[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Axonemal dynein plays an essential role in ciliary motility, and impaired ciliary motility causes human diseases such as primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). The motor domain of axonemal dynein powers ciliary motility and its function is regulated by several accessary proteins bound to the tail region. Therefore, to understand the essential properties of dynein motility, examining the motile properties of the motor domain without the tail is necessary. In this study, the functional motor domain of the alpha heavy chain in Tetrahymena outer arm dynein was purified, and its motile properties were examined using an in vitro motility system. The purified protein caused microtubules to glide at a velocity of 5.0 μm/s with their minus-end trailing, and motility was inhibited in an ATP concentration-dependent manner, which is in contrast with kinesin1. This method could be applicable to other axonemal dyneins and will enable further molecular studies on diverse axonemal dyneins and ciliary motility.
Preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Axonemal dynein plays a central role in ciliary beating. Recently, a functional expression system of axonemal dynein was established in the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena. This study identifies biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP) in Tetrahymena and demonstrates its application in in vitro motility systems of outer arm dynein.
No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of Microbiological Methods
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cilia and flagella are motile organelles that play various roles in eukaryotic cells. Ciliary movement is driven by axonemal dyneins (outer arm and inner arm dyneins) that bind to peripheral microtubule doublets. Elucidating the molecular mechanism of ciliary movement requires the genetic engineering of axonemal dyneins; however, no expression system for axonemal dyneins has been previously established. This study is the first to purify recombinant axonemal dynein with motile activity. In the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena, recombinant outer arm dynein purified from ciliary extract was able to slide microtubules in a gliding assay. Furthermore, the recombinant dynein moved processively along microtubules in a single-molecule motility assay. This expression system will be useful for investigating the unique properties of diverse axonemal dyneins and will enable future molecular studies on ciliary movement.
Preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kinesin-5 is a homotetrameric motor with its motor domain at the N-terminus. Kinesin-5 crosslinks microtubules and functions in separating spindle poles during mitosis. In this study, the motile properties of Cut7, fission yeast kinesin-5, were examined for the first time. In in vitro motility assays, full-length Cut7 moved toward minus-end of microtubules, but the N-terminal half of Cut7 moved toward the opposite direction. Furthermore, additional truncated constructs lacking the N-terminal or C-terminal regions, but still contained the motor domain, did not switch the motile direction. These indicated that Cut7 was a bidirectional motor, and microtubule binding regions at the N-terminus and C-terminus were not involved in its directionality.
No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dyneins are large microtubule-based motor complexes that power a range of cellular processes including the transport of organelles, and the beating of cilia and flagella. The motor domain is located within the dynein heavy chain and comprises an N-terminal mechanical linker element, a central ring of six AAA + modules of which four bind or hydrolyze ATP, and a long stalk extending from the AAA + ring with a microtubule-binding domain (MTBD) at its tip. A crucial mechanism underlying the motile activity of cytoskeletal motor proteins is precise coupling between the ATPase and track-binding activities. In dynein, a stalk region consisting of a long (~ 15 nm) antiparallel coiled coil separates these two activities, which must facilitate communication between them. This communication is mediated by a small degree of helix sliding in the coiled coil. However, no high-resolution structure is available of the entire stalk region including the MTBD. Here, we have reported the structure of the entire stalk region of mouse cytoplasmic dynein in a weak microtubule-binding state, which was determined using X-ray crystallography, and have compared it with the dynein motor domain from Dictyostelium discoideum in a strong microtubule-binding state as well as with a mouse MTBD with its distal portion of the coiled coil fused to seryl-tRNA synthetase from Thermus thermophilus. Our results strongly support the helix-sliding model based on the complete structure of the dynein stalk with a different form of coiled-coil packing. We also propose a plausible mechanism of helix sliding together with further analysis using molecular dynamic simulations. Our results present the importance of conserved proline residues for an elastic motion of stalk coiled coil, and imply the manner of change between high-affinity and low-affinity state of MTBD.
Preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Biophysical Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We visualized the nucleotide-dependent behavior of single molecules of mammalian native cytoplasmic dynein using fragments of dynactin p150 with or without its N-terminal microtubule binding domain. The results indicate that the binding affinity of dynein for microtubules is high in AMP-PNP, middle in ADP or no nucleotide, and low in ADP.Pi conditions. It is also demonstrated that the microtubule binding domain of dynactin p150 maintains the association of dynein with microtubules without altering the motile property of dynein in the weak binding state. In addition, we observed bidirectional movement of dynein in the presence of ATP as well as in ADP/Vi condition, suggesting that the bidirectional movement is driven by diffusion rather than active transport.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fission yeast Pkl1 is a kinesin-14A family member that is known to be localized at the cellular spindle and is capable of
hydrolyzing ATP. However, its motility has not been detected. Here, we show that Pkl1 is a slow, minus end-directed microtubule
motor with a maximum velocity of 33 ± 9 nm/s. The Km,MT value of steady-state ATPase activity of Pkl1 was as low as 6.4 ± 1.1 nm, which is 20–30 times smaller than that of kinesin-1 and another kinesin-14A family member, Ncd, indicating a high affinity
of Pkl1 for microtubules. However, the duty ratio of 0.05 indicates that Pkl1 spends only a small fraction of the ATPase cycle
strongly associated with a microtubule. By using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we demonstrated that single
molecules of Pkl1 were not highly processive but only exhibited biased one-dimensional diffusion along microtubules, whereas
several molecules of Pkl1, probably fewer than 10 molecules, cooperatively moved along microtubules and substantially reduced
the diffusive component in the movement. Our results suggest that Pkl1 molecules work in groups to move and generate forces
in a cooperative manner for their mitotic functions.
No preview · Article · Dec 2008 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conventional kinesin (Kinesin-1) is a microtubule-based molecular motor that supports intracellular vesicle/organelle transport in various eukaryotic cells. To arrange kinesin motors similarly to myosin motors on thick filaments in muscles, the motor domain of rat conventional kinesin (amino acid residues 1-430) fused to the C-terminal 829 amino acid residues of catchin (KHC430Cat) was bacterially expressed and attached to catchin filaments that can attach to and arrange myosin molecules in a bipolar manner on their surface. Unlike the case of myosin where actin filaments move toward the center much faster than in the opposite direction along the catchin filaments, microtubules moved at the same speed in both directions. In addition, many microtubules moved across the filaments at the same speed with various angles between the axes of the microtubule and catchin filament. Kinesin/catchin chimera proteins with a shorter kinesin neck domain were also prepared. Those without the whole hinge 1 domain and the C-terminal part of the neck helix moved microtubules toward the center of the catchin filaments significantly, but only slightly, faster than in the opposite direction, although the movements in both directions were slower than those of the KHC430Cat construct. The results suggest that kinesin has substantial mechanical flexibility within the motor domain, possibly within the neck linker, enabling its interaction with microtubules having any orientation.
No preview · Article · Oct 2008 · Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dynein is a motor ATPase, and the C-terminal two-thirds of its heavy chain form a ring structure. One of protrudings from this ring structure is a stalk whose tip, the dynein stalk head (DSH), is thought to be the microtubule-binding domain. As a first step toward elucidating the functional mechanisms of DSH, we aimed at the NMR structural analysis of an isolated DSH from mouse cytoplasmic dynein. The DSH expressed in bacteria and purified was coprecipitated with microtubules, suggesting its proper folding. Chemical shifts of the DSH were obtained from NMR measurements, and backbone assignment identified 94% of the main-chain N-H signals. Secondary structural prediction programs showed that about 60% of the residues formed alpha-helices. A region with cationic residues K58 and R61 (and possibly R66 as well), and another with R86, K88, K90, and K91, were found to form alpha-helices. Both of these regions may be important in the formation of the DSH-binding site to a microtubule that has a low pI with a number of acidic residues. Two synthetic peptides containing the sequence of the alpha-helix 12 of beta-tubulin, considered to be important in binding to DSH, were investigated. Of these two peptides, the one with higher helix-formation propensity appeared to bind to DSH, since it precipitated with DSH in a nearly stoichiometric manner. This suggested that the alpha-helicity of this region would be important in its binding to DSH.
No preview · Article · Jul 2008 · Journal of Biomolecular NMR
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dynactin is a hetero-oligomeric protein complex that has an important role in dynein-based intracellular transport. The expressed N-terminal fragments of dynactin p150 bound to microtubules in the ratio of one to one tubulin dimer, independent from the binding of dynein stalk head. Single molecule observation revealed that these fragments moved around on microtubules by Brownian motion. When the dynein-dynactin complex moves on microtubules, p150 can support dynein to maintain contact with microtubules and does not interfere with the motility of dynein, and thus, the dynein-dynactin complex can efficiently achieve long-distance carriage of the cargo.
No preview · Article · Mar 2006 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ncd is a molecular motor belonging to the kinesin superfamily. In solution, it is a homo-dimer of a 700 amino acid polypeptide. The C-terminus of each polypeptide forms a globular domain of about 40 kDa, the motor domain with ATPase activity. The ATPase site of the motor domain of kinesin family members, including ncd, binds ADP tightly, the release of which is facilitated by microtubules during the mechanochemical ATPase cycle. Previously, we studied the spectroscopic characteristics of the ncd motor domain, focusing on interactions of the transition-moment-dipoles between ADP and aromatic amino acid side chains using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. In the present study, we generated several ncd motor domain mutants. In each, a tryptophanyl or specific tyrosyl residue was mutated. We found that Trp370 and Tyr442, the latter of which stacks directly with the adenine moiety of bound ADP, caused the bound ADP to exhibit peculiar CD signals. In addition, fluorescence measurements revealed that Trp370, but not Trp473, was responsible for the emission intensity change depending on the presence or absence of bound ADP. This fluorescence result implies that the structural change induced at the ADP-binding site (on the release of the ADP) is transmitted to the region that includes Trp370, which is relatively close to the ADP-binding site but not in direct contact with the ADP-binding region. In contrast, Trp473 in the region that is in contact with the alpha-helical coiled coil stalk did not experience the structural changes caused on removal of ADP. The distinct behavior of these two tryptophanyl residues suggests that the ncd motor domain has a bifacial architecture made up of a relatively deformable side including the nucleotide binding site and a more rigid one.
No preview · Article · Aug 2005 · Journal of Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have demonstrated a novel micro/nanotransport system using biomolecular motors driven by adenosine triphosphate (ATP). For the driving mechanism, microtubule-kinesin system, which is one of the linear biomolecular motor systems was investigated. ATP dissolved in an aqueous condition is hydrolyzed to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to energize the bionanoactuators in this mechanism. This means the system does not require an external electrical or mechanical energy source. Therefore, a purely chemical system which is similar to the in vivo transport will be realized. This paper reports some fundamental studies to integrate biomaterials and MEMS. The microtubules, or rail molecules, were patterned on a glass substrate with poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) using a regular soft lithography technique. Microbeads (320 nm in diameter) and a micromachined structure (2×3 μm, 2 μm in thickness) coated with kinesin molecules were transported along the microtubules at an average speed of 476±56 and 308 nm/s, respectively. While ATP injection activated the transport system we have also managed to provide repetitive on/off control using hexokinase as an inhibitor. For the minimum response time in the repetitive control, the optimized concentration for ATP was 10<sup>2</sup> μM and 10<sup>3</sup> U/L for hexokinase.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2004 · Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytoplasmic dynein is a minus-end-directed microtubule motor involved in numerous essential processes within eukaryotic cells, such as nuclear segregation and trafficking of intracellular particles. The motor domain of the dynein heavy chain comprises six tandemly linked AAA (ATPase associated with diverse cellular activities) modules (AAA1-AAA6). The first four modules include nucleotide-binding sites (Walker A or P-loop motifs), and each of the four sites appears to bind ATP. However, the role and the function of each binding site are unknown. Especially, the question of which P-loops are ATP-hydrolyzing sites has not been answered, because it is difficult to measure the ATPase activity of each P-loop. Here, we purified several truncated Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytoplasmic dynein fragments and their mutants expressed in Escherichia coli and then measured their ATPase activities. Our results suggest that there are multiple ATP-binding sites that have abilities to hydrolyze ATP in cytoplasmic dynein. Furthermore, a single AAA module is insufficient for ATP hydrolysis, and the adjacent module facing the ATP-binding site is necessary for ATP-hydrolyzing activity.
Preview · Article · Sep 2004 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dyneins and kinesins move in opposite directions on microtubules. The question of how the same-track microtubules are able to support movement in two directions remains unanswered due to the absence of details on dynein-microtubule interactions. To address this issue, we studied dynein-microtubule interactions using the tip of the microtubule-binding stalk, the dynein stalk head (DSH), which directly interacts with microtubules upon receiving conformational change from the ATPase domain. Biochemical and cryo-electron microscopic studies revealed that DSH bound to tubulin dimers with a periodicity of 80 A, corresponding to the step size of dyneins. The DSH molecule was observed as a globular corn grain-like shape that bound the same region as kinesin. Biochemical crosslinking experiments and image analyses of the DSH-kinesin head-microtubule complex revealed competition between DSH and the kinesin head for microtubule binding. Our results demonstrate that dynein and kinesin share an overlapping microtubule-binding site, and imply that binding at this site has an essential role for these motor proteins.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have successfully realized an on/off control of biomolecular linear motors in a polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) chamber sealed with a cover glass. A linear biomolecular motor system, microtubule-kinesin system, is controlled by injecting the optimized concentrations of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) for the activation and hexokinase for the stoppage. Not only control from on to off or off to on, the repetitive injection of ATP and hexokinase proves that kinesin molecules can move and stop alternatively once they bind to microtubules.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chromokinesin Kid (kinesin-like DNA-binding protein) localizes on spindles and chromosomes and has important roles in generating polar ejection force on microtubules in the metaphase. To understand these functions of Kid at the molecular level, we investigated molecular properties of Kid, its oligomeric state, interaction with microtubules, and physiological activity in vitro. Kid expressed in mammalian cells, as well as Kid expressed in Escherichia coli, was found to be monomeric. However, Kid cross-linked microtubules in an ATP-sensitive manner, suggesting that Kid has a second microtubule-binding site in addition to its motor domain. This was ascertained by binding of Kid fragments lacking the motor domain to microtubules. The interaction of the second microtubule-binding site was weak in a nucleotide-insensitive manner. KmMT of the ATPase activity of Kid was lower than that of the fragments lacking the second microtubule-binding site. Moreover, the velocity of Kid movement in vitro was not affected by the second microtubule-binding site, which is consistent with the weak binding of this site to microtubules. The second microtubule-binding site would be important to enhance the affinity to microtubules for the monomeric motor, Kid. Because the amino acid sequence of this region is highly conserved among species, it seems to have essential roles for the functions of Kid in vivo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kid is a kinesin-like DNA-binding protein known to be involved in chromosome movement during mitosis, although its actual motor function has not been demonstrated. Here, we describe the initial characterization of Kid as a microtubule-based motor using optical trapping microscopy. A bacterially expressed fusion protein consisting of a truncated Kid fragment (amino acids 1-388 or 1-439) is indeed an active microtubule motor with an average speed of approximately 160 nm/s, and the polarity of movement is plus end directed. We could not detect processive movement of either monomeric Kid or dimerizing chimeric Kid; however, low levels of processivity (a few steps) cannot be detected with our method. These results are consistent with Kid having a role in chromosome congression in vivo, where it would be responsible for the polar ejection forces acting on the chromosome arms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Synaptobrevin is a vesicle-associated membrane protein playing an essential role in regulated vesicle transport. In this study, we characterized Syb1, synaptobrevin of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Syb1 was located on various sizes of vesicle-like structures in the cytoplasm and enriched in the medial region and cell ends. Transport of Syb1 to the medial region was mainly dependent on F-actin and Myo52/Myo4. Syb1 is essential for cell viability and most of the syb1-null cells showed a round or short cylindrical form. These results suggest that Syb1 is involved in membrane trafficking of cytokinesis and cell elongation.
No preview · Article · Mar 2003 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have demonstrated a novel micro/nano transportation system using the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-driven biomolecular motors. Two kinds of linear biomolecular motor systems, microtubule- kinesin  and actin- myosin , are investigated as driving mechanisms in the system. The rail molecules, microtubules, and actin are patterned on a glass substrate using a regular soft lithography technique with poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS). A few pm order micromachined structure coated with the motor molecules was transported along the rail molecules.