Saga Johansson

AstraZeneca, Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden

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Publications (220)1233.21 Total impact

  • M. Elf · G. Eriksson · S. Johansson · L. von Koch · C. Ytterberg

    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · International Journal of Stroke
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    ABSTRACT: Background: In secondary cardiovascular prevention, discontinuation of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. This study assessed the impact of ASA reinitiation on the risk of myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease death. Methods: Patients prescribed ASA for secondary cardiovascular prevention and who had had a period of ASA discontinuation of ≥90 days in 2000-2007 were identified from The Health Improvement Network (N = 10,453). Incidence of myocardial infarction/coronary heart disease death was calculated. Survival analyses using adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were performed to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the risk of myocardial infarction/coronary heart disease death associated with ASA use patterns after the initial period of discontinuation. Individuals who were prescribed ASA during follow-up were considered reinitiators. Results: The incidence of myocardial infarction/coronary heart disease death was 8.90 cases per 1000 person-years. Risk of myocardial infarction/coronary heart disease death was similar for current ASA users, who had been continuously exposed since reinitiation, and patients who had not reinitiated ASA (hazard ratio 1.27, 95% confidence interval 0.93-1.73). Among reinitiators, an additional period of ASA discontinuation was associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction/coronary heart disease death compared with no reinitiation (current users: hazard ratio 1.46, 95% confidence interval 1.13-1.90; noncurrent users: hazard ratio 1.70, 95% confidence interval 1.31-2.21). Conclusions: ASA reinitiation was not associated with a decreased risk of myocardial infarction/coronary heart disease death. This may be explained by confounding by indication/comorbidity, whereby higher-risk patients are more likely to reinitiate therapy. An additional period of ASA discontinuation among reinitiators was associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction/coronary heart disease death.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: The use of antithrombotic drugs (anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs) has been reported to increase the risk of hemorrhagic stroke (HS) relative to no treatment. This study was performed to characterize the incidence and predictors of HS in users of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events. A cohort of 36,775 ASA users aged 50-84 years in 2000-2007 was identified from The Health Improvement Network database. The incidence of HS was calculated, and a nested case-control analysis, adjusted for potential confounding factors, was performed to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of potential risk factors with HS in current users of ASA. The overall incidence of HS was 5.70 cases per 10,000 person-years and increased with age. In current ASA users, the incidence of HS was 4.91 cases per 10,000 person-years. Predictors of HS in patients taking ASA for secondary prevention included a history of HS (OR, 4.84; 95% CI, 1.48-15.88), a history of atrial fibrillation (OR, 4.03; 95% CI, 1.53-10.62), and hypnotic/anxiolytic drug use (OR, 2.67; 95% CI, 1.17-6.05). The small number of patients using warfarin also had an increased risk of HS (OR, 23.42; 95% CI, 4.89-112.10). Physicians should consider additional risk factors for HS, such as a history of HS or atrial fibrillation, and the use of warfarin, before prescribing ASA for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases: the official journal of National Stroke Association
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    ABSTRACT: Studies on drug utilization usually do not allow direct cross-national comparisons because of differences in the respective applied methods. This study aimed to compare time trends in BZDs prescribing by applying a common protocol and analyses plan in seven European electronic healthcare databases. Crude and standardized prevalence rates of drug prescribing from 2001-2009 were calculated in databases from Spain, United Kingdon (UK), The Netherlands, Germany and Denmark. Prevalence was stratified by age, sex, BZD type [(using ATC codes), i.e. BZD-anxiolytics BZD-hypnotics, BZD-related drugs and clomethiazole], indication and number of prescription. Crude prevalence rates of BZDs prescribing ranged from 570 to 1700 per 10 000 person-years over the study period. Standardization by age and sex did not substantially change the differences. Standardized prevalence rates increased in the Spanish (+13%) and UK databases (+2% and +8%) over the study period, while they decreased in the Dutch databases (-4% and -22%), the German (-12%) and Danish (-26%) database. Prevalence of anxiolytics outweighed that of hypnotics in the Spanish, Dutch and Bavarian databases, but the reverse was shown in the UK and Danish databases. Prevalence rates consistently increased with age and were two-fold higher in women than in men in all databases. A median of 18% of users received 10 or more prescriptions in 2008. Although similar methods were applied, the prevalence of BZD prescribing varied considerably across different populations. Clinical factors related to BZDs and characteristics of the databases may explain these differences. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
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    ABSTRACT: Results from observational studies may be inconsistent because of variations in methodological and clinical factors that may be intrinsically related to the database (DB) where the study is performed. The objectives of this paper were to evaluate the impact of applying a common study protocol to study benzodiazepines (BZDs) (anxiolytics, hypnotics, and related drugs) and the risk of hip/femur fracture (HFF) across three European primary care DBs and to investigate any resulting discrepancies. To measure the risk of HFF among adult users of BZDs during 2001-2009, three cohort and nested case control (NCC) studies were performed in Base de datos para la Investigación Farmacoepidemiológica en Atención Primaria (BIFAP) (Spain), Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) (UK), and Mondriaan (The Netherlands). Four different models (A-D) with increasing levels of adjustment were analyzed. The risk according to duration and type of BZD was also explored. Adjusted hazard ratios (cohort), odds ratios (NCC), and their 95% confidence intervals were estimated. Adjusted hazard ratios (Model C) were 1.34 (1.23-1.47) in BIFAP, 1.66 (1.54-1.78) in CPRD, and 2.22 (1.55-3.29) in Mondriaan in cohort studies. Adjusted odds ratios (Model C) were 1.28 (1.16-1.42) in BIFAP, 1.60 (1.49-1.72) in CPRD, and 1.48 (0.89-2.48) in Mondriaan in NCC studies. A short-term effect was suggested in Mondriaan, but not in CPRD or BIFAP. All DBs showed an increased risk with the concomitant use of anxiolytic and hypnotic drugs. Applying similar study methods to different populations and DBs showed an increased risk of HFF in BZDs users but differed in the magnitude of the risk, which may be because of inherent differences between DBs. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are independent predictors of death and cardiovascular events and their concomitant prevalence has increased in recent years. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and other factors on the risk of death and cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes. A cohort of 57,946 patients with type 2 diabetes who were aged 20–89 years in 2000–2005 was identified from The Health Improvement Network, a UK primary care database. Incidence rates of death, myocardial infarction (MI), and ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (IS/TIA) were calculated overall and by eGFR category at baseline. eGFR was calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study equation. Death, MI and IS/TIA cases were detected using an automatic computer search and IS/TIA cases were further ascertained by manual review of medical records. Hazard ratios (HRs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for death, MI, and IS/TIA associated with eGFR category and other factors were estimated using Cox regression models adjusted for potential confounders. Overall incidence rates of death (mean follow-up time of 6.76 years), MI (6.64 years) and IS/TIA (6.56 years) were 43.65, 9.26 and 10.39 cases per 1000 person-years, respectively. A low eGFR (15–29 mL/min) was associated with an increased risk of death (HR: 2.79; 95% CI: 2.57–3.03), MI (HR: 2.33; 95% CI: 1.89–2.87) and IS/TIA (HR: 1.77; 95% CI: 1.43–2.18) relative to eGFR ≥ 60 mL/min. Other predictors of death, MI and IS/TIA included age, longer duration of diabetes, poor control of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, smoking and a history of cardiovascular events. In patients with type 2 diabetes, management of cardiovascular risk factors and careful monitoring of eGFR may represent opportunities to reduce the risks of death, MI and IS/TIA.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Cardiovascular Diabetology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Some research has suggested a potential link between prenatal exposure to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) or H2 -receptor antagonists (H2 RAs) and the development of childhood asthma. Aim: To quantify the relative risk of asthma in children who experienced pre-natal exposure to PPIs and/or H2 RAs, adjusting for potential confounders. Methods: In this observational cohort study (NCT01787435), women aged 18-45 years with completed pregnancies between January 1996 and December 2010 were identified from The Health Improvement Network in the United Kingdom, and were linked to infants. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models. Results: Our analysis identified 2371 prenatally exposed and 7745 unexposed infants. The incidence of asthma (per 1000 person-years) was 19.52 in the unexposed cohort, 23.88 in the PPI cohort and 32.16 in the H2 RA cohort. After adjusting for maternal healthcare utilisation during the year before pregnancy, the HR for asthma in infants whose mothers received prescriptions at any time during pregnancy was 1.12 (95% confidence interval: 0.88-1.44) for PPIs and 1.43 (1.20-1.70) for H2 RAs, when compared with unexposed infants. With further adjustment for maternal comorbidities and other medications, the HR for asthma was 1.03 (0.76-1.40) for PPIs and 1.32 (1.05-1.64) for H2 RAs. Conclusions: Our analysis showed no association between prenatal exposure to PPIs and asthma in childhood after adjusting for confounders. The association found for H2 RAs may be explained largely by underlying environmental or genetic factors, as suggested by reductions in hazard ratio estimates following adjustment for maternal comorbidities.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Gastroenterology
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    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Gastroenterology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Some research has suggested a potential link between prenatal exposure to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) or H2-receptor antagonists (H2RAs) and the development of childhood asthma. Aim: To quantify the relative risk of asthma in children who experienced pre-natal exposure to PPIs and/or H2RAs, adjusting for potential confounders. Methods: In this observational cohort study (NCT01787435), women aged 18-45 years with completed pregnancies between January 1996 and December 2010 were identified from The Health Improvement Network in the United Kingdom, and were linked to infants. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models. Results: Our analysis identified 2371 prenatally exposed and 7745 unexposed infants. The incidence of asthma (per 1000 person-years) was 19.52 in the unexposed cohort, 23.88 in the PPI cohort and 32.16 in the H2RA cohort. After adjusting for maternal healthcare utilisation during the year before pregnancy, the HR for asthma in infants whose mothers received prescriptions at any time during pregnancy was 1.12 (95% confidence interval: 0.88-1.44) for PPIs and 1.43 (1.20-1.70) for H2RAs, when compared with unexposed infants. With further adjustment for maternal comorbidities and other medications, the HR for asthma was 1.03 (0.76-1.40) for PPIs and 1.32 (1.05-1.64) for H2RAs. Conclusions: Our analysis showed no association between prenatal exposure to PPIs and asthma in childhood after adjusting for confounders. The association found for H2RAs may be explained largely by underlying environmental or genetic factors, as suggested by reductions in hazard ratio estimates following adjustment for maternal comorbidities.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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    ABSTRACT: Antiplatelet (AP) therapy is well established for the secondary prevention of acute coronary events. However, patients may discontinue treatment, often owing to gastrointestinal (GI) complications, leaving them at elevated risk of recurrent cardiovascular events. This descriptive retrospective study assessed trends in prescription of AP agents and coprescription of gastroprotective therapy, after an acute coronary event. Discontinuation of AP therapy within 2 years of an event and factors predicting discontinuation were investigated. The study was conducted in a UK primary care setting from 2000 to 2008; a total of 27 351 patients aged 50 to 84 years were included in the analysis. Main outcome measures were exposures to low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), clopidogrel, and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). At 90 days after an acute coronary event, 85.9% of patients had been prescribed some form of AP therapy and 33.6% of patients who were issued at least 1 ASA prescription in this period were also issued a PPI prescription. The use of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAT) 90 days after an event increased from 2% in 2000 to over 50% in 2008. An estimated 15.1% of patients on ASA monotherapy and 37.5% on DAT discontinued treatment within 1 year. A bleeding event during follow-up, including upper GI bleeding or hemorrhagic stroke, was the strongest predictor of discontinuation. Although most patients were prescribed AP therapy in the 90 days following an acute coronary event, a substantial proportion discontinued DAT or ASA monotherapy within 1 year. It is essential that physicians consider strategies to reduce the risk of discontinuation of AP therapy. © The Author(s) 2014.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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    ABSTRACT: Background The aim of this study was to analyse the risk of uncomplicated peptic ulcer disease (PUD) in a cohort of new users of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) for secondary prevention of cardiovascular events in a UK primary care setting.Methods New users of low-dose ASA for secondary prevention of cardiovascular events, aged 50-84 years in 2000-2007, were identified from The Health Improvement Network. Among those 38,975 individuals, 309 patients were considered to be incident cases of uncomplicated PUD. Incidence of uncomplicated PUD was calculated and a nested case¿control analysis adjusted for potential confounding factors was performed to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) for the association of potential risk factors with uncomplicated PUD.ResultsThe crude incidence of uncomplicated PUD was 1.41 per 1000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-1.58). Individuals with a history of PUD were more likely to develop uncomplicated PUD than those without such a history (hazard ratio [HR], 2.22, 95% CI, 1.60-3.09). In nested case¿control analyses, the risk of uncomplicated PUD was associated with current use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, oral steroids or acid suppressants. Other risk factors for developing uncomplicated PUD included smoking, stress, depression, anaemia and social deprivation.Conclusion Our results indicate that several risk factors significantly increase the risk of development of uncomplicated PUD in new users of low-dose ASA. Therefore, physicians should monitor ASA users for gastrointestinal symptoms and signs of ulcer, particularly if they have additional risk factors.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · BMC Gastroenterology

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Sep 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Background Anticoagulants and/or antiplatelet agents such as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) are important in prevention of cardiovascular (CV) events, but may be associated with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). However, discontinuing these agents may leave patients at risk of CV events. Objectives This study aimed to assess patterns of therapy after UGIB in routine clinical practice. Methods The Health Improvement Network UK primary care database was used to identify a cohort of patients aged 40-84 years with a UGIB event between 2000 and 2007 (n = 2,036). Patients were followed up for 1 year from the recorded UGIB. Re-prescription rates for antithrombotics and drugs that can modify the risk of UGIB were estimated at 30, 90, 180, and 365 days. Results At 365 days, the re-prescription rate was 43 % for ASA, 66 % for warfarin, 69 % for clopidogrel, and 49 % for dipyridamole. The re-prescription rate of gastroprotective agents at 365 days for current users of histamine H2-receptor antagonists was 36 % and that of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) was 97 %. In patients who were prescribed ASA before UGIB (n = 572), only 24 % were prescribed a PPI in the previous year. In patients who were prescribed ASA in the year after UGIB (n = 337), 92 % were prescribed a PPI. Conclusions Antiplatelet use fell after UGIB events. In patients who were prescribed a PPI after a UGIB event, there was increased re-prescription of antiplatelet agents and antithrombotics.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs
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    ABSTRACT: Few epidemiologic studies have investigated predictors of uncomplicated peptic ulcer disease (PUD) separately from predictors of complicated PUD.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: In this retrospective database study, carried out using The Health Improvement Network, a UK primary care database, we followed up patients who were prescribed low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) (75-300 mg/day) for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease in 2000-2007, and who discontinued therapy for a period of at least 90 days during that time (n = 11,565). We assessed the incidence of, and factors associated with, ASA represcription. Patients were followed up from the first day after their initial 90-day period of discontinuation (start date) until ASA represcription, death, or the end of the study period (31 December 2010). Hazard ratios for factors associated with represcription were calculated using Cox regression models. The cumulative incidence of ASA represcription was 85.2 % over the entire follow-up period, and 63.5 % of all represcriptions were received in the first 6 months after patients' start dates. Factors significantly associated with a reduced likelihood of ASA represcription included being aged 75-84 years, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal comorbidities (in particular, atrial fibrillation and high overall gastrointestinal risk), adverse drug reactions experienced during therapy, and use of gastroprotective or cardiovascular medications (most notably warfarin). Factors significantly associated with an increased likelihood of ASA represcription included obesity, diabetes mellitus, stable angina, depression, and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In conclusion, approximately 85 % of patients who discontinued low-dose ASA therapy were subsequently represcribed ASA during the study period. Comorbidities and comedication use affected represcription rates.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives We aimed to clarify the nature of the association between hip fracture risk and use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) or histamine2-receptor antagonists (H2RAs).Methods We identified patients 40–89 years of age with a recorded hip fracture diagnosis in 2000–2008 using The Health Improvement Network, a UK primary care research database. Computerized records were reviewed and questionnaires sent to primary care physicians to validate hip fracture cases. A cohort study with a nested case-control analysis was performed to estimate the association between the use of acid-suppressive drugs and hip fracture.ResultsOverall incidence of hip fracture per 1000 person-years was 1.31 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28–1.33). There was a modest increased risk of hip fracture after adjustment for potential confounders (odds ratios [OR] during current use of PPIs and H2RAs: 1.09 [95% CI 1.01–1.17] and 1.04 [95% CI 0.90–1.19], respectively). Relative to nonuse, an increased risk of fracture was observed with medium and high doses of PPIs (OR 1.11 [95% CI 1.01–1.22] and OR 1.31 [95% CI 1.06–1.61], respectively) and high doses of H2RAs (OR 2.77, 95% CI 1.21–6.37). No duration response was observed (ORs for current PPI use less than 1 month and 5 years or longer: 1.16 [95% CI 0.94–1.43] and 1.02 [95% CI 0.87–1.20], respectively).Conclusions Patients treated with PPIs showed a modest increased risk of hip fracture after adjustment for potential cofounders. Any remaining association between PPI use and hip fracture risk may be attributable to residual confounding.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Pharmacotherapy
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    Full-text · Dataset · Apr 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Hip fractures represent a major public health challenge worldwide. Multinational studies using a common methodology are scarce. We aimed to estimate the incidence rates (IRs) and trends of hip/femur fractures over the period 2003-2009 in five European countries. The study was performed using seven electronic health-care records databases (DBs) from Denmark, The Netherlands, Germany, Spain, and the United Kingdom, based on the same protocol. Yearly IRs of hip/femur fractures were calculated for the general population and for those aged ≥50 years. Trends over time were evaluated using linear regression analysis for both crude and standardized IRs. Sex- and age-standardized IRs for the UK, Netherlands, and Spanish DBs varied from 9 to 11 per 10,000 person-years for the general population and from 22 to 26 for those ≥50 years old; the German DB showed slightly higher IRs (about 13 and 30, respectively), whereas the Danish DB yielded IRs twofold higher (19 and 52, respectively). IRs increased exponentially with age in both sexes. The ratio of females to males was ≥2 for patients aged ≥70-79 years in most DBs. Statistically significant trends over time were only shown for the UK DB (CPRD) (+0.7 % per year, P < 0.01) and the Danish DB (-1.4 % per year, P < 0.01). IRs of hip/femur fractures varied greatly across European countries. With the exception of Denmark, no decreasing trend was observed over the study period.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Calcified Tissue International
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    Full-text · Dataset · Mar 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Background: From the mid-1980s to mid-1990s, the WHO MONICA Project monitored coronary events and classic risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) in 38 populations from 21 countries. We assessed the extent to which changes in these risk factors explain the variation in the trends in coronary-event rates across the populations. Methods: In men and women aged 35—64 years, non-fatal myocardial infarction and coronary deaths were registered continuously to assess trends in rates of coronary events. We carried out population surveys to estimate trends in risk factors. Trends in event rates were regressed on trends in risk score and in individual risk factors. Findings: Smoking rates decreased in most male populations but trends were mixed in women; mean blood pressures and cholesterol concentrations decreased, bodymass index increased, and overall risk scores and coronary-event rates decreased. The model of trends in 10-year coronary-event rates against risk scores and single risk factors showed a poor fit, but this was improved with a 4-year time lag for coronary events. The explanatory power of the analyses was limited by imprecision of the estimates and homogeneity of trends in the study populations. Interpretation: Changes in the classic risk factors seem to partly explain the variation in population trends in CHD. Residual variance is attributable to difficulties in measurement and analysis, including time lag, and to factors that were not included, such as medical interventions. The results support prevention policies based on the classic risk factors but suggest potential for prevention beyond these.
    Full-text · Dataset · Mar 2014

Publication Stats

6k Citations
1,233.21 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2001-2015
    • AstraZeneca
      Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 2014
    • Indap Sweden AB
      Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 2006-2013
    • University of Gothenburg
      • Institute of Medicine
      Goeteborg, Västra Götaland, Sweden
  • 1997-2010
    • Sahlgrenska University Hospital
      • Department of Cardiology
      Goeteborg, Västra Götaland, Sweden
  • 2000-2009
    • Uppsala University
      • Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences
      Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden
    • The Centro Español de Investigación Farmacoepidemiológica
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2007
    • Norwegian University of Science and Technology
      • Department of Public Health and General Practice
      Nidaros, Sør-Trøndelag, Norway
  • 1985-1992
    • Lund University
      • Department of Cardiology
      Lund, Skåne, Sweden