[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Xenoestrogens are synthetic compounds that mimic endogenous estrogens by binding to and activating estrogen receptors. Exposure to estrogens and some xenoestrogens has been associated with cell proliferation and increased risk of breast cancer. Despite evidence of estrogenicity, parabens are among the most widely used xenoestrogens in cosmetics and personal care products, and generally considered safe. However, previous cell based studies with parabens do not take into account the signaling cross-talk between estrogen receptor (ERα) and the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family.
We investigated the hypothesis that the potency of parabens can be increased with HER ligands, such as heregulin (HRG).
The effects of HER ligands on paraben activation of c-Myc expression and cell proliferation were determined by real-time PCR, western blots, flow cytometry and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays in ERα- and HER2-positive human BT-474 breast cancer cells.
Butylparaben (BP) and HRG produced a synergistic increase in c-Myc mRNA and protein levels in BT-474 cells. Estrogen receptor antagonists blocked the synergistic increase in c-Myc protein levels. The combination of BP and HRG also stimulated proliferation of BT-474 cells compared to BP alone. HRG decreased the dose required for BP-mediated stimulation of c-Myc mRNA expression and cell proliferation. HRG caused the phosphorylation of serine 167 in ERα. BP and HRG produced a synergistic increase in ERα recruitment to the c-Myc gene.
Our studies demonstrate that HER ligands enhance the potency of BP to stimulate oncogene expression and breast cancer cell proliferation in vitro via ERα, suggesting that parabens might be active at exposure levels not previously considered toxicologically relevant from studies testing their effects in isolation.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Environmental Health Perspectives
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The Women's Health Initiative Estrogen Plus Progestin clinical trial demonstrated the risks exceeded the benefits which have led to a decline in menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) by greater than 50%. MHT use was initiated long before there was a significant understanding of the molecular mechanisms of estrogens. It has become clear that the problem with the current estrogens in MHT is they act non-selectively as an agonist in all tissues that contain estrogen receptors. MF101 is an oral, botanically derived extract that was designed to selectively regulate estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) because the increased risk of breast and endometrial cancer is due to the activation of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) by estrogens. Preclinical and clinical data support a role for selective ERβ agonists, such as MF101, for vasomotor symptoms without increasing cancer risks. AREAS COVERED: The review covers the biological, pharmacological and clinical advantages of MF101, and the unique ability of MF101 to selectively target the ERβ pathway for the treatment of hot flashes (HF). EXPERT OPINION: Preclinical and clinical studies indicate that MF101, a selective estrogen receptor beta agonist, represents a new class of drugs that is safe and effective for treating HF and nighttime awakenings.
No preview · Article · May 2012 · Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phytoestrogens, or naturally occurring estrogen-mimicking compounds, are found in many human plant foods, such as soybeans (Glycine max) and other legumes. Because the consumption of phytoestrogens may result in both health benefits of protecting against estrogen-dependent cancers and reproductive costs of disrupting the developing endocrine system, considerable biomedical research has been focused on the physiological and behavioral effects of these compounds. Despite this interest, little is known about the occurrence of phytoestrogens in the diets of wild primates, nor their likely evolutionary importance. We investigated the prevalence of estrogenic plant foods in the diets of two folivorous primate species, the red colobus monkey (Procolobus rufomitratus) of Kibale National Park and mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei) of Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, both in Uganda. To examine plant foods for estrogenic activity, we screened 44 plant items (species and part) comprising 78.4% of the diet of red colobus monkeys and 53 plant items comprising 85.2% of the diet of mountain gorillas using transient transfection assays. At least 10.6% of the red colobus diet and 8.8% of the gorilla diet had estrogenic activity. This was mainly the result of the red colobus eating three estrogenic staple foods and the gorillas eating one estrogenic staple food. All estrogenic plants exhibited estrogen receptor (ER) subtype selectivity, as their phytoestrogens activated ERβ, but not ERα. These results demonstrate that estrogenic plant foods are routinely consumed by two folivorous primate species. Phytoestrogens in the wild plant foods of these two species and many other wild primates may have important implications for understanding primate reproductive ecology.
Full-text · Article · May 2012 · American Journal of Physical Anthropology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective To evaluate the level of reduction in hot flushes among a cohort of postmenopausal women randomized to a phase-2 clinical trial evaluating MF101, a selective estrogen receptor β modulator, for treatment of vasomotor symptoms to determine clinically meaningful efficacy. Methods We performed a re-analysis of data from a double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of 217 postmenopausal women randomized to treatment with MF101 or placebo for 12 weeks. At study termination, participants were asked if they were satisfied enough with medication to continue therapy. Results Of the women treated, 73% with ≥50% reduction in hot flush frequency and 77% with ≥60% reduction in hot flush frequency were willing to continue treatment. Conclusion: A 50-60% reduction in hot flushes is clinically meaningful among postmenopausal women who are being treated with a non-estrogen agent such as MF101.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Estrogens are frequently used in reproductive medicine. The Women's Health Initiative trial found that the risks of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) exceed the benefits. The estrogens in MHT, however, were introduced prior to our understanding of the mechanism of action of estrogens. Estrogen signaling is highly complex, involving various DNA regulatory elements to which estrogen receptors bind. Numerous transcription factors and co-regulatory proteins modify chromatin structure to further regulate gene transcription. With a greater understanding of estrogen action, the major problem with the current estrogens in MHT appears to be that they are nonselective. This produces beneficial effects in bone, brain, and adipose tissue but increases the risk of breast and endometrial cancer and thromboembolism. Resurrecting MHT for long-term therapy will require the development of more selective estrogens, such as estrogen receptor (ER)β-selective estrogens and tissue-selective ERα agonists. These compounds will offer the best prospects to expand the indications of MHT and thus prevent the chronic conditions associated with menopause.
No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Long-term estrogen deficiency increases the risk of obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Menopausal hormone therapy containing estrogens might prevent these conditions, but its prolonged use increases the risk of breast cancer, as wells as endometrial cancer if used without progestins. Animal studies indicate that beneficial effects of estrogens in adipose tissue and adverse effects on mammary gland and uterus are mediated by estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). One strategy to improve the safety of estrogens to prevent/treat obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome is to develop estrogens that act as agonists in adipose tissue, but not in mammary gland and uterus. We considered plant extracts, which have been the source of many pharmaceuticals, as a source of tissue selective estrogens. Extracts from two plants, Glycyrrhiza uralensis (RG) and Pueraria montana var. lobata (RP) bound to ERα, activated ERα responsive reporters, and reversed weight gain and fat accumulation comparable to estradiol in ovariectomized obese mice maintained on a high fat diet. Unlike estradiol, RG and RP did not induce proliferative effects on mammary gland and uterus. Gene expression profiling demonstrated that RG and RP induced estradiol-like regulation of genes in abdominal fat, but not in mammary gland and uterus. The compounds in extracts from RG and RP might constitute a new class of tissue selective estrogens to reverse weight gain, fat accumulation and metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoids exert potent anti-inflammatory effects by repressing proinflammatory genes. We previously demonstrated that estrogens repress numerous proinflammatory genes in U2OS cells. The objective of this study was to determine if cross talk occurs between the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and estrogen receptor (ER)α. The effects of dexamethasone (Dex) and estradiol on 23 proinflammatory genes were examined in human U2OS cells stably transfected with ERα or GR. Three classes of genes were regulated by ERα and/or GR. Thirteen genes were repressed by both estradiol and Dex (ER/GR-repressed genes). Five genes were repressed by ER (ER-only repressed genes), and another five genes were repressed by GR (GR-only repressed genes). To examine if cross talk occurs between ER and GR at ER/GR-repressed genes, U2OS-GR cells were infected with an adenovirus that expresses ERα. The ER antagonist, ICI 182780 (ICI), blocked Dex repression of ER/GR-repressed genes. ICI did not have any effect on the GR-only repressed genes or genes activated by Dex. These results demonstrate that ICI acts on subset of proinflammatory genes in the presence of ERα but not on GR-activated genes. ICI recruited ERα to the IL-8 promoter but did not prevent Dex recruitment of GR. ICI antagonized Dex repression of the TNF response element by blocking the recruitment of nuclear coactivator 2. These findings indicate that the ICI-ERα complex blocks Dex-mediated repression by interfering with nuclear coactivator 2 recruitment to GR. Our results suggest that it might be possible to exploit ER and GR cross talk for glucocorticoid therapies using drugs that interact with ERs.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) in breast cancer is unclear. ERβ is considered to have a protective role in breast cancer development based on findings demonstrating that ERβ expression inhibits ERα-mediated proliferation of breast cancer cells. We previously demonstrated that ERβ causes a ligand independent G2 cell cycle arrest in MCF-7 cells. To study the mechanisms of the ERβ-mediated G2 cell cycle arrest, we investigated its effects on the regulatory pathways responsible for the G2/M phase transition. We found that ERβ inhibits CDK1 activity, which is the critical determinant of the G2/M progression. CDK1 activity is modulated by both stimulatory and inhibitory factors. Cyclin B1 is the major activator of CDK1. ERβ inhibited the cell cycle-dependent stimulation of cyclin B1 mRNA and protein. GADD45A and BTG2 are two major inhibitors of CDK1, which have been implicated in breast tumor formation. Based on these findings, we explored if the expression pattern of GADD45A and BTG2 is affected by ERβ. We found that ERβ stimulates GADD45A and BTG2 mRNA levels. The induction of these two genes is caused by ERβ binding directly to these genes and recruiting c-jun and NCOA2. Our findings demonstrated that unliganded ERβ causes a G2 cell cycle arrest by inactivating CDK1 through the repression of cyclin B1 and stimulation of GADD45A and BTG2 expression. These results provide evidence that drugs that stimulate the production of unliganded ERβ may be effective new therapies to prevent breast cancer.
No preview · Article · Dec 2010 · Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Estrogenic effects are mediated through two estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes, ERα and ERβ. Estrogens are the most commonly prescribed drugs to treat menopausal conditions, but by non-selectively triggering both ERα and ERβ pathways in different tissues they can cause serious adverse effects. The different sizes of the binding pockets and sequences of their activation function domains indicate that ERα and ERβ should have different specificities for ligands and biological responses that can be exploited for designing safer and more selective estrogens. ERα and ERβ regulate different genes by binding to different regulatory elements and recruiting different transcription and chromatin remodeling factors that are expressed in a cell-specific manner. ERα-selective and ERβ-selective agonists have been identified that demonstrate that the two ERs produce distinct biological effects. ERα and ERβ agonists are a promising new approach for treating specific conditions associated with menopause.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · Current Opinion in Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Estrogens are used extensively to treat hot flashes in menopausal women. Some of the beneficial effects of estrogens in hormone therapy on the brain might be due to nongenomic effects in neurons such as the rapid stimulation of calcium oscillations. Most studies have examined the nongenomic effects of estrogen receptors (ER) in primary neurons or brain slices from the rodent brain. However, these cells can not be maintained continuously in culture because neurons are post-mitotic. Neurons derived from embryonic stem cells could be a potential continuous, cell-based model to study nongenomic actions of estrogens in neurons if they are responsive to estrogens after differentiation. In this study ER-subtype specific estrogens were used to examine the role of ERalpha and ERbeta on calcium oscillations in neurons derived from human (hES) and mouse embryonic stem cells. Unlike the undifferentiated hES cells the differentiated cells expressed neuronal markers, ERbeta, but not ERalpha. The non-selective ER agonist 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) rapidly increased [Ca2+]i oscillations and synchronizations within a few minutes. No change in calcium oscillations was observed with the selective ERalpha agonist 4,4',4''-(4-Propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl)trisphenol (PPT). In contrast, the selective ERbeta agonists, 2,3-bis(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile (DPN), MF101, and 2-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-vinyl-1,3 benzoxazol-5-ol (ERB-041; WAY-202041) stimulated calcium oscillations similar to E(2). The ERbeta agonists also increased calcium oscillations and phosphorylated PKC, AKT and ERK1/2 in neurons derived from mouse ES cells, which was inhibited by nifedipine demonstrating that ERbeta activates L-type voltage gated calcium channels to regulate neuronal activity. Our results demonstrate that ERbeta signaling regulates nongenomic pathways in neurons derived from ES cells, and suggest that these cells might be useful to study the nongenomic mechanisms of estrogenic compounds.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) has potent antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory properties, suggesting that ERbeta-selective agonists might be a new class of therapeutic and chemopreventive agents. To understand how ERbeta regulates genes, we identified genes regulated by the unliganded and liganded forms of ERalpha and ERbeta in U2OS cells. Microarray data demonstrated that virtually no gene regulation occurred with unliganded ERalpha, whereas many genes were regulated by estradiol (E(2)). These results demonstrated that ERalpha requires a ligand to regulate a single class of genes. In contrast, ERbeta regulated three classes of genes. Class I genes were regulated primarily by unliganded ERbeta. Class II genes were regulated only with E(2), whereas class III genes were regulated by both unliganded ERbeta and E(2). There were 453 class I genes, 258 class II genes, and 83 class III genes. To explore the mechanism whereby ERbeta regulates different classes of genes, chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing was performed to identify ERbeta binding sites and adjacent transcription factor motifs in regulated genes. AP1 binding sites were more enriched in class I genes, whereas ERE, NFkappaB1, and SP1 sites were more enriched in class II genes. ERbeta bound to all three classes of genes, demonstrating that ERbeta binding is not responsible for differential regulation of genes by unliganded and liganded ERbeta. The coactivator NCOA2 was differentially recruited to several target genes. Our findings indicate that the unliganded and liganded forms of ERbeta regulate three classes of genes by interacting with different transcription factors and coactivators.
No preview · Article · Jul 2010 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Estrogen receptor β (ERβ) has potent antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory properties, suggesting that ERβ-selective agonists
might be a new class of therapeutic and chemopreventative agents. To understand how ERβ regulates genes, we identified genes
regulated by the unliganded and liganded forms of ERα and ERβ in U2OS cells. Microarray data demonstrated that virtually no
gene regulation occurred with unliganded ERα, whereas many genes were regulated by estradiol (E2). These results demonstrated that ERα requires a ligand to regulate a single class of genes. In contrast, ERβ regulated three
classes of genes. Class I genes were regulated primarily by unliganded ERβ. Class II genes were regulated only with E2, whereas class III genes were regulated by both unliganded ERβ and E2. There were 453 class I genes, 258 class II genes, and 83 class III genes. To explore the mechanism whereby ERβ regulates
different classes of genes, chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing was performed to identify ERβ binding sites and adjacent
transcription factor motifs in regulated genes. AP1 binding sites were more enriched in class I genes, whereas ERE, NFκB1,
and SP1 sites were more enriched in class II genes. ERβ bound to all three classes of genes, demonstrating that ERβ binding
is not responsible for differential regulation of genes by unliganded and liganded ERβ. The coactivator NCOA2 was differentially
recruited to several target genes. Our findings indicate that the unliganded and liganded forms of ERβ regulate three classes
of genes by interacting with different transcription factors and coactivators.
No preview · Article · Jul 2010 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM) is a natural compound found in cruciferous vegetables that has antiproliferative and estrogenic activity. However, it is not clear whether the estrogenic effects are mediated through estrogen receptor (ER)alpha, ERbeta, or both ER subtypes. We investigated whether DIM has ER subtype selectivity on gene transcription. DIM stimulated ERbeta but not ERalpha activation of an estrogen response element upstream of the luciferase reporter gene. DIM also selectively activated multiple endogenous genes through ERbeta. DIM did not bind to ERbeta, indicating that it activates genes by a ligand-independent mechanism. DIM causes ERbeta to bind regulatory elements and recruit the steroid receptor coactivator (SRC)-2 coactivator, which leads to the activation of ER target genes. Silencing of SRC-2 inhibited the activation of ER target genes, demonstrating that SRC-2 is required for transcriptional activation by DIM. Our results demonstrate that DIM is a new class of ERbeta-selective compounds, because it does not bind to ERbeta, but instead it selectively recruits ERbeta and coactivators to target genes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tamoxifen can stimulate the growth of some breast tumors and others can become resistant to tamoxifen. We previously showed that unliganded ERbeta inhibits ERalpha-mediated proliferation of MCF-7 cells. We investigated if tamoxifen might have a potential negative effect on some breast cancer cells by blocking the effects of unliganded ERbeta on gene regulation. Gene expression profiles demonstrated that unliganded ERbeta upregulated 196 genes in MCF-7 cells. Tamoxifen significantly inhibited 73 of these genes by greater than 30%, including several growth-inhibitory genes. To explore the mechanism whereby unliganded ERbeta activates genes and how tamoxifen blocks this effect, we used doxycycline-inducible U2OS-ERbeta cells to produce unliganded ERbeta. Doxycycline produced a dose-dependent activation of the NKG2E, MSMB and TUB3A genes, which was abolished by tamoxifen. Unliganded ERbeta recruitment of SRC-2 to the NKG2E gene was blocked by tamoxifen. Our findings suggest that tamoxifen might exert a negative effect on ERbeta expressing tumors due to its antagonistic action on unliganded ERbeta.
No preview · Article · Oct 2009 · Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hormonal, targeted and chemotherapeutic strategies largely depend on the expression of their cognate receptors and are often accompanied by intolerable toxicities. Effective and less toxic therapies for estrogen receptor negative (ER-) breast cancers are urgently needed. Here, we present the potential molecular mechanisms mediating the selective pro-apoptotic effect induced by BN107 and its principle terpene, oleanolic acid (OA), on ER- breast cancer cells. A panel of breast cancer cell lines was examined and the most significant cytotoxic effect was observed in ER- breast lines. Apoptosis was the major cellular pathway mediating the cytotoxicity of BN107. We demonstrated that sensitivity to BN107 was correlated to the status of ERalpha. Specifically, the presence of functional ERalpha protected cells from BN107-induced apoptosis and absence of ERalpha increased the sensitivity. BN107, an extract rich in OA derivatives, caused rapid alterations in cholesterol homeostasis, presumably by depleting cholesterol in lipid rafts (LRs), which subsequently interfered with signaling mediated by LRs. We showed that BN107 or OA treatment in ER- breast cancer cells resulted in rapid and specific inhibition of LR-mediated survival signaling, namely mTORC1 and mTORC2 activities, by decreasing the levels of the mTOR/FRAP1, RAPTOR and RICTOR. Cotreatment with cholesterol abolished the proapoptotic effect and restored the disrupted mTOR activities. This is the first report demonstrating possible concomitant inhibition of both mTORC1 and mTORC2 activities by modulating the levels of protein constituents present in these signaling complexes, and thus provides a basis for future development of OA-based mTOR inhibitors.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · International Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Estrogens produce biological effects by interacting with two estrogen receptors, ERalpha and ERbeta. Drugs that selectively target ERalpha or ERbeta might be safer for conditions that have been traditionally treated with non-selective estrogens. Several synthetic and natural ERbeta-selective compounds have been identified. One class of ERbeta-selective agonists is represented by ERB-041 (WAY-202041) which binds to ERbeta much greater than ERalpha. A second class of ERbeta-selective agonists derived from plants include MF101, nyasol and liquiritigenin that bind similarly to both ERs, but only activate transcription with ERbeta. Diarylpropionitrile represents a third class of ERbeta-selective compounds because its selectivity is due to a combination of greater binding to ERbeta and transcriptional activity. However, it is unclear if these three classes of ERbeta-selective compounds produce similar biological activities. The goals of these studies were to determine the relative ERbeta selectivity and pattern of gene expression of these three classes of ERbeta-selective compounds compared to estradiol (E(2)), which is a non-selective ER agonist. U2OS cells stably transfected with ERalpha or ERbeta were treated with E(2) or the ERbeta-selective compounds for 6 h. Microarray data demonstrated that ERB-041, MF101 and liquiritigenin were the most ERbeta-selective agonists compared to estradiol, followed by nyasol and then diarylpropionitrile. FRET analysis showed that all compounds induced a similar conformation of ERbeta, which is consistent with the finding that most genes regulated by the ERbeta-selective compounds were similar to each other and E(2). However, there were some classes of genes differentially regulated by the ERbeta agonists and E(2). Two ERbeta-selective compounds, MF101 and liquiritigenin had cell type-specific effects as they regulated different genes in HeLa, Caco-2 and Ishikawa cell lines expressing ERbeta. Our gene profiling studies demonstrate that while most of the genes were commonly regulated by ERbeta-selective agonists and E(2), there were some genes regulated that were distinct from each other and E(2), suggesting that different ERbeta-selective agonists might produce distinct biological and clinical effects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), such as tamoxifen and raloxifene can act as estrogen receptor (ER) antagonists or agonists depending on the cell type. The antagonistic action of tamoxifen has been invaluable for treating breast cancer, whereas the agonist activity of SERMs also has important clinical applications as demonstrated by the use of raloxifene for osteoporosis. Whereas the mechanism whereby SERMs function as antagonists has been studied extensively very little is known about how SERMs produce agonist effects in different tissues with the two ER types; ERα and ERβ. We examined the regulation of 32 SERM-responsive regions with ERα and ERβ in transiently transfected MCF-7 breast, Ishikawa endometrial, HeLa cervical and WAR-5 prostate cancer cells. The regions were regulated by tamoxifen and raloxifene in some cell types, but not in all cell lines. Tamoxifen activated similar number of regions with ERα and ERβ in the cell lines, whereas raloxifene activated over twice as many regions with ERβ compared to ERα. In Ishikawa endometrial cancer cells, tamoxifen activated 17 regions with ERα, whereas raloxifene activated only 2 regions, which might explain their different effects on the endometrium. Microarray studies also found that raloxifene regulated fewer genes than tamoxifen in U2OS bone cancer cells expressing ERα, whereas tamoxifen was equally effective at regulating genes with ERα and ERβ. Our studies indicate that tamoxifen is a non-selective agonist, whereas raloxifene is a relative ERβ-selective agonist, and suggest that ERβ-selective SERMs might be safer for treating clinical conditions that are dependent on the agonist property of SERMs.
No preview · Article · Feb 2009 · Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Estrogen receptors (ERs) regulate gene transcription by interacting with regulatory elements. Most information regarding how ER activates genes has come from studies using a small set of target genes or simple consensus sequences such as estrogen response element, activator protein 1, and Sp1 elements. However, these elements cannot explain the differences in gene regulation patterns and clinical effects observed with estradiol (E(2)) and selective estrogen receptor modulators. To obtain a greater understanding of how E(2) and selective estrogen receptor modulators differentially regulate genes, it is necessary to investigate their action on a more comprehensive set of native regulatory elements derived from ER target genes. Here we used chromatin immunoprecipitation-cloning and sequencing to isolate 173 regulatory elements associated with ERalpha. Most elements were found in the introns (38%) and regions greater than 10 kb upstream of the transcription initiation site (38%); 24% of the elements were found in the proximal promoter region (<10 kb). Only 11% of the elements contained a classical estrogen response element; 23% of the elements did not have any known response elements, including one derived from the naked cuticle homolog gene, which was associated with the recruitment of p160 coactivators. Transfection studies found that 80% of the 173 elements were regulated by E(2), raloxifene, or tamoxifen with ERalpha or ERbeta. Tamoxifen was more effective than raloxifene at activating the elements with ERalpha, whereas raloxifene was superior with ERbeta. Our findings demonstrate that E(2), tamoxifen, and raloxifene differentially regulate native ER-regulatory elements isolated by chromatin immunoprecipitation with ERalpha and ERbeta.
Preview · Article · Mar 2008 · Molecular Endocrinology