[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ethnopharmacological relevance:
Protection of intellectual property rights and benefit-sharing are key issues for all ethnopharmacological research. The International Society of Ethnobiology has produced helpful guidelines on access and benefit-sharing which are widely viewed as a "gold standard" but the question remains how best to apply these guidelines in practice. Difficult questions include ownership of traditional knowledge, making appropriate agreements, and how appropriately to share benefits.
Materials and methods:
We present the case study of the development of an "improved traditional medicine" for malaria in Mali and we report how benefit-sharing was applied in this case.
The knowledge about the selected plant came independently from several families and traditional healers. The IPR approach was to recognise that this traditional knowledge belongs to the people of Mali and was used for their benefit in developing a new "improved traditional medicine" (ITM). The traditional healer whose method of preparation was used, and who collaborated in clinical trials, did not request any financial reward but asked for the ITM to be named after him. The most sustainable benefit for the community was sharing the results of which preparation of which medicinal plant seemed to be the most effective for treating malaria. Attempts at providing a health centre and training a health worker for the village did not prove to be sustainable.
Respect for intellectual property rights and benefit-sharing are possible even in a context where the knowledge is not owned by a clearly identified person or group of people. The most sustainable benefits are intangible rather than material: namely recognition, improved knowledge about which traditional treatment is the best and how to prepare and take it.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of ethnopharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Opilia celtidifolia est une plante traditionnellement utilisée contre les plaies et l’ulcère gastro duodénal. Le but de ce travail était d’étudier l’activité antiulcéreuse des extraits aqueux de cette de la plante. Des extraits aqueux, total et épuisé, ont été préparés par décoction. Le décoté total a été testé à 100 et 200 mg/kg et le décocté épuisé à100 mg/kg. Le Sucralfate a été utilisé comme témoin positif à la dose de 1000 mg/kg et le groupe non traité a reçu de l’eau distillée à10 ml/kg. Les extraits ont été administrés par voie intragastrique, une heure après, 0,5 ml d’éthanol à 90% a été administré aux animaux pour provoquer l’ulcère pendant une heure. Après ce temps, les rats ont été sacrifiés. L’estomac de chaque rat a été ouvert pour observer et compter les ulcères. L’indice d’ulcère a été exprimé et le pourcentage de protection a été calculé. A 100mg/kg, le décocté épuisé a induit une protection de la muqueuse de 75%, contre 31% pour le décocté total. Le Sucralfate, utilisé comme témoin a présenté une protection de 87,50%. Ces résultats démontrent que les feuilles de Opilia celtidifolia peuvent intervenir dans le traitement de l’ulcère gastrique. La mise au point d’un phytomédicament contre l’ulcère gastrique à base des feuilles de cette plante est donc envisageable.Mots clés : Opilia celtidifolia, protection, ulcère gastrique.
Preview · Article · May 2015 · International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phytochemical study and research on acute toxicity were performed on the aerial parts (leaves and stems) of Euphorbia hirta Linn. The phytochemical screening and chromatography revealed the presence of saponin, sterol, terpene, alkaloids, polyphenols, tannins and flavonoids and especially mucilage. The evaluation of total polyphenols and total flavonoids gave 120.97 ± 7.07 gallic acid equivalents (GAE) mg/g (mg of GAE/g of extract) of dry extract and 41.4 ± 0.5 mg quercetin equivalent per gram (QE/g) (mg of QE/g of plant extract) of dry extract respectively. The physicochemical study revealed moisture content of 7.73% ± 0.00%, total ash 7.48% ± 0.03%. Sulfuric ash 9.05% ± 0.01%, hydrochloric acid insoluble ash of 0.8% ± 0.02%. The search for minerals salt revealed the presence of Cr, Zn, K, Ca and Mg having an important role in glucose metabolism. The acute toxicity study showed that the toxic dose may be above 3000 mg/kg. The results of these studies indicate that extracts from the leaves and stem of E. hirta Linn. contains trace elements and minerals salt and bioactive secondary metabolites which explain their therapeutic uses for treating diabetes mellitus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Entada africana roots are used in African traditional medicine for various diseases including inflammation. This application may be mediated through anti-angiogenic effects. Thus, in this study the anti-angiogenic activity of E. africana root extracts (n-hexane, chloroform, chloroform/methanol and methanol) was preliminarily evaluated by the quantitative determination of endogenous alkaline phosphatase in zebrafish embryos. A bioactivity-guided fractionation of chloroform/methanol extract yielded apigenin and robinetin as the main constituents from the most active fractions. In addition, a marked reduction on capillary formation was evidenced in chick chorioallantoic membrane after treatment with the active fractions or isolated compounds. Results obtained in this study suggest that the anti-angiogenic effects of E. africana root may account for its use in inflammatory diseases and other related pathological conditions.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Natural Product Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant capacity and anti-hyperglycemic activity of aqueous macerate extracts of Euphorbia hirta L., in the treatment of hypertension associated with diabetes. The research focused on the aqueous maceration of the aerial part or totum. The search and evaluation of the antioxidant activity was done according to the method of Blois based on the reduction of 2,2-diphenyl- - picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The search for antihyperglycaemic activity was performed on rats having received a glucose overdose. This activity was compared to those of glyburide and metformin. The totum showed a percentage inhibition of 63.66 ± 0.54% for 1 mg/mL of extract and an IC50 of 0.031 ± 0.001 μg/mL .A 200 mg/kg extract has shown a very good antihyperglycaemic activity; while on normal blood sugar, the activity was not important compared with glyburide and metformin. These results show the presence of antioxidant and normoglycaemic substances in aqueous macerated of Euphorbia hirta L.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Mali, the main activity of the Department of Traditional Medicine is research, development and production of phytodrugs, according to a long process of ethnobotanical surveys and preclinical and clinical studies. Therefore, safety, efficacy and quality phytodrugs have been included in the Essential Drugs List: Balembo® antitussive syrup prepared with fruit of Crossopteryx febrifuga; Dysenteral® antidysenteric drug from Euphorbia hirta; Gastrosedal®, anti-gastric product prepared with Vernonia kotschyana; Hepatisane®, choleretic drug, prepared with Combretum micranthum, Laxa-Cassia®, laxative drug with Cassia italica; Malarial®, antimalarial drug prepared with Senna occidentalis Lippia chevalieri and Acmella oleracea; Psorospermine® antieczema ointment with Psorospermum guineense. New phytodrugs are Sumafoura Tiemoko Bengaly® and syrup Sumafura®, antimalarial drugs prepared with of Argemone mexicana; Nitrokundang® diuretic drug prepared with Sclerocarya birrea and Vitex doniana, for the treatment of hypertension. The sustainable production of phytodrugs requires strong political will, human resources, leadership and effective partnerships between traditional health practitioners, researchers and the pharmaceutical industry.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four pregnanes: 1-methoxy-pregnan-17(R)-1,4-dien-3,16-dione (1), 1-methoxy-pregnan-17(S)-1,4-dien-3,16-dione (2), 2,3-seco-pregnan-17(S)-2,3-dioic acid-16-oxo-dimethyl ester (4), 2α,3α,16α-trihydroxy-5α-pregnan-17(R)-20-yl acetate (7), three androstanes: 1-methoxy-androstan-1,4-dien-3,16-dione (3), 2,3-seco-androstan-2,3-dioic acid-16-oxo-dimethyl ester (5), 3-methoxycarbonyl-2,3-seco-androstan-3-oic acid-16-oxo-2,19-lactone (6), together with three known pregnane derivatives, were isolated from the roots of Trichilia emetica ssp. suberosa. Their structures were determined by means of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry analysis, as well as by quantum chemical calculations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The leaves of Vernonia nigritiana Oliv. & Hiern. (Asteraceae) were investigated for their in vivo topical anti-inflammatory properties, following a bioassay-oriented fractionation approach. Petroleum ether, chloroform and chloroform-methanol extracts inhibited the Croton oil-induced ear dermatitis in mice. The chloroform extract was only about half as active as the non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin (ID50=237 and 93μg/cm(2), respectively). Phytochemical investigation of this extract led to the isolation of nine polyhydroxylated stigmasterol glycosides and six polyhydroxylated stigmasterols. Their structures were elucidated by NMR, MS and chemical methods. Each compound exerted a significant anti-oedema activity, the most active being 1 (3β-O-β-d-glucopyranosyloxy-5α-stigmasta-7,9(11),24(28)Z-triene-6β,16β,26,29-tetrol) and 3 (3β-O-β-d-glucopyranosyloxy-5α-stigmasta-7,9(11),24(28)Z-triene-6β,16β,29-triol), only two and five fold less potent than the steroidal drug hydrocortisone (ID50=0.10, 0.21 and 0.04μmol/cm(2), respectively). Compound 1 (50μM) also completely inhibited the transcription factor NF-κB in vitro.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The essential oils from the aerial parts of Vernonia colorata (Willd.) Drake and Vernonia nigritiana Oliver et Hiern. (Asteraceae) grown wild in Mali were obtained by hydrodistillation. 115 components have been identified in the oils that have shown a different composition, both qualitative and quantitative.
No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Journal of essential oil-bearing plants JEOP
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The proangiogenic members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family and related receptors play a central role in the modulation of pathological angiogenesis. In order to identify plant compounds able to interfere in the VEGFs/VEGFR-1 (Flt-1) recognition by VEGF family members, the extracts of the aerial parts of Campsiandra guayanensis and Feretia apodanthera were screened by a competitive ELISA-based assay. By using this bioassay-oriented approach five proanthocyanindins, including the new natural compounds (2S)-4',5,7-trihydroxyflavan-(4β→8)-afzelechin (1) and (2S)-4',5,7-trihydroxyflavan-(4β→8)-epiafzelechin (2) and the known geranin B (3), proanthocyanidin A2 (4), and proanthocyanidin A1 (5), were isolated. The study of the antiangiogenic activities of compounds 1-5 using ELISA and SPR assays showed compound 1 as being the most active. The antiangiogenic activity of 1 was also confirmed in vivo by the chicken chorioallantoic membrane assay. Our results indicated 1 as a new antiangiogenic compound inhibiting the interaction between VEGF-A or PlGF and their receptor VEGRF-1.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Journal of Natural Products
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Roots from Vernonia kotschyana are on the national list of essential drugs in Mali (West-Africa). It is sold under the name Gastrosedal and it used against ailments like gastritis and gastric ulcer. To evaluate the anti-ulcer, immunomodulating activities and toxicity of 50 and 100°C water extracts, Vk50-I and Vk100-I respectively, from the roots of Vernonia kotschyana.
Characterization of extracts was carried out by GC, colorimetric and biological methods. Vk50-I and Vk100-I were administrated 50min before induction of gastric ulcers in mice with 0.3M HCl-60% EtOH. Inhibition of ulcer formation was calculated based on lesion index. Immunological activities were measured by complement fixation and macrophage activation. Toxicity assay was carried out on brine shrimps.
Vk50-I (98% inulin) and Vk100-I (83% inulin) from Vernonia kotschyana significantly inhibited the formation of gastric lesions in mice (100mg/kg). No immunomodulating activities or toxicity were found.
Our results show that inulin is probably partly responsible for the anti-ulcer activity of Gastrosedal. In addition, it is possible that water soluble polysaccharides (mainly inulin) have an indirect impact on the general health of the GI.
No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Journal of ethnopharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aqueous extracts of bark and leaves of C. cordifolia are traditionally used in Mali (West Africa) in the treatment of wounds and gastric ailments like abdominal pain, gastritis and gastric ulcers.
To evaluate and compare the anti-ulcer and immunological activities, as well as the toxicity of polysaccharide rich water extracts from the bark and leaves of C. cordifolia.
Gastric ulcers were induced in rats and the inhibition of ulcer formation was calculated based on lesion index. Immunological activities were measured by complement fixation and macrophage activation. Toxicity was tested on brine shrimps. The two extracts were characterised by GC, Yariv-precipitation and quantification of phenolic compounds. An ethnomedical survey on C. cordifolia was carried out in Siby (Mali, West-Africa) to generate more knowledge about the traditional use.
Bark and leaf extracts from C. cordifolia significantly inhibited the formation of gastric lesions in rodents in a dose depending manner. CCbark50 showed a high complement fixation activity in vitro. No toxicity was found. The ethnomedical survey showed that C. cordifolia was mainly used for treating pain and wounds.
Our results shows that the bark and the leaves comprise a dose dependant anti-ulcer activity in an experimental rat model (no statistical difference between the plant parts). Clinical studies should be performed to evaluate the effect of both bark and leaves of C. cordifolia as a remedy against gastric ulcer in human.
No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Journal of ethnopharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Investigation of roots extracts Pseudrocedrela kotschyi and Trichilia emetica led to identification of 5 limonoid derivatives, Kotschyins D-H, and 11 known compounds. Their structures were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR experiments in conjunction with mass spectrometry. A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) approach was adopted to screen their Hsp90 binding capability and kotschyin D showed a significant affinity for the chaperone. Therefore, the characterization of the biological activity of kotschyin D by means of a panel of chemical and biological approaches, including limited proteolysis, molecular docking and biochemical and cellular assays, was performed. Our result indicated this compound as a type of client selective Hsp90 inhibitor, directly binding to the middle domain of the protein and possibly preventing its interaction with the activator of Hsp90 ATPase 1 (Aha1).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dysmenorrhea is painful menstrual cramps, which negatively impacts the quality of life of a large percentage of the world's female population in reproductive age. The paper reviews the plants used in the Malian traditional medicine for the treatment of dysmenorrhea. Some medicinal plants were effective for treatments of dysmenorrhea with minimal side effects. Conventional therapy for dysmenorrhea, which usually includes non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), provides symptomatic relief, but presents increasing adverse effects with long-term use. This article is in the framework of a study supported by International Foundation for Science (IFS) on three medicinal plants used in the treatment of dysmenorrhea in Mali: Maytenus senegalensis Stereospermum kunthianum and Trichilia emetica.
Preview · Article · Jul 2011 · African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malaria continues to be of great concern in Togo, as it accounts for high mortality rates, principally in children. Although plant-based medicines are the only means in major malarious regions of the country, still very little is known about the medicinal plants and medical practices of the indigenous people.
The present study aimed to document the indigenous medicinal plant utilization for the management of malaria and related symptoms in Togo Maritime Region.
Fifty Traditional Healers (TH) were selected with the help leaders of Togolese Traditional Healers Associations and information on their knowledge on the use of plants for malaria therapeutic purposes was gathered using a semi-structured interviews.
After enquiries, 52 plant species belonging to 49 genera and 29 families were recorded. The most represented families were Rubiaceae and Rutaceae with four species each. Traditional healers agreed more in the treatment of malaria (ICF=0.70), fever (ICF=0.33) and anemia (ICF=0.20). For the treatment of malaria, 38.46% (20/52) of the species cited in the study were of high fidelity level (FL=100%). The leaves (58.22%), leafy stem (33.78%) and fruits (8.52%) were the most used parts in concoctions. The main mode of preparation was decoction (69%) and the administration was essentially by oral route (79%) and body-bath (14%).
The issue of the study showed that Togo Maritime Region TH have a good knowledge of antimalarial plants. However the study must be extend to the whole country to lead to innovative strategies in malaria control. Such results could be a starting point for in vitro antimalarial screenings.
No preview · Article · Dec 2010 · Journal of ethnopharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One new flavonoid glycoside, 3-O-kaempferol 4-O-(galloyl)-beta-D-glucoside, one new bergenin derivative, 11-0-caffeoylbergenin, along with other known flavonoids and phenolic derivatives, were isolated from the leaves of Securinega virosa. Their structures were established on the basis of detailed spectral analysis. In vitro biological analysis of the isolated compounds showed that they were able to quench DPPH radicals and had a direct scavenging activity on superoxide anion. Kaempferol 3-O-(4-galloyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), 11-0-caffeoylbergenin (2), and glucogallin (6) exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity, being also able to modulate hydroxyl radical formation more efficiently than the other compounds, acting as direct hydroxyl radical scavengers and chelating iron.
No preview · Article · Dec 2009 · Natural product communications