[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fixed dose combination abacavir/lamivudine/zidovudine (ABC/3TC/ZDV) among HIV-1 and tuberculosis (TB)-coinfected patients was evaluated and outcomes between early vs. delayed initiation were compared. In a randomized, pilot study conducted in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania, HIV-infected inpatients with smear-positive TB and total lymphocyte count <1200/mm(3) were randomized to initiate ABC/3TC/ZDV either 2 (early) or 8 (delayed) weeks after commencing antituberculosis therapy and were followed for 104 weeks. Of 94 patients screened, 70 enrolled (41% female, median CD4 count 103 cells/mm(3)), and 33 in each group completed 104 weeks. Two deaths and 12 serious adverse events (SAEs) were observed in the early arm vs. one death, one clinical failure, and seven SAEs in the delayed arm (p = 0.6012 for time to first grade 3/4 event, SAE, or death). CD4 cell increases were +331 and +328 cells/mm(3), respectively. TB-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndromes (TB-IRIS) were not observed in any subject. Using intent-to-treat (ITT), missing = failure analyses, 74% (26/35) vs. 89% (31/35) randomized to early vs. delayed therapy had HIV RNA levels <400 copies/ml at 104 weeks (p = 0.2182) and 66% (23/35) vs. 74% (26/35), respectively, had HIV RNA levels <50 copies/ml (p = 0.6026). In an analysis in which switches from ABC/3TC/ZDV = failure, those receiving early therapy were less likely to be suppressed to <400 copies/ml [60% (21/35) vs. 86% (30/35), p = 0.030]. TB-IRIS was not observed among the 70 coinfected subjects beginning antiretroviral treatment. ABC/3TC/ZDV was well tolerated and resulted in steady immunologic improvement. Rates of virologic suppression were similar between early and delayed treatment strategies with triple nucleoside regimens when substitutions were allowed.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2009 · AIDS research and human retroviruses
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the performance of QuantiFERON-TB GOLD (QFTG) in a resource-poor setting among patients with and without HIV infection.
Two hospitals in Northern Tanzania.
Eighty three adult male and female inpatients.
All patients were screened for HIV infection and underwent tuberculin skin test (TST) and QFTG.
Eighty-three subjects were enrolled, and 29 (35%) of 83 were HIV-infected. QFTG yielded indeterminate results in 12 (22%; 95% CI 12%-34%) of 54 HIV-uninfected and 13 (45%; 95% CI 26%-64%) of 29 HIV-infected subjects (p = 0.0323). Among those with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis, TST was positive in 40 (100%; 95% CI 91%-100%) of 40 HIV-uninfected subjects compared with seven (54%; 95% CI 25%-81%) of 13 HIV-infected subjects (p < 0.0001), and QFTG was positive in 28 (70%; 95% CI 53%-83%) of 40 HIV-uninfected subjects compared with three (23%; 95% CI 5%-54%) of 13 HIV-infected subjects (p = 0.0029). Among medical inpatients at risk for latent tuberculosis infection, TST was positive in seven (50%) of 14 HIV-uninfected patients and three (19%) of 16 HIV-infected patients (p = 0.0701) and QFTG was positive among two (14%) of 14 HIV-uninfected patients and three (19%) of 16 HIV-infected patients (p = 0.7437).
The presence of HIV co-infection was associated with a significant reduction in sensitivity of both the TST (p < 0.0001) and QFTG (p = 0.0029) for the diagnosis of active M. tuberculosis infection. The high proportion of indeterminate QFTG and lack of sensitivity, particularly among HIV-infected patients, may limit its applicability in settings like Tanzania. Larger studies in resource-poor settings are required.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2008 · East African medical journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) reduces morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected persons in Africa, but its impact on antimicrobial resistance is of concern.
HIV-uninfected (group A), HIV-infected but not requiring SXT (group B), and HIV-infected and eligible for SXT (group C) adults were recruited into a prospective observational cohort study in Moshi, Tanzania. Stool was examined for Escherichia coli nonsusceptible to SXT at baseline and at weeks 1, 2, 4, and 24. General estimating equation models were used to assess differences in susceptibility over time and cross-resistance to other antimicrobials.
Of 181 subjects, 118 (65.1%) were female and the median (range) age was 36 (20 to 72) years. At baseline, E. coli nonsusceptible to SXT was isolated from 23 (53.5%) of 43 patients in group A, 25 (67.6%) of 37 patients in group B, and 37 (64.9%) of 57 patients in group C. The odds ratios (P value) for SXT nonsusceptibility in group C at weeks 1, 2, 4, and 24 compared with baseline were 3.4 (0.013), 3.0 (0.019), 2.9 (0.030), and 1.5 (0.515), respectively. SXT nonsusceptibility was associated with nonsusceptibility to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and nalidixic acid (P <or= 0.006).
In Tanzania, carriage of fecal E. coli nonsusceptible to SXT is common before SXT prophylaxis. Initiation of SXT leads to further loss of susceptibility to SXT and to other antimicrobials.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Access to antiretroviral therapy is rapidly expanding in sub-Saharan Africa. Identifying the predictors of incomplete adherence, virologic failure, and antiviral drug resistance is essential to achieving long-term success.
A total of 150 subjects who had received antiretroviral therapy for at least 6 months completed a structured questionnaire and adherence assessment, and plasma human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA levels were measured. Virologic failure was defined as an HIV RNA level >400 copies/mL; for patients with an HIV RNA level >1000 copies/mL, genotypic antiviral drug resistance testing was performed. Predictors were analyzed using bivariable and multivariable logistic regression models.
A total of 23 (16%) of 150 subjects reported incomplete adherence. Sacrificing health care for other necessities (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 19.8; P<.01) and the proportion of months receiving self-funded treatment (AOR, 23.5; P=.04) were associated with incomplete adherence. Virologic failure was identified in 48 (32%) of 150 subjects and was associated with incomplete adherence (AOR, 3.6; P=.03) and the proportion of months receiving self-funded antiretroviral therapy (AOR, 13.0; P=.02). Disclosure of HIV infection status to family members or others was protective against virologic failure (AOR, 0.10; P=.04).
Self-funded treatment was associated with incomplete adherence and virologic failure, and disclosure of HIV infection status was protective against virologic failure. Efforts to provide free antiretroviral therapy and to promote social coping may enhance adherence and reduce rates of virologic failure.
Preview · Article · Dec 2007 · Clinical Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical criteria are recommended to select HIV-infected patients for initiation of antiretroviral therapy when CD4 lymphocyte testing is unavailable. We evaluated the performance characteristics of WHO staging criteria, anthropometrics, and simple laboratory measurements for predicting CD4 lymphocyte count (CD4 count) <200 cells/mm(3) among HIV-infected patients in Tanzania. A total of 202 adults, diagnosed with HIV infection through community-based testing, underwent a detailed evaluation including staging history and examination, anthropometry, complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and CD4 count. Univariable analysis and recursive partitioning were used to identify characteristics associated with CD4 count 200 cells/mm(3). Of 202 participants 109 (54%) had a CD4 count <200 cells/mm(3). Characteristics most strongly associated with CD4 count <200 cells/mm(3) (p-value <0.0001) were the presence of mucocutaneous manifestations (72% vs. 28%), lower total lymphocyte count (TLC) (median 1,450 vs. 2,200 cells/mm(3)), lower total white blood cell count (median 4,200 vs. 5,500 cells/mm(3)), and higher ESR (median 95 vs. 53 mm/h). In a partition tree model, TLC <1,200 cells/mm(3), ESR >or=120 mm/h, or the presence of mucocutaneous manifestations yielded a sensitivity of 0.85 and specificity of 0.63 for predicting CD4 count <200 cells/mm(3). The sensitivity of the 2006 WHO Staging system improved from 0.75 to 0.93 with inclusion of these parameters, at the expense of specificity (0.36 to 0.26). The presence of mucocutaneous manifestations, TLC <1,200 cells/mm(3), or ESR >or=120 mm/h was a strong predictor of CD4 count <200 cells/mm(3) and enhanced the sensitivity of the 2006 WHO staging criteria for identifying patients likely to benefit from antiretrovirals.
No preview · Article · Oct 2007 · AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antiretroviral treatment literacy leads to greater HIV testing and treatment and antiretroviral treatment adherence. Among northern Tanzanian subjects, antiretroviral treatment awareness was only 17%. Factors associated with low antiretroviral treatment literacy included having exchanged money or gifts for sex, living in rural areas, having more than 2 children, and having a primary education only. Previous HIV testing was protective against low antiretroviral treatment literacy. These results support refocusing HIV education efforts and increasing synergy between HIV prevention and treatment programs.
No preview · Article · Apr 2007 · Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (JIAPAC)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Public health programs have focused on abstinence and faithfulness with a single partner as HIV protective behaviors. To examine the association between numbers of sexual partners and seropositivity, we studied clients presenting for HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) at a community-based HIV/AIDS organization in Moshi, Tanzania. Methods. Clients presenting between November 2003 and December 2004 reported numbers of lifetime sexual partners. The association between HIV infection and numbers of sexual partners, trichotomized by lifetime abstinence (0 partners), faithfulness (1 partner), and multiple partners (>1 partner), was calculated by gender. Results: Of 1,974 clients studied, 1,070 (54%) were female and the median age was 30 (range 18-83) years. Of clients, 72 (3.6%) reported abstinence; 585 (29.6%), one partner, and 1,317 (66.7%), multiple partners. As the number of lifetime sexual partners increased from 0 to 1 to >1, among males the absolute risk of seropositivity increased from 0.03 to 0.04 to 0.12, whereas that among females increased from 0.03 to 0.22 to 0.33. Women with 1 (odds ratio [OR]=6.86, p<0.01) and >1 (OR=3.61, p<0.01) lifetime sexual partners were more likely than men to be seropositive. Women reporting >1 lifetime sexual partners had half the median number of total partners (2, range 2-50) that men did (4, range 2-200). Conclusions. Women and men who were abstinent and men with a single lifetime partner had the lowest absolute risk of HIV infection. In contrast, women with a single partner had a more than five-fold increased risk of HIV infection, compared with similar men. Prevention methods that empower women to negotiate safer sex, even in the context of monogamous relationships, are needed.