1 and -2 and is required for the effect of Curcumin on these two cytokines. miR181b also mediates the effects of Curcumin on inhibition of proliferation and invasion as well as induction of apoptosis. Importantly, over-expression of miR181b in metastatic breast cancer cells inhibits metastasis formation in vivo in immunodeficient mice. Finally, we demonstrated that Curcumin up-regulates miR181b and down-regulates CXCL1 and -2 in cells isolated from several primary human breast cancers. Taken together, these data show that Curcumin provides a simple bridge to bring metastamir modulation into the clinic, placing it in a primary and tertiary preventive, as well as a therapeutic, setting.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Molecular oncology
  • Kais Hussein · Ekatrina Matin · Andreas G Nerlich
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    ABSTRACT: Modern paleopathology is a multidisciplinary field of research which involves archaeology, medicine and biology. The most common diseases of Ancient Egypt were traumatic injuries, malaria and tuberculosis. Exemplarily, an internistic and trauma surgery case of that time is reviewed: Pharaoh Tutankhamun (ca. 1330-1324 B.C.). Summarising all findings which have been collected between 1922 and 2010, including computed tomography and molecular pathology, a diversity of disease is verifiable: (1) chronic/degenerative diseases (mild kyphoscoliosis, pes planus and hypophalangism of the right foot, bone necrosis of metatarsal bones II-III of the left foot); (2) inflammatory disease (malaria tropica, verified by PCR analysis) and (3) acute trauma (complex fracture of the right knee shortly before death). The most likely cause of death is the severe acute knee fracture and/or the malaria, while a suspected eighteenth dynasty syndrome cannot be proven.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin
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    ABSTRACT: We applied, for the first time, next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology on Egyptian mummies. Seven NGS datasets obtained from five randomly selected Third Intermediate to Graeco-Roman Egyptian mummies (806 BC-124AD) and two unearthed pre-contact Bolivian lowland skeletons were generated and characterised. The datasets were contrasted to three recently published NGS datasets obtained from cold-climate regions, i.e. the Saqqaq, the Denisova hominid and the Alpine Iceman. Analysis was done using one million reads of each newly generated or published dataset. Blastn and megablast results were analysed using MEGAN software. Distinct NGS results were replicated by specific and sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocols in ancient DNA dedicated laboratories. Here, we provide unambiguous identification of authentic DNA in Egyptian mummies. The NGS datasets showed variable contents of endogenous DNA harboured in tissues. Three of five mummies displayed a human DNA proportion comparable to the human read count of the Saqqaq permafrost-preserved specimen. Furthermore, a metagenomic signature unique to mummies was displayed. By applying a "bacterial fingerprint", discrimination among mummies and other remains from warm areas outside Egypt was possible. Due to the absence of an adequate environment monitoring, a bacterial bloom was identified when analysing different biopsies from the same mummies taken after a lapse of time of 1.5 years. Plant kingdom representation in all mummy datasets was unique and could be partially associated with their use in embalming materials. Finally, NGS data showed the presence of Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii DNA sequences, indicating malaria and toxoplasmosis in these mummies. We demonstrate that endogenous ancient DNA can be extracted from mummies and serve as a proper template for the NGS technique, thus, opening new pathways of investigation for future genome sequencing of ancient Egyptian individuals.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Journal of applied genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Due to the presence of the lake Quarun and to the particular nature of its irrigation system, it has been speculated that the Fayum, a large depression 80 kilometers south- west of modern Cairo, was exposed to the hazards of malaria in historic times. Similarly, it has been speculated that, in the same area, also human tuberculosis might have been far more widespread in the antiquity than in its recent past. If these hypotheses were confirmed, it would imply that frequent cases of co-infection between the two pathogens might have occurred in ancient populations. To substantiate those speculations, molecular analyses were carried out on sixteen mummified heads recovered from the necropolis of Abusir el Meleq (Fayum) dating from the 3(rd) Intermediate Period (1064- 656 BC) to the Roman Period (30 BC- 300 AD). Soft tissue biopsies were used for DNA extractions and PCR amplifications using well-suited protocols. A partial 196-bp fragment of Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 gene and a 123-bp fragment of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex insertion sequence IS6110 were amplified and sequenced in six and five of the sixteen specimens, respectively. A 100% concordance rates between our sequences and those of P. falciparum and M. tuberculosis complex ones were obtained. Lastly, concomitant PCR amplification of P. falciparum and M. tuberculosis complex DNA specific fragments was obtained in four mummies, three of which are (14) C dated to the Late and Graeco-Roman Periods. Our data confirm that the hydrography of Fayum was extremely conducive to the spread of malaria. They also support the notion that the agricultural boom and dense crowding occurred in this region, especially under the Ptolemies, highly increased the probability for the manifestation and spread of tuberculosis. Here we extend back-wards to ca. 800 BC new evidence for malaria tropica and human tuberculosis co-occurrence in ancient Lower Egypt.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    Andreas G Nerlich · Beatrice E Bachmeier
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    ABSTRACT: The use of cell lines in cancer research is strongly dependent on the avoidance of contaminations, the correct attribution of a cell line to the initial primary tumor and stability. Previous studies have identified expression of melanocytic molecular markers in the widely used breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-435. In the present study the three breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435, were systematically analyzed for mRNA and protein expression of major epithelial (cytokeratin isoforms), mammary (mammaglobin) and melanocytic (melan A and S100-protein) markers. Protein expression was identified by immunocytochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine mRNA levels. While MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells unambiguously revealed an epithelial/mammary phenotype, MDA-MB-435 cells were found to exhibit epithelial/mammary and melanocytic features dependent on cell density. Subconfluent cells demonstrated epithelial characteristics only, however, densely growing, confluent cells also expressed melanocytic markers. Consistent with gain of melanocytic features, the expression levels of mammaglobin mRNA decreased in these cells. These results indicate that the three cell lines are primarily of epithelial phenotype, however, MDA-MB-435 cells revealed lineage infidelity in dense cultures with a gain in melanocytic phenotype. These characteristics must be taken into consideration when analyzing cancer-relevant genes and their expression profiles in vitro.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Oncology letters
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    Full-text · Dataset · Feb 2013

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Forschende Komplementarmedizin
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    Bianucci r · Giuffra V · Bachmeier BE · Ball M · Pusch CM · Fornaciari G · A.G. Nerlich
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical reports imply that, from the age of 28, Eleonora of Toledo (1522- 17th December 1562), the wife of Cosimo I de’Medici, developed pulmonary tuberculosis, which together with an outbreak of pernicious malaria, killed her at the age of 40. Eleonora’s autopsy indicated that she had severe lung lesions consistent with chronic pulmonary infection. In order to clarify the disease status, we performed paleomolecular investigations. Our results identified ancient DNA of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex together with an infection by Leishmania infantum. Our data are of particular interest since in Tuscany the endemic foci of L. infantum are widely distributed and overlapped with those of malaria prior to its eradication. Although we can only speculate on Eleonora’s true state of health, our clear evidence of long- term co-infections with MTB and VL are major medical and biological interest since the co-evolution of the two pathogens and the host- pathogen interactions in co-infected individuals are still not fully understood.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012
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    ABSTRACT: Egyptology relies on traditional descriptive methods. Here we show that modern, Internet-based science and statistical methods can be applied to Egyptology. Two four-thousand-year-old sarcophagi in one tomb, one within the other, with skeletal remains of a woman, gave us the opportunity to diagnose a congenital nervous system disorder in the absence of a living nervous system. The sarcophagi were discovered near Thebes, Egypt. They were well preserved and meticulously restored. The skeletal remains suggested that the woman, aged between 50 and 60 years, was Black, possibly of Nubian descent and suffered from syringobulbia, a congenital cyst in the brain stem and upper spinal cord. We employed crowd sourcing, the anonymous responses of 204 Facebook users who performed a matching task of living persons' iris color with iris color of the Udjat eyes, a decoration found on Egyptian sarcophagi, to confirm the ethnicities of the sarcophagus occupants. We used modern fMRI techniques to illustrate the putative extent of her lesion in the brain stem and upper spinal cord deduced from her skeletal remains. We compared, statistically, the right/left ratios, a non-dimensional number, of the orbit height, orbit width, malar height and the infraorbital foramena with the same measures obtained from 32 ancient skulls excavated from the Fayum, North of Thebes. We found that these ratios were significantly different in this skull indicating atrophy of cranial bones on the left. In this instance, Internet science and the use of modern neurologic research tools showed that ancient sarcophagus makers shaped and decorated their wares to fit the ethnicity of the prospective occupants of the sarcophagi. We also showed that, occasionally, human nervous system disease may be recognizable in the absence of a living nervous system.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: In America and Western Europe prostate cancer is the second leading cause of death in men. Emerging evidence suggests that chronic inflammation is a major risk factor for the development and metastatic progression of prostate cancer.We previously reported that the chemopreventive polyphenol Curcumin inhibits the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines CXCL1 and -2 leading to diminished formation of breast cancer metastases. Here we analyse the effects of Curcumin on prostate carcinoma growth, apoptosis and metastasis. We show that Curcumin inhibits translocation of NFκB to the nucleus through the inhibition of the IκB-kinase, IKKβ, leading to stabilization of the inhibitor of NFκB, IκBα, in PC3 prostate carcinoma cells. Inhibition of NFκB activity reduces expression of CXCL1 and -2 and abolishes the autocrine/paracrine loop that links the two chemokines to NFκB. The combination of Curcumin with the synthetic IKKβ inhibitor, SC-541, shows no additive or synergistic effects indicating that the two compounds share the target. Treatment of the cells with Curcumin as wells as siRNA based knock-down of CXCL1 and -2 induce apoptosis, inhibit proliferation, and down-regulate several important metastasis-promoting factors like COX2, SPARC, and EFEMP. In an orthotopic mouse model of haematogenous metastasis, treatment with Curcumin inhibits statistically significantly formation of lung metastases.In conclusion, chronic inflammation can induce a metastasis prone phenotype in prostate cancer cells by maintaining a positive pro-inflammatory and pro-metastatic feed-back loop between NFκB and CXCL1/-2. Curcumin disrupts this feed-back loop by the inhibition of NFκB signalling leading to reduced metastasis formation in vivo.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · Carcinogenesis

Publication Stats

8k Citations
1,063.45 Total Impact Points


  • 2006-2015
    • Klinikum Bogenhausen
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2002-2011
    • University of Zurich
      • Center for Applied Biotechnology and Molecular Medicine - CABMM
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
    • University of Iowa
      Iowa City, Iowa, United States
  • 2010
    • Academy of Fine Arts Munich
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1992-2010
    • Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich
      • • Institute of Laboratory Medicine
      • • Institute of Pathology
      München, Bavaria, Germany
    • Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg
      Erlangen, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2008
    • University of Minnesota Duluth
      Duluth, Minnesota, United States
  • 2005
    • Universität Augsburg
      Augsberg, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2003
    • Uniklinik Balgrist
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 1987-2002
    • University Hospital München
      München, Bavaria, Germany
    • Hannover Medical School
      Hanover, Lower Saxony, Germany
  • 2001
    • The Australian Society of Otolaryngology Head & Neck Surgery
      Evans Head, New South Wales, Australia
  • 1991-1998
    • Technische Universität München
      München, Bavaria, Germany
    • Pathologisches Institut Bremerhaven
      Bremerhaven, Bremen, Germany
    • Max von Pettenkofer-Institut
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1995
    • University of Bonn
      Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 1993
    • Universitätsklinikum Erlangen
      • Institute of Pathology
      Erlangen, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1984-1989
    • Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry
      München, Bavaria, Germany