S Holtås

Lund University, Lund, Skåne, Sweden

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Publications (146)360 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was assessed using dynamic susceptibility-contrast MRI at 1.5 T. A simultaneous dual FLASH pulse sequence and Gd-DTPA-BMA (0.3 mmol/kg b.w.) were used for examination of 43 volunteers, measuring rCBF in frontal white matter (WM) and in gray matter in the thalamus (GM). Arterial input functions (AIFs) were registered 1) in the carotid artery and 2) in an artery within the GM/WM slice. The measured concentration-vs.-time curve was deconvolved with the AIF using both Fourier Transform (FT) and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). Relative rCBF was given by the height of the deconvolved response curve. For each volunteer, eight different rCBF maps were calculated, representing different combinations of deconvolution techniques, AIFs, and filters. The average GM–WM rCBF ratios ranged from 2.0–2.2, depending on methodology. Absolute rCBF was 68 ± 28 ml/(min 100 g) in GM and 35 ± 13 ml/(min 100g) in WM (mean ± SD, n = 39). GM–WM rCBF ratios obtained using SVD were 6–10% higher than corresponding ratios obtained using FT. Magn Reson Med 43:691–700, 2000. © 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2000 · Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to establish if repeated quantitative 201Tl SPET scanning during follow-up of astrocytoma therapy can provide information that is relevant for clinical management. Sixteen consecutive patients, with histopathologically verified highly malignant astrocytoma, were followed during PCV chemotherapy. Imaging with 201Tl SPET and CT was performed repeatedly over 8-16 weeks until treatment discontinuation, with a maximum follow-up of 74 weeks. Tumour uptake volume (TUV), a measure of metabolically active tumour tissue, was calculated from the SPET images. The reliability of early identification of treatment failure, defined as > 25% tumour volume increase, following one course (week 8) and three courses (week 24) of chemotherapy, was calculated for the two imaging methods. 201Tl SPET positive patients (> 25% tumour volume increase) were compared with 201Tl SPET negative patients in terms of time to treatment discontinuation (TTD) and survival time (ST). The patients were followed with a total of 59 SPET examinations, and treatment was continued for a median 27 weeks (range 16-78 weeks). The comparative reliability of SPET and CT showed the highest sensitivity and accuracy for SPET in the early identification of astrocytoma treatment failure at the week 24 assessment. Patients with positive 201Tl SPET after three courses of chemotherapy had a significantly reduced TTD (P = 0.040) but not significantly reduced ST. Of the ten patients who received concomitant radiation and chemotherapy, five had a small (0-10 ml) TUV at the week 24 assessment. Patients with a TUV > 10 ml at this assessment had a shorter TTD (P = 0.016) and a reduced ST (P = 0.024) compared to patients with a TUV < 10 ml. In conclusion, the assessment of progressive disease by quantitative 201Tl SPET appears to provide information on treatment response, earlier and with a higher reliability than CT. Repeated 201Tl SPET scanning during follow-up of astrocytoma treatment is an alternative tool for the early identification of treatment failure.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2000 · Nuclear Medicine Communications
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate if patients with acute lacunar syndromes have acute lacunar infarcts or other types of cerebral lesions on diffusion-weighted MRI. Patients with acute lacunar syndromes underwent echo-planar diffusion MRI of the brain within 3 days after stroke onset. Localization and size of lesions with hyperintense signal were determined, compared with clinical characteristics and with findings on follow-up T2-weighted MRI. Twenty-three patients participated in the study. Thirteen patients had pure motor stroke, 1 pure sensory stroke, 8 sensorimotor stroke, and 1 ataxic hemiparesis. Twenty-two patients had at least one lesion with increased signal on diffusion-weighted MR images. These acute lesions were in the internal capsule/ basal ganglia/thalamus in 13 patients, subcortical white matter in 5 patients, brainstem in 2 patients, cortex (multiple small lesions) in 1 patient, and cortex + basal ganglia in 1 patient. The median volume of the lesions was 0.6 ml on the initial examination and on follow-up, of 17 patients after 1 to 5 months, 0.5 ml. Almost all patients with acute ischemic lacunar syndromes have acute lesions on echo-planar diffusion-weighted MRI within 3 days after stroke onset. These lesions are mostly small and subcortical, compatible with lacunar infarcts caused by single penetrating artery occlusion, but in a minor proportion of patients (2 of 23 in our study) a cortical involvement is found.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2000 · Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
  • K Kallén · I M Burtscher · S Holtås · E Ryding · I Rosén
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    ABSTRACT: To compare chemotherapy treatment monitoring in astrocytoma by 201thallium single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and photon magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to evaluate the influence of morphological tumor changes on cerebral 201thallium uptake and metabolic changes in 1H-MRS. Six patients with highly malignant astrocytomas were followed with quantitative 201thallium SPECT, MRI, and 1H-MRS during chemotherapy. Maximum follow-up included six examinations per patient by either method during 18 months. Criteria were set for: (1) regression (> or = 25% tumor reduction), (2) status quo (< 25% reduction and < 25% increase), and (3) progression of disease (> or = 25% tumor increase). Results were compared with the clinical state of disease. Changes of tumor volume, contrast enhancement, necrosis, hemorrhage and edema on MRI were compared to changes in 201thallium uptake volumes and 1H-MRS metabolite ratios. Six patients were followed with a total of twenty-four examinations with 201thallium SPECT, MRI and 1H-MRS, respectively, between February 1997 and October 1998. Five patients developed clinical progression of disease, 4 out of 5 cases showed SPECT progression, 4 out of 5 cases MRI progression, and 1 out of 2 interpretable cases 1H-MRS progression at final assessment before clinical deterioration. During the phase of clinically stable disease; (A) the criterion for regression or status quo was met in 10 out of 13 assessments with SPECT, 11 out of 13 with MRI, and 8 out of 9 interpretable 1H-MRS; (B) the criterion for progression was met in 3 out of 13 with SPECT, 2 out of 13 with MRI, and 1 out of 9 interpretable 1H-MRS. The accuracy of SPECT, MRI, and 1H-MRS in identifying changes of tumor burden concordant with patients' clinical course was 78%, 83%, and 82%, respectively. SPECT regression was associated with MRI decrease of tumor size, contrast enhancement, edema and hemorrhage. SPECT progression was associated with MRI increase of the same parameters and the increase of necrosis. 1H-MRS regression was associated with decrease of edema. 1H-MRS progression was associated with increase of tumor size, hemorrhage, and increase or decrease of contrast enhancement. Both 201thallium SPECT and 1H-MRS evaluation showed sensitivity for detection of astrocytoma progression. We did not find a higher accuracy of SPECT or MRS than of MRI in astrocytoma chemotherapy monitoring. Treatment induced MRI changes were associated with 201thallium uptake variations. 1H-MRS was difficult to apply for astrocytoma treatment monitoring. Improvements regarding size of measurement area such as multivoxel MRS and fat suppression pulses appeared desirable, and also the use of functional techniques with superior resolution such as dual isotope SPECT. However, our results suggest that 201thallium SPECT and 1H-MRS can provide additional information to MRI for chemotherapy efficacy evaluation in selected cases.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2000 · Journal of Neuro-Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: High blood pressure contributes to organ damage. However, during the past two decades there have been great advances in the medical treatment of hypertension. Technical progress has also made it easier to visualize organ damage. Hence we found it of interest to examine heart, brain and retina in a group of middle-aged treated hypertensives, comparing the results with those from a group of middle-aged normotensives. The subjects were 40 (20 men) treated hypertensives and 40 (20 men) normotensives, who had previously taken part in a study in which ambulatory blood pressure monitoring had been performed. The heart was examined by echocardiography, the retina by photography and the brain by magnetic resonance imaging. Office blood pressure and 24-h systolic/diastolic blood pressure (S/D) were 141/86 (13/7) mmHg and 128/81 (11/6) mmHg in the hypertensives and 125/78 (10/8) mmHg and 118/74 (8/5) mmHg in the normotensives, respectively. Left ventricular mass was 101 (27) g/m2 in the hypertensives and 85 (18) g/m2 in the normotensives (p = 0.0025). The corresponding figures for the left atrium were 21.1 (3.1) mm/m2 in the hypertensives and 19.5 (2.2) mm/m2 in the normotensives (p < 0.001). E/A wave quotient was 1.09 (0.26) in the hypertensives and 1.26 (0.26) in the normotensives (p = 0.0045), while left ventricular systolic function did not differ between the groups. Ten hypertensives and one normotensive subject had left ventricular mass above normal range. Narrow retinal arteries were found in 22 hypertensives and 8 normotensives (p < 0.001). Brain magnetic resonance changes (deep white matter and/or periventricular) were found in 19 hypertensives and 9 normotensives (p = 0.0431). The hypertensives differed significantly from the normotensives concerning left ventricular mass, left atrium, left ventricular diastolic function and retinal vessel changes. Deep white matter and periventricular changes in the brain were also significantly different in the two groups. We can only speculate as to whether earlier antihypertensive treatment or further blood pressure reduction could have affected these differences.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2000 · Blood Pressure
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    ABSTRACT: The greater sensitivity of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) compared with MRI to brain abnormalities in Rasmussen's encephalitis was demonstrated in a 3-year-old boy. The patient, with symptoms, signs and morphological findings consistent with Rasmussen's encephalitis, was followed with MRI and MRS over 30 months. That metabolic changes can be disclosed by MRS before the development of symptoms or signs was demonstrated as pathological spectra were found not only in the diseased left hemisphere but also in the morphologically normal right hemisphere before any neurological disturbance of that side.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2000 · Neuroradiology
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    ABSTRACT: MR imaging has made it easier to distinguish among the different types of intracranial mass lesions. Nevertheless, it is sometimes impossible to base a diagnosis solely on clinical and neuroradiologic findings, and, in these cases, biopsy must be performed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that proton MR spectroscopy is able to improve preoperative diagnostic accuracy in cases of intracranial tumors and may therefore obviate stereotactic biopsy. Twenty-six patients with intracranial tumors underwent MR imaging, proton MR spectroscopy, and stereotactic biopsy. MR spectroscopic findings were evaluated for the distribution pattern of pathologic spectra (NAA/Cho ratio < 1) across the lesion and neighboring tissue, for signal ratios in different tumor types, and for their potential to improve preoperative diagnostic accuracy. Gliomas and lymphomas showed pathologic spectra outside the area of contrast enhancement while four nonastrocytic circumscribed tumors (meningioma, pineocytoma, metastasis, and germinoma) showed no pathologic spectra outside the region of enhancement. No significant correlation was found between different tumor types and signal ratios. MR spectroscopy improved diagnostic accuracy by differentiating infiltrative from circumscribed tumors; however, diagnostic accuracy was not improved in terms of differentiating the types of infiltrative or circumscribed lesions. MR spectroscopy can improve diagnostic accuracy by differentiating circumscribed brain lesions from histologically infiltrating processes, which may be difficult or impossible solely on the basis of clinical or neuroradiologic findings.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2000 · American Journal of Neuroradiology
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    ABSTRACT: A new phantom and evaluation method for experimental evaluation of 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy single volume localization techniques regarding signal contamination (C), defined as the part of the signal originating outside the volume of interest, is presented. The quality assessment method is based on a spherical phantom with an oil/water interface in order to reduce susceptibility effects, and applied for stimulated-echo acquisition method (STEAM) and spin-echo (SE) sequences, echo times of 270, 135, and 10 ms, and cubic volumes of interest (VOI) of 1(3), 1.5(3), 2(3), 2.5(3), and 3(3) cm3. To be able to mimic measurements of the contamination in three dimensions the physical gradients representing the three orthogonal directions for slice selection were shifted in the pulse sequences. Contamination values in one dimension differed between 6.5% and 8.4% in SE sequences, and between 0.7% and 13.8% in STEAM sequences. In STEAM sequences a decrease of C with increasing VOI size was observed while SE sequences showed comparable C values for the different VOI sizes tested. The total contamination in three dimensions were 19% and 18% in SE and STEAM sequences with a TE of 270 ms, and 7% in a STEAM sequence with a TE of 10 ms, respectively. The presented evaluation method is easily applied to the new phantom and showed high reproducibility.
    No preview · Article · Dec 1999 · Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    ABSTRACT: We report the clinical MRI and histopathological features of five consecutive cases of spinal paraganglioma. Three intradural tumours were found in the typical location (two at the L4, one at the S2 level); one intradural extramedullary tumour arose at an unusual level, from the ventral C2 root, and one extradural tumour growing along the L5 nerve root sheath had an aggressive growth pattern with early, local paraspinal recurrence and, eventually, intradural metastatic spread. This type of growth pattern has not been described previously. Paragangliomas of the spinal canal are more common than previously thought and can be located anywhere along the spine, although the lumbosacral level is the most common. Their appearance on MRI can not distinguish them from other tumours in the spinal canal. Even though paragangliomas in general are benign and slowly growing their growth pattern can vary and be more aggressive, to the point of metastatic spread.
    No preview · Article · Nov 1999 · Neuroradiology
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to develop a quantitative method to assess viable tumour based on post-operative 201Tl single photon emission tomography (SPET). We studied 15 patients with histologically defined highly malignant gliomas in the post-operative phase before initiation of adjuvant treatment. A 201Tl index was calculated in two ways: maximal counts versus mean counts within a region of interest (ROI). The tumour uptake volume (TUV) within the lesion was calculated from the number of voxels that had 201Tl uptake above a threshold calculated from the uptake on the contralateral side. The threshold was set at three levels: A = 1.4 times the mean 201Tl uptake in a three-dimensional reference ROI + 96.7% confidence interval (the TUV was corrected by subtraction of the volume in the reference ROI that had uptake above the threshold with compensation for unequal ROI sizes); B = 1.4 times the mean reference ROI + 99% confidence interval; and C = maximum 201Tl uptake in the reference ROI. The SPET results were compared with the tumour volumes calculated from CT scans. Thirteen tumours showed high post-operative 201Tl uptake. The 201Tl index was not significantly correlated with histological grade within the group of highly malignant gliomas. 201Tl SPET tumour uptake volume method B was highly significantly correlated with CT estimated tumour volume. In conclusion, the measurement of post-operative 201Tl SPET tumour uptake volume demonstrates metabolically active glioma tissue and is an alternative method for the monitoring of glioma treatment response.
    No preview · Article · Oct 1999 · Nuclear Medicine Communications
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate any possible effects of brain motion, CSF pulsations and other possible sources of physiological motion in electrocardiographic (ECG) triggered and non-triggered single-shot echo-planar imaging (EPI) measurements of diffusion. Three different triggering protocols were evaluated in 6 healthy volunteers: 1) ECG triggering with time delay (TD) 100 ms; 2) ECG triggering with TD 400 ms; and 3) no triggering at all. The results obtained showed that white matter mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were similar for all triggering protocols and that the reproducibility in ADC measurements using diffusion-weighted (DW) EPI was good. The average standard deviation of the ADC values was, however, higher for ADC maps obtained without ECG triggering. The use of prospective diastolic ECG triggering significantly improves the accuracy of quantitative diffusion measurements but for routine clinical diffusion imaging, where quantitative data is of less importance, the accuracy obtained without ECG triggering can be considered adequate.
    No preview · Article · Jun 1999 · Acta Radiologica
  • Isabella M. Burtscher · Stig Holtås
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    ABSTRACT: MR spectroscopy was performed in three patients with brain abscesses. In two patients, MR spectroscopy revealed end-products of bacterial breakdown (acetate, succinate, amino acids, lactate) in the abscess cysts. In one of these, the spectrum was reversed to a single lactate peak after treatment. In the third patient, MR spectroscopy was performed only after treatment and showed a single nonspecific lactate peak. MR spectroscopy is a potential tool for noninvasive diagnosis of brain abscess and might be useful for evaluating changes after treatment.
    No preview · Article · Jun 1999 · American Journal of Neuroradiology
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    ABSTRACT: To compare conventional MR imaging, echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging (EP-DWI) and spin-echo diffusion-weighted imaging (SE)-DWI at radiological diagnosis of acute stroke. Twenty-seven patients (30-85 years old) were examined. Clinical examination was performed before MR imaging. All MR examinations were assessed by an experienced neuroradiologist blinded to clinical findings. In EP-DWI, every patient had a lesion corresponding to the clinical findings. EP-DWI was used as the gold standard. In conventional PD+T2 imaging, 23/59 focal lesions were interpreted as acute, which was false in 11 lesions, and 36/59 lesions were considered to be old, 6 were in fact acute. Nine acute lesions were only detected retrospectively and 12 acute lesions were not detected at all on PD+T2. SE-DWI including the apparent diffusion coefficient correlated fairly well with EP-DWI but the procedure was impractical. EP-DWI is reliable for diagnosis of early ischemic stroke, while SE-DWI performs reasonably well. Conventional PD+T2 imaging is not reliable for diagnosis of early ischemia.
    No preview · Article · Jun 1999 · Acta Radiologica
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    ABSTRACT: Background The management of unruptured intracranial aneurysms requires knowledge of the natural history of these lesions and the risks of repairing them. Methods A total of 2621 patients at 53 participating centers in the United States, Canada, and Europe were enrolled in the study, which had retrospective and prospective components. In the retrospective component, we assessed the natural history of unruptured intracranial aneurysms in 1449 patients with 1937 such aneurysms; 727 of the patients had no history of subarachnoid hemorrhage from a different aneurysm (group 1), and 722 had a history of subarachnoid hemorrhage from a different aneurysm that had been repaired successfully (group 2). In the prospective component, we assessed treatment-related morbidity and mortality in 1172 patients with newly diagnosed unruptured intracranial aneurysms. Results In group 1, the cumulative rate of rupture of aneurysms that were less than 10 mm in diameter at diagnosis was less than 0.05 percent per year, and in group 2, the rate was approximately 11 times as high (0.5 percent per year). The rupture rate of aneurysms that were 10 mm or more in diameter was less than 1 percent per year in both groups, but in group 1, the rate was 6 percent the first year for giant aneurysms (greater than or equal to 25 mm in diameter). The size and location of the aneurysm were independent predictors of rupture. The overall rate of surgery-related morbidity and mortality was 17.5 percent in group 1 and 13.6 percent in group 2 at 30 days and was 15.7 percent and 13.1 percent, respectively, at 1 year. Age independently predicted surgical outcome. Conclusions The likelihood of rupture of unruptured intracranial aneurysms that were less than 10 mm in diameter was exceedingly low among patients in group 1 and was substantially higher among those in group 2. The risk of morbidity and mortality related to surgery greatly exceeded the 7.5-year risk of rupture among patients in group 1 with unruptured intracranial aneurysms smaller than 10 mm in diameter. (N Engl J Med 1998;339:1725-33.) (C) 1998, Massachusetts Medical Society.
    No preview · Article · Dec 1998 · New England Journal of Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: In this work, we have evaluated the performance of a diffusion-sensitive fast spin-echo (FSE) pulse sequence. The proposed pulse sequence utilises velocity-compensating diffusion-encoding gradients and includes the collection of navigator echoes. Spoiler gradients were inserted in the slice-selecting direction to minimise effects from stimulated echoes. Calculations of the b values showed that cross-terms between imaging gradients and diffusion gradients only led to a marginal increase of b values. Pixel-wise calculation of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps was performed numerically, considering cross-terms between diffusion-encoding and imaging gradients. The sequences investigated used echo train lengths of 16, 8 and 4 echoes and were encoded in either the slice-, frequency- or phase-encoding direction. In order to allow for higher b values a pulse-sequence version using non-motion compensating diffusion-encoding gradients was written. Phantom measurements were performed and the diffusion coefficients of water and acetone were reasonable. Seven healthy volunteers (age 28-50 years) were examined and apparent diffusion coefficient values agreed well with expected values. Diffusion-weighted images, apparent diffusion coefficient maps and images corresponding to the trace of the diffusion tensor of good quality were retrieved in vivo.
    No preview · Article · Nov 1998 · Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • P C Sundgren · G Blennow · E Englund · S Holtås
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the unusual appearance of adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) in MR imaging. An analysis was made of MR findings, histopathology and clinical course in the cases of two brothers with ALD. The older brother presented with frontal contrast-enhanced lesions, including a cyst. These were initially misinterpreted as a tumour at both radiology and pathology. The correct diagnosis was made after the discovery of very-long-chain fatty acids in the blood. The younger brother presented initially with involvement of various segments of the corticospinal tract. It is important that the radiologist be aware of the variants of ALD in MR imaging so as to avoid diagnostic mistakes.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1998 · Acta Radiologica
  • I M Burtscher · T Owman · B Romner · F Ståhlberg · S Holtås
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent to which titanium aneurysm clips could improve the quality of MR imaging compared with stainless steel clips, and to determine whether the clip artifacts could be reduced by controlling certain MR imaging parameters in frequently used pulse sequences. The metal artifacts induced by 3 aneurysm clips were compared in 3 pulse sequences. The clips were: a Yasargil titanium aneurysm clip FT 752 T; a Yasargil standard aneurysm clip FE 752 K; and, for comparison, a ferromagnetic Scoville aneurysm clip En-58J. The pulse sequences were: spin echo (SE); gradient echo (GE); and fast SE. An evaluation was made of 3 imaging parameters with regard to their influence on the size of the metal artifacts. The parameters were: bandwidth; echo time (TE); and echo-train length. The titanium clip showed artifacts that were about 60% smaller than those from the stainless steel clip. The only parameter that influenced artifact size to any major degree was bandwidth in the SE sequences but not in the GE sequences. GE sequences induced larger artifacts than SE sequences and showed larger artifacts with longer TE. Titanium aneurysm clips reduced MR artifacts by approximately 60% compared to stainless steel clips. Artifacts were further reduced by using SE-based sequences with a high bandwidth or, if necessary, GE sequences with a low TE.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1998 · Acta Radiologica
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: the aim of this study was to evaluate the extent to which titanium aneurysm clips could improve the quality of MR imaging compared with stainless steel clips, and to determine whether the clip artifacts could be reduced by controlling certain MR imaging parameters in frequently used pulse sequences
    No preview · Article · Jan 1998 · Acta Radiologica
  • P. C. Sundgren · G. Blennow · E. Englund · S. Holtås
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: to describe the unusual appearance of adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) in MR imaging
    No preview · Article · Jan 1998 · Acta Radiologica
  • I M Burtscher · F Ståhlberg · S Holtås
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the introduction and performance of proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in the daily routine of a modern standard MR unit. Over an 8-month period, 52 patients with brain lesions were studied with 1H-MRS, using SE and STEAM sequences for chemical-shift imaging and single-volume spectroscopy. The quality of the spectra was graded from 1 (best) to 3, and the main factors influencing the quality of the spectra were evaluated. Of the measurements: 85% were graded as 1; 12% as 2; and 3% as 3. The main reasons for poor spectral quality were: the unfortunate positioning of the VOI; hemorrhage; and/or postoperative changes within the VOI. Of 40 patients with a final diagnosis: MRS provided an increased confidence in MR diagnosis in 18 cases; MRS contributed significantly to preoperative diagnosis in 3 cases; and the spectra were not specific (n = 10) or were difficult to evaluate (n = 9) owing to reduced quality (grade 2 or 3) in 19 cases. MRS of the brain can provide a high percentage of interpretable spectra and frequently can increase confidence in the MR diagnosis of brain lesions in clinical routine.
    No preview · Article · Dec 1997 · Acta Radiologica

Publication Stats

3k Citations
360.00 Total Impact Points


  • 1981-2012
    • Lund University
      • • Division of Neurology
      • • Department of Neurosurgery
      • • Department of Hand Surgery
      • • Department of Radiology
      • • Department of Diagnostic Radiology
      • • Department of Orthopaedics
      Lund, Skåne, Sweden
  • 2002
    • King Fahd Military Medical Complex
      Az̧ Z̧ahrān, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia
  • 1996
    • Sahlgrenska University Hospital
      Goeteborg, Västra Götaland, Sweden
  • 1995
    • Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre
      Hvidovre, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 1982
    • Oslo University Hospital
      Kristiania (historical), Oslo, Norway