[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
To investigate anti-neurofascin 155 (NF155) antibody-positive chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP).Methods
Sera from 50 consecutive CIDP patients diagnosed in our clinic, 32 patients with multiple sclerosis, 40 patients with other neuropathies including 26 with Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS)/Fisher syndrome, and 30 healthy controls were measured for anti-NF antibodies by flow cytometry using HEK293 cell lines stably expressing human NF155 or NF186. Four additional CIDP patients with anti-NF155 antibodies referred from other clinics were enrolled for clinical characterization.ResultsThe positivity rate for anti-NF155 antibodies in CIDP patients was 18% (9/50), who all showed a predominance of IgG4 subclass. No other subjects were positive, except one GBS patient harboring IgG1 anti-NF155 antibodies. No anti-NF155 antibody carriers had anti-NF186 antibodies. Anti-NF155 antibody-positive CIDP patients had a significantly younger onset age, higher frequency of drop foot, gait disturbance, tremor and distal acquired demyelinating symmetric phenotype, greater cervical root diameter on magnetic resonance imaging neurography, higher cerebrospinal fluid protein levels, and longer distal and F-wave latencies than anti-NF155 antibody-negative patients. Marked symmetric hypertrophy of cervical and lumbosacral roots/plexuses was present in all anti-NF155 antibody-positive CIDP patients examined by neurography. Biopsied sural nerves from two patients with anti-NF155 antibodies demonstrated subperineurial edema and occasional paranodal demyelination, but no vasculitis, inflammatory cell infiltrates, or onion bulbs. Among anti-NF155 antibody-positive patients, treatment responders more frequently had daily oral corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressants in addition to intravenous immunoglobulins than nonresponders did.InterpretationAnti-NF155 antibodies occur in a subset of CIDP patients with distal-dominant involvement and symmetric nerve hypertrophy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To categorize four types of sleep- and non-sleep-related hallucinations experienced by normal people and classify ghost or ghost-like stories by these categories. A total of 183 reliable tales of ghosts [41 from “Tohno Monogatari” (Tohno Folktales) and 142 from “Nihon Kaidan Shu” (Ghosts Tales of Japan)] are classified into hallucinations that are sleep-related hallucinations [hypnagogic hallucination-like (HyH) and REM sleep behavior disorder or somnambulism-like (RBDS) tales] and sleep-unrelated [vivid hallucination-like (VH) and highway hypnosis-like (HHy) tales] according to the criteria. Sixty to 70% of these tales can be classified into these four types of hallucinations. Further, sleep-related hallucinations increased from 17.0% to 36.6% in about 40 years. Our criteria will be useful to classify hallucinations experienced by normal people and to elucidate the mechanisms of these kinds of hallucinations experienced in neurodegenerative or psychological disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chloroquine, an anti-malaria drug, is known to cause myopathy with rimmed vacuole formation. Although it disrupts the lysosomal degradation of proteins, the precise mechanism underlying muscle fiber degeneration has remained unclear. We investigated the temporal profiles of muscle fiber degeneration in chloroquine-treated rats, paying special attention to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy. Male Wistar rats were intraperitoneally injected with chloroquine diphosphate at a dosage of 50 mg/kg body weight every day. We examined the localization and levels of proteins related to ER stress and autophagy in soleus muscle by means of immunohistochemistry and Western blotting at 3, 5, and 7 weeks after the beginning of the treatment. At 3 weeks, the levels of LC3-II and amyloid-beta (Abeta) were increased. At 5 weeks, an unfolded protein response took place. At 7 weeks, rimmed vacuole formation became obvious. Interestingly, SERCA2, a Ca2+ -pump ATPase located in the endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane was up-regulated at 5 weeks after treatment, but declined to the control level by 7 weeks. Taken together, these findings suggest that Abeta accumulation (at 3 weeks) caused by the disruption of lysosomal enzymes precedes an unfolded protein response (at 5 weeks). Next, activation of autophagy occurs (at 7 weeks), probably using sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane, the amount of which was increased. Chloroquine-treated rats could be useful for investigating the pathogenesis of diseases related to Abeta accumulation.
No preview · Article · Mar 2009 · Acta Neuropathologica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare autosomal dominant congenital disease characterized by progressive heterotopic endochondral osteogenesis with great-toe malformations. A 617G > A (R206H) mutation of the activin A type 1 receptor gene (ACVR1) has been found in all previously reported patients with FOP. Thus, this is one of the most specific of all disease-associated mutations. We report here on a 62-year-old man with slowly progressive FOP and a novel mutation in ACVR1. He developed difficulty in moving his shoulder since age 10 years due to contraction of the shoulder joint. The symptoms progressed slowly, and he could not walk at age 36 years and was bedridden at 55 years. He also showed rigid spine, baldness, sensorineural hearing loss, and hypodactyly accompanied by abnormal ectopic ossification. Analysis of ACVR1 and its cDNA revealed that the patient is heterozygous for a mutation, 1067G > A (G356D). Typing of SNPs located in the approximately 0.5-Mb region spanning ACVR1 and its neighbor genes suggested that 1067G > A is a de novo mutation. These results give a clue to better understanding of FOP as well as of the mild clinical symptoms in the patient.
No preview · Article · Feb 2008 · American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a 72-year-old man with eosinophilic myositis (EM). At age 71 he noticed a painful nodule in his left calf. A biopsy (first biopsy) showed marked infiltration of mononucleated cells and necrotic muscle fibers. Several phagocytosed fibers were also seen. He was diagnosed as having myositis. The painful nodule disappeared spontaneously. At age 72, he again had a painful nodule, but this time in his right calf; again, this disappeared spontaneously on the first admission. Just after discharge, he noted painful nodules in the left thigh and right anterior tibial muscles and was again admitted (second admission). Neurological examination revealed mild proximal-dominant weakness in all four extremities but no other abnormalities. Laboratory studies showed elevated creatine kinase (CK) level (38,803 U/l; normal 62-287) and positive Jo-1 antibody, but no eosinophilia. Needle electromyography of the limb muscles showed myogenic patterns. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lower limbs demonstrated several T2-high and gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced lesions. Muscle biopsy (second biopsy) from the left quadriceps femoris showed marked infiltration of eosinophils; he was diagnosed as having EM. Administration of prednisolone was initiated at 60 mg/day and then gradually tapered. After starting treatment with steroids, his muscle weakness gradually ameliorated, CK level dramatically decreased, and the nodules disappeared. Clinically, the patient had developed localized nodular myositis (LNM), but pathologically it was EM without peripheral blood eosinophilia and positive Jo-1 antibody that is occasionally found in polymyositis (PM). Thus, this patient demonstrated overlapping characteristics of EM, LNM, and possibly PM, suggesting that a common mechanism underlay these conditions. As discussed, the involvement of eosinophils in three inflammatory myopathies was indicated.
No preview · Article · Feb 2008 · Rinsho shinkeigaku = Clinical neurology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), alternative splicing of ryanodine receptor 1 (RyR1) and sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) genes has been reported. These proteins are essential for maintaining intracellular Ca2+ in skeletal muscle. To clarify involvement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in DM1 muscles, we examined the activation of ER stress-related proteins by immunohistochemistry, western blot analysis and RT-PCR. In four of five DM1 muscle biopsies, except for a muscle biopsy from a patient with the shortest CTG expansion and no myotonia, increased expression of GRP78 and calnexin, and phosphorylation of PERK and eIF-2 alpha were revealed in fibers with sarcoplasmic masses and in highly atrophic fibers with pyknotic nuclear clumps. Caspase-3 and -7 were also expressed in these fibers. Increased expression of GRP78 in these DM1 muscles was confirmed by western blot analysis. GRP78 mRNA and spliced isoform of XBP1 mRNA were also increased in DM1 muscle biopsies. Furthermore, we demonstrated increased expression of GRP78 in highly atrophic fibers with pyknotic nuclear clumps in all three muscle biopsies from neurogenic muscular atrophies. However, five muscle biopsies from central core disease presumably with disturbed intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and a muscle biopsy from paramyotonia congenita with myotonia showed no activation of these proteins. Taken together, ER stress is involved in muscle wasting in DM1. However, it seems to be evoked not only by disrupted intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis.
No preview · Article · Dec 2007 · Acta Neuropathologica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Granulysin, a recently defined cytolytic molecule, is expressed in cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells in a similar way to perforin, which is reported to have a major role in the pathogenesis of polymyositis and inclusion-body myositis (IBM).
To clarify the role of granulysin in polymyositis and IBM.
The expression of granulysin and perforin was examined by double staining with CD8, CD4 and CD56 in endomysial infiltrating cells and autoinvasive cells in muscle biopsy specimens of 17 patients with polymyositis (6 steroid resistant and 11 steroid responsive) and of 7 patients with IBM.
Similar to perforin, granulysin was expressed in CD8, CD4 or CD56 cells in patients with polymyositis and IBM. The ratio of cells double positive for granulysin and CD8 to all CD8 cells at endomysial sites was notably higher in steroid-resistant polymyositis than in steroid-responsive polymyositis and IBM.
Granulysin expression in CD8 cells seems to be correlated with steroid resistance in polymyositis.
Preview · Article · Nov 2006 · Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An improved method for Southern DNA and Northern RNA blotting using the Mupid-2 Mini-Gel System is described. We get sharp and clear bands in Southern and Northern blotting after only 30 min short gel electrophoresis instead of the several hours large gel electrophoresis of conventional methods. The high electrical voltage with a pulse-like current of the Mupid-2 Mini-Gel System also allows reduction of the amount of formaldehyde, a harmful reagent, from the gel running buffer in RNA blotting. This minor modification of DNA and RNA blotting technique enables us to perform the complete experimental procedure more quickly economically in less space, than conventional Southern and Northern blotting, as well as using an extremely small amount of formaldehyde in RNA blotting.
No preview · Article · Sep 2006 · Journal of Biochemical and Biophysical Methods
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) ending at 42 plays a pivotal role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have reported previously that intracellular Abeta42 is associated with neuronal apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Here, we show that intracellular Abeta42 directly activated the p53 promoter, resulting in p53-dependent apoptosis, and that intracellular Abeta40 had a similar but lesser effect. Moreover, oxidative DNA damage induced nuclear localization of Abeta42 with p53 mRNA elevation in guinea-pig primary neurons. Also, p53 expression was elevated in brain of sporadic AD and transgenic mice carrying mutant familial AD genes. Remarkably, accumulation of both Abeta42 and p53 was found in some degenerating-shape neurons in both transgenic mice and human AD cases. Thus, the intracellular Abeta42/p53 pathway may be directly relevant to neuronal loss in AD. Although neurotoxicity of extracellular Abeta is well known and synaptic/mitochondrial dysfunction by intracellular Abeta42 has recently been suggested, intracellular Abeta42 may cause p53-dependent neuronal apoptosis through activation of the p53 promoter; thus demonstrating an alternative pathogenesis in AD.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2005 · The FASEB Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Expanded CUG triplet repeats carrying mRNA seem to be responsible for myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). To study the pathogenesis of DM1, we constructed a DM1 cell culture model using a PC12 neuronal cell line and screened flavonoids that ameliorate this mRNA gain of function. The expanded 250 CTG repeat was subcloned into the 3'-untranslated region of the luciferase gene yielding a stable transformant of PC12 (CTG-250). The cytotoxicity of CTG-250 was evaluated by intracellular LDH activity, and the cis-effect by luciferase activity. To find agents that alter CTG-250 toxic effects, 235 bioflavonoids were screened. An increased cis-effect and cytotoxicity were found when CTG-250 was treated with nerve growth factor to induce differentiation. Western blotting with anti-caspase-3 antibody suggested that cell death was caused by apoptosis. Screening analysis confirmed that a flavone (toringin), an isoflavones (genistein and formononetin), a flavanone (isosakuranetin), and DHEA-S prevent both the cytotoxicity and cis-effect of CTG-250 and that a flavanone (naringenin), isoflavone (ononin), and xanthylatin strongly inhibit the cis-effect of CTG repeats. In conclusion, we found that this neuronal cell line, which expresses the CUG repeat-bearing mRNA, showed cis-effects through the reporter gene and neuronal death after cell differentiation in vitro. However, some flavonoids and DHEA-S inhibit both the cis-effect and cytotoxicity, indicating that their chemical structures work to ameliorate both these toxic effects. This system makes it easy to evaluate the toxic effects of expanded CTG repeats and therefore should be useful for screening other DM1 treatments for their efficacies.
No preview · Article · Mar 2005 · Biochemical Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:The existence of peripheral neuropathy after chronic exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is still controversial because studies concerning the effects of PCBs on the peripheral nervous system are rare.Objective:The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between neurological signs and symptoms and the concentration of serum PCBs.Materials and methods:Neurological data collected from the results of a nationwide health examination of 450 male and 557 female Yusho victims (chronic PCB poisoning) exposed more than 36 years ago were compared with recent measurements of the serum PCB concentration and patterns.Results:The frequency of sensory disturbance detected by neurological examination was significantly higher in the group of officially acknowledged victims (male, P = 0.014; female, P = 0.001) than in age-matched controls. Significant differences were not observed between the serum PCB patterns and the neurological findings, but the serum PCB concentration was significantly higher in the group with decreased tendon reflex in officially and non-officially acknowledged female Yusho victims (male, P = 0.994; female, P = 0.014).Conclusion:These results suggest that the long half-life of PCBs and their accumulation in fatty tissue can lead to persistent mild impairment of the peripheral nervous system even long after exposure.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2005 · Journal of Dermatological Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 29-year-old woman with benign congenital nemaline myopathy is reported. She did not walk until the age of one year and seven months. Although she acquired the ability to run, she ran very slowly. She first noticed the progression of weakness of the limbs at age 21, and it worsened gradually. On admission, she showed moderate weakness in the face, neck, and four limbs. Serum creatine kinase was elevated to 218 U/l. Needle electromyography showed giant and polyphasic motor unit potentials with a reduced reference pattern in the four limbs diffusely. In muscle biopsy, about 10% of fibers had many small vacuoles, and half of them were rimmed. Modified Gomori trichrome stain revealed nemaline rods in about 20% of both type I and type II fibers. Fibers with large diameter and atrophic ones showed increased acid phosphatase activity. Type I fibers were small, and type II fibers numbered only 2%. We diagnosed her illness as a congenital nemaline myopathy that began in infancy and progressed in adulthood. The increased autophagic activity probably caused the progression of muscle weakness. Moreover, the presence of both nemaline rods and rimmed vacuoles may have contributed to the development of diffuse neurogenic changes seen in electromyography.
No preview · Article · Aug 2004 · Rinsho shinkeigaku = Clinical neurology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two adult females developed HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and psoriasis. Both showed chronic progressive paraparesis and sharply demarcated erythematous scaling plaques on their extremities and trunk. One patient had polymyositis while in the other anti-thyroid antibodies, antinuclear antibodies and SS-A antibody, all autoantibodies, were positive. Both patients were treated by intramuscular injections of interferon-alpha for 2 to 4 weeks, resulting in amelioration of paraparesis. After the therapy psoriasis and polymyositis markedly improved in one patient without any additional therapy, while in the other simultaneous use of topical corticosteroids was effective. This is the first report to describe occurrences of psoriasis in HAM/TSP patients. Although there are several reports indicating interferon-alpha induces or exacerbates psoriasis, our experience suggests that psoriasis associated with HAM/TSP can be successfully managed even during interferon-alpha therapy.
No preview · Article · Jul 2004 · Journal of the Neurological Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Muscle biopsy specimens of two patients with fatal reducing body myopathy showed few necrotic or regenerating fibers. On the other hand, enlarged densely stained myonuclei, in addition to the presence of many reducing bodies, were striking on light microscopy, and chromatin condensation was seen on electron microscopy. To confirm the involvement of apoptosis, we performed the TUNEL method at the electron microscopic level on muscles of the two patients and five age-matched controls. The density of DNA fragments in myonuclei showing chromatin condensation was significantly higher in reducing body myopathy compared to that in control muscles. In addition, the myonuclei surrounded by many reducing bodies tended to show more intense chromatin condensation and a higher density of DNA fragments than those distant from the reducing bodies. These results suggest that apoptosis takes part in muscle fiber degeneration in fatal reducing body myopathy, although the precise relationship between reducing bodies and apoptosis is uncertain.
No preview · Article · Jun 2004 · Acta Neuropathologica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amyopathic dermatomyositis (ADM) is characterized by the typical cutaneous features of dermatomyositis and minor involvement of the skeletal muscles. A 50-year-old woman had fever, reddening and pain in the distal part of all four limbs, and cutaneous findings such as Gottron's papules and periorbital heliotrope. She showed no muscle weakness or atrophy, and her serum creatine kinase was within the normal range. Electromyography showed no myopathic pattern. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) recorded abnormal hyperintensity in the fascia and muscle of the tibialis anterior. A biopsy from the tibialis anterior muscle showed fasciitis and mild myopathic changes with focal perivascular infiltration. This patient also presented with interstitial pneumonitis, although evaluation for malignancy was negative. With steroid therapy, her symptoms and MRI abnormality disappeared within 2 months. This case is therefore considered to be a variant of ADM, presenting as dermato-fasciitis.
No preview · Article · May 2004 · Clinical Rheumatology