Abraham Reichenberg

Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, New York, United States

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Publications (211)1350.21 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We conducted meta-analyses of 67 studies on the association between neonatal proxies of impaired gas exchange and intellectual disability (ID) or autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Neonatal acidosis was associated with an odds ratio (OR) of 3.55 [95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 2.23-5.49] for ID and an OR of 1.10 (95 % CI 0.91-1.31) for ASD. Children with a 5-min Apgar score of <7 had an OR of 5.39 (95 % CI 3.84-7.55) for ID and an OR of 1.67 (95 % CI 1.34-2.09) for ASD. O2 treatment was associated with an OR of 4.32 (95 % CI 3.23-5.78) for ID and an OR of 2.02 (95 % CI 1.45 to 2.83) for ASD. Our meta-analysis demonstrates an increased risk of ID and (to a lesser extent) ASD in children with neonatal hypoxia. Moreover, our findings raise the possibility that concomitant ID might account for the observed association between the gas exchange proxies and ASD.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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    ABSTRACT: Importance Psychotic experiences in early life are associated with neuropsychological impairment and the risk for later psychiatric disorders. Psychotic experiences are also prevalent in adults, but neuropsychological investigations spanning adulthood are limited, and confounding factors have not been examined rigorously.Objective To characterize neuropsychological functioning in adults with psychotic experiences while adjusting for important sociodemographic characteristics and familial factors and investigating the effect of age.Design, Setting, and Participants The South East London Community Health (SELCoH) study is a population-based household survey of physical and mental health in individuals 16 years or older conducted from June 1, 2008, to December 31, 2010, in 2 London boroughs. The study included 1698 participants from 1075 households. Data were analyzed from May 6, 2014, to April 22, 2015.Exposures Psychotic experiences measured using the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire.Main Outcomes and Measures Neuropsychological functioning measured using tests assessing verbal knowledge (Wechsler Test of Adult Reading), working memory (Spatial Delayed Response Task), memory (Visual Object Learning Task), and processing speed (digit symbol coding task). A composite IQ score of general cognitive ability was calculated.Results A total of 1677 participants with a mean (SD) age of 40 (17) years were included in the analysis. Compared with the group without psychotic experiences, the 171 (9.7%) adults with psychotic experiences did not show a statistically significant impairment on mean (SD) measures of IQ (95.25 [16.58] vs 100.45 [14.77]; Cohen d, −0.22; P = .06) or processing speed (40.63 [13.06] vs 42.17 [13.79]; Cohen d, −0.03; P = .73) but were impaired on measures of verbal knowledge (31.36 [15.78] vs 38.83 [12.64]; Cohen d, −0.37; P = .003), working memory (20.97 [4.12] vs 22.51 [3.26]; Cohen d, −0.34; P = .005), and memory (43.80 [8.45] vs 46.53 [7.06]; Cohen d, −0.28; P = .01). Only participants 50 years and older with psychotic experiences showed medium to large impairments in neuropsychological functioning (mean [SD]) on measures of IQ (81.22 [15.97] vs 91.28 [14.31]; Cohen d, −0.70), verbal knowledge (28.31 [13.83] vs 38.51 [11.50]; Cohen d, −0.88), working memory (19.11 [4.77] vs 21.99 [3.42]; Cohen d, −0.82), and memory (39.17 [8.23] vs 44.09 [6.51]; Cohen d, −0.45) after adjusting for socioeconomic status, cannabis use, and common mental disorders. Medium impairments (mean [SD]) on measures of working memory (21.27 [3.64] vs 22.62 [2.97]; Cohen d, −0.45) and memory (44.32 [5.84] vs 46.91 [5.74]; Cohen d, −0.45) were seen in those aged 35 to 49 years and on a measure of verbal knowledge (30.81 [14.17] vs 37.60 [10.48]; Cohen d, −0.62) in those aged 16 to 24 years. First-degree relatives of adults with psychotic experiences showed a small impairment on a measure of verbal knowledge (34.71 [12.10] vs 38.63 [10.97]; Cohen d, −0.36; P = .02), and unrelated cohabitants showed no neuropsychological impairment.Conclusions and Relevance The profile of cognitive impairment in adults with psychotic experiences differed from that seen in adults with psychotic disorders, suggesting important differences between subclinical and clinical psychosis.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · JAMA Psychiatry
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    Full-text · Dataset · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Intellectual disability (ID) occurs in almost 3% of newborns. Despite substantial research, a fundamental question about its origin and links to intelligence (IQ) still remains. ID has been shown to be inherited and has been accepted as the extreme low of the normal IQ distribution. However, ID displays a complex pattern of inheritance. Previously, noninherited rare mutations were shown to contribute to severe ID risk in individual families, but in the majority of cases causes remain unknown. Common variants associated with ID risk in the population have not been systematically established. Here we evaluate the hypothesis, originally proposed almost 1 century ago, that most ID is caused by the same genetic and environmental influences responsible for the normal distribution of IQ, but that severe ID is not. We studied more than 1,000,000 sibling pairs and 9,000 twin pairs assessed for IQ and for the presence of ID. We evaluated whether genetic and environmental influences at the extremes of the distribution are different from those operating in the normal range. Here we show that factors influencing mild ID (lowest 3% of IQ distribution) were similar to those influencing IQ in the normal range. In contrast, the factors influencing severe ID (lowest 0.5% of IQ distribution) differ from those influencing mild ID or IQ scores in the normal range. Taken together, our results suggest that most severe ID is a distinct condition, qualitatively different from the preponderance of ID, which, in turn, represents the low extreme of the normal distribution of intelligence.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: In an individual who seeks help or is referred to a mental health professional it is common sense and clinical practice to assume that suicidal thoughts and previous attempts constitute risk factors for imminent suicide. However, this assumption has not been supported by large, population-based longitudinal studies. The current study investigated whether reports of current suicidal ideation and a history of suicide attempts indeed increase risk for later completed suicide in a historical prospective study design. Sequential records on 89,049 young males assessed by mental health professionals were screened for suicidal ideation and a history of suicide attempts. The data were linked with death records from the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics. Over a follow-up period ranging from 2 months to 9.8 years, 54 individuals died by suicide, constituting an average suicide rate of 6.48 per 100,000 person-years. Overall, neither reporting current suicidal ideation (without a history of suicide attempts; HR=1.29, 95% CI=0.57-2.90) nor reporting a history of suicide attempts (with or without current suicidal ideation; HR=1.67, 95% CI=0.71-3.97) were significantly associated with increased risk for later completed suicide. However, young males with a previously diagnosed psychiatric disorder who reported current suicidal ideation (HR=4.52, 95% CI=1.08-18.91) or a history of suicide attempts (HR=6.43, 95% CI=1.54-26.90) were at increased risk of death by suicide. These findings indicate that in this particular population reports of current suicidal ideation or of a history of suicide attempts are helpful in predicting future suicide only among those with a previous diagnosis of a psychiatric disorder.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · European neuropsychopharmacology: the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Importance Community functioning is a core component of the functional deficits in schizophrenia, yet little systematic research on the origins of these functional deficits has been performed.Objectives To examine 3 key domains of community functioning—social activity, independent behavior, and functioning in school or work—before first hospitalization for schizophrenia and to determine whether these domains are familial.Design, Setting, and Participants In this population-based, prospective study that included a sibling-control comparison, data from the Israeli National Draft Board Registry were linked with data from the Israeli Psychiatric Hospitalization Case Registry. The merged file included data for all male adolescents who visited the draft board and were followed up for as much as 25.4 years from draft board assessment (through the end of 2010). The 3 functional domains for cases, their unaffected siblings, and controls were compared by time between assessment and time to hospitalization. Analyses were conducted from March 13, 2014, to October 19, 2014.Main Outcomes and Measures The trajectories and familiality of 3 key components of community functioning—social activity, independent behavior, and functioning in school or work—in the years preceding hospitalization for schizophrenia.Results Participants included 723 316 Israeli male adolescents who underwent a mandatory behavioral assessment to determine eligibility for military service. Linkage identified 3929 individuals hospitalized for schizophrenia. Data for 338 550 sibling pairs, 1659 hospitalized with schizophrenia, were similarly ascertained. Among those with schizophrenia, impairments in social activity (effect size [d], 0.55) and functioning in school or work (d = 0.37) were recognizable up to 15 years before hospitalization. Independent behavior seemed preserved until the few years before first admission. For social activity, differences between cases and controls were progressively greater for patients admitted closer to time of testing (F = 115.33, P < .001). Unaffected siblings had small impairments compared with controls in social activity (F = 28.25, P < .001) and functioning in school or work scales (F = 14.77, P < .001). Group familial (sibling) correlations were relatively high for social activity (r = 0.40; 95% CI, 0.39-0.41) and functioning in school or work (r = 0.50; 95% CI, 0.49-0.51) but nil for independent behavior (r = 0; 95% CI, −0.01 to −0.01). Impairments in siblings had no progressive increase and were unrelated to their affected sibling’s time of illness onset (time trend: social activity: F = 5.463, P = .02; independent behavior: F = 0.908, P = .34; and functioning in school or work: F = 1.386, P = .24).Conclusions and Relevance Various components of impaired community functioning in schizophrenia followed different developmental trajectories. Our results indicate that impairments in social activity and functioning in school or work are familial.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · JAMA Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: Suicide is a major cause of death in schizophrenia. Identifying factors which increase the risk of suicide among schizophrenia patients might help focus prevention efforts. This study examined risk of suicide in male schizophrenia patients using population-based data, examining the timing of suicide in relation to the last hospital discharge, and the effect of premorbid IQ on risk of suicide. Data on 930,000 male adolescents from the Israeli military draft board were linked with data from the Israeli Psychiatric Hospitalization Case Registry and vital statistics from the Israeli Ministry of Health. The relationship between premorbid IQ and risk for suicide was examined among 2881 males hospitalized with schizophrenia and compared to a control group of 566,726 males from the same cohort, who were not hospitalized for a psychiatric disorder, using survival analysis methods. Over a mean follow-up period of 9.9years (SD=5.8, range: 0-22years), 77/3806 males with schizophrenia died by suicide (a suicide rate of 204.4 per 100,000person-years). Approximately 48% of the suicides occurred within a year of discharge from the last hospital admission for schizophrenia. Risk of suicide was higher in male schizophrenia patients with high premorbid IQ (HR=4.45, 95% CI=1.37-14.43) compared to those with normal premorbid IQ. These data indicate that male schizophrenia patients with high premorbid IQ are at particularly high risk of suicide, and the time of peak risk is during the first year after the last hospitalization discharge.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Schizophrenia Research
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    Eva Velthorst · Abraham Reichenberg · Jonathan Rabinowitz · Stephen Z Levine
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The Jerusalem study of resilience and environmental adversity in midlife health (STREAM) was established to examine the prevalence of common mental and physical health issues in mid-adulthood in the inner city of Jerusalem, and to examine their association with lifespan psychosocial factors of vulnerability and resilience. Method: Participants were 811 randomly selected individuals from 7000 individuals who were born and grew up in inner-Jerusalem. Participants were 34-44 years old during first wave of STREAM assessment. Initial telephone surveys took place in 2007-2008 and participants were followed-up for a second survey 1 year later. Upon funding, a new wave is planned for 2017-2018. Survey topics comprised common health problems (e.g., type 2 diabetes/migraine), health markers (e.g., BMI), and psychiatric vulnerabilities (e.g., anxiety, post-traumatic stress, depressive symptoms, psychosis). Other measures included socioeconomic status, creativity, life style behavior (e.g., smoking, exercise), social contact and adaptation to change. Survey data were retrospectively merged with data of national registry sources that included adverse psychosocial factors, psychiatric and social measures assessed across all developmental stages through midlife. This includes data available on birth factors, school achievement and adjustment, cognitive and behavioral functioning during young adulthood, psychiatric hospitalizations, immigration and socioeconomic status. Results: Results on health outcomes of the first STREAM wave indicate that prevalence rates of health problems are comparable to recent World Mental Health Surveys. Conclusions: Apart from measures on adverse psychosocial factors, STREAM provides a cohort to examine resilience to developing health problems and having a poor health and functional outcome.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Social Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Research studies exploring the determinants of disease require sufficient statistical power to detect meaningful effects. Sample size is often increased through centralized pooling of disparately located datasets, though ethical, privacy and data ownership issues can often hamper this process. Methods that facilitate the sharing of research data that are sympathetic with these issues and which allow flexible and detailed statistical analyses are therefore in critical need. We have created a software platform for the Virtual Pooling and Analysis of Research data (ViPAR), which employs free and open source methods to provide researchers with a web-based platform to analyse datasets housed in disparate locations. Methods: Database federation permits controlled access to remotely located datasets from a central location. The Secure Shell protocol allows data to be securely exchanged between devices over an insecure network. ViPAR combines these free technologies into a solution that facilitates 'virtual pooling' where data can be temporarily pooled into computer memory and made available for analysis without the need for permanent central storage. Results: Within the ViPAR infrastructure, remote sites manage their own harmonized research dataset in a database hosted at their site, while a central server hosts the data federation component and a secure analysis portal. When an analysis is initiated, requested data are retrieved from each remote site and virtually pooled at the central site. The data are then analysed by statistical software and, on completion, results of the analysis are returned to the user and the virtually pooled data are removed from memory. Conclusions: ViPAR is a secure, flexible and powerful analysis platform built on open source technology that is currently in use by large international consortia, and is made publicly available at [http://bioinformatics.childhealthresearch.org.au/software/vipar/].
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · International Journal of Epidemiology
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    ABSTRACT: Psychotic experiences (PEs) occur in the general population, especially in children and adolescents, and are associated with poor psychosocial outcomes, impaired cognition, and increased risk of transition to psychosis. It is unknown how the presence and persistence of PEs during early adulthood affects cognition and brain function. The current study assessed working memory as well as brain function and structure in 149 individuals, with and without PEs, drawn from a population cohort. Observer-rated PEs were classified as persistent or transient on the basis of longitudinal assessments. Working memory was assessed using the n-back task during fMRI. Dynamic causal modeling (DCM) was used to characterize frontoparietal network configuration and voxel-based morphometry was utilized to examine gray matter. Those with persistent, but not transient, PEs performed worse on the n-back task, compared with controls, yet showed no significant differences in regional brain activation or brain structure. DCM analyses revealed greater emphasis on frontal connectivity within a frontoparietal network in those with PEs compared with controls. We propose that these findings portray an altered configuration of working memory function in the brain, potentially indicative of an adaptive response to atypical development associated with the manifestation of PEs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Cerebral Cortex
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    Full-text · Dataset · Jun 2015
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    Full-text · Dataset · Jun 2015
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    Full-text · Dataset · Jun 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Advancing paternal and maternal age have both been associated with risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, the shape of the association remains unclear, and results on the joint associations is lacking. This study tests if advancing paternal and maternal ages are independently associated with ASD risk and estimates the functional form of the associations. In a population-based cohort study from five countries (Denmark, Israel, Norway, Sweden and Western Australia) comprising 5 766 794 children born 1985-2004 and followed up to the end of 2004-2009, the relative risk (RR) of ASD was estimated by using logistic regression and splines. Our analyses included 30 902 cases of ASD. Advancing paternal and maternal age were each associated with increased RR of ASD after adjusting for confounding and the other parent's age (mothers 40-49 years vs 20-29 years, RR=1.15 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-1.24), P-value<0.001; fathers⩾50 years vs 20-29 years, RR=1.66 (95% CI: 1.49-1.85), P-value<0.001). Younger maternal age was also associated with increased risk for ASD (mothers <20 years vs 20-29 years, RR=1.18 (95% CI: 1.08-1.29), P-value<0.001). There was a joint effect of maternal and paternal age with increasing risk of ASD for couples with increasing differences in parental ages. We did not find any support for a modifying effect by the sex of the offspring. In conclusion, as shown in multiple geographic regions, increases in ASD was not only limited to advancing paternal or maternal age alone but also to differences parental age including younger or older similarly aged parents as well as disparately aged parents.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 9 June 2015; doi:10.1038/mp.2015.70.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Molecular Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the annual prevalence of the autism symptom phenotype and of registered diagnoses for autism spectrum disorder during a 10 year period in children. Population based study. Child and Adolescent Twin Study and national patient register, Sweden. 19 993 twins (190 with autism spectrum disorder) and all children (n=1 078 975; 4620 with autism spectrum disorder) born in Sweden over a 10 year period from 1993 to 2002. Annual prevalence of the autism symptom phenotype (that is, symptoms on which the diagnostic criteria are based) assessed by a validated parental telephone interview (the Autism-Tics, ADHD and other Comorbidities inventory), and annual prevalence of reported diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder in the national patient register. The annual prevalence of the autism symptom phenotype was stable during the 10 year period (P=0.87 for linear time trend). In contrast, there was a monotonic significant increase in prevalence of registered diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder in the national patient register (P<0.001 for linear trend). The prevalence of the autism symptom phenotype has remained stable in children in Sweden while the official prevalence for registered, clinically diagnosed, autism spectrum disorder has increased substantially. This suggests that administrative changes, affecting the registered prevalence, rather than secular factors affecting the pathogenesis, are important for the increase in reported prevalence of autism spectrum disorder. © Lundström et al 2015.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · BMJ (online)
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    ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is often regarded as a "dysconnectivity" disorder and recent work using graph theory has been used to better characterize dysconnectivity of the structural connectome in schizophrenia. However, there are still little data on the topology of connectomes in less severe forms of the condition. Such analysis will identify topological markers of less severe disease states and provide potential predictors of further disease development. Individuals with psychotic experiences (PEs) were identified from a population-based cohort without relying on participants presenting to clinical services. Such individuals have an increased risk of developing clinically significant psychosis. 123 individuals with PEs and 125 controls were scanned with diffusion-weighted MRI. Whole-brain structural connectomes were derived and a range of global and local GT-metrics were computed. Global efficiency and density were significantly reduced in individuals with PEs. Local efficiency was reduced in a number of regions, including critical network hubs. Further analysis of functional subnetworks showed differential impairment of the default mode network. An additional analysis of pair-wise connections showed no evidence of differences in individuals with PEs. These results are consistent with previous findings in schizophrenia. Reduced efficiency in critical core hubs suggests the brains of individuals with PEs may be particularly predisposed to dysfunction. The absence of any detectable effects in pair-wise connections illustrates that, at less severe stages of psychosis, white-matter alterations are subtle and only manifest when examining network topology. This study indicates that topology could be a sensitive biomarker for early stages of psychotic illness. Hum Brain Mapp, 2015.© 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Human Brain Mapping

Publication Stats

8k Citations
1,350.21 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • Mount Sinai Hospital
      New York, New York, United States
    • National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
    • Sinai Hospital
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2003-2015
    • Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Borough of Manhattan, New York, United States
    • Stanford University
      Palo Alto, California, United States
    • New York State Psychiatric Institute
      • Anxiety Disorders Clinic
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2007-2014
    • King's College London
      • • Institute of Psychiatry
      • • Department of Psychosis Studies
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • Columbia University
      • Department of Psychiatry
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2008-2013
    • ICL
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • Emory University
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States
  • 2010
    • London Research Institute
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • Duke University
      • Department of Psychology and Neuroscience
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 2009
    • University of Cambridge
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 2006
    • Maastricht University
      • Department of Psychiatry & Neuropsychology
      Maestricht, Limburg, Netherlands
  • 2005
    • Bar Ilan University
      • School of Social Work
      Gan, Tel Aviv, Israel
  • 2004
    • Tel Aviv University
      Tell Afif, Tel Aviv, Israel
  • 2000-2003
    • Sheba Medical Center
      Gan, Tel Aviv, Israel
  • 1999-2003
    • Hebrew University of Jerusalem
      • Department of Psychology
      Yerushalayim, Jerusalem, Israel
  • 2002
    • Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry
      München, Bavaria, Germany