David R Sherman

Seattle Institute for Cardiac Research, Seattle, Washington, United States

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Publications (80)626.94 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The 60 kDa heat shock proteins, also known as Cpn60s (GroELs) are components of the essential protein folding machinery of the cell, but are also dominant antigens in many infectious diseases. Although generally essential for cellular survival, in some organisms such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, one or more paralogous Cpn60s are known to be dispensable. In M. tuberculosis, Cpn60.2 (GroEL2) is essential for cell survival, but the biological role of the non-essential Cpn60.1 (GroEL1) is still elusive. To understand the relevance of Cpn60.1 (GroEL1) in M. tuberculosis physiology, detailed transcriptomic analyses for the wild type H37Rv and cpn60.1 knockout (groEL1-KO) were performed under in vitro stress conditions: stationary phase, cold shock, low aeration, mild cold shock and low pH. Additionally, the survival of the groEL1-KO was assessed in macrophages at multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1:1 and 1:5. We observed that survival under low aeration was significantly compromised in the groEL1-KO. Further, the gene expression analyses under low aeration showed change in expression of several key virulence factors like two component system PhoP/R and MprA/B, sigma factors SigM and C and adversely affected known hypoxia response regulators Rv0081, Rv0023 and DosR. Our work is therefore suggestive of an important role of Cpn60.1 (GroEL1) for survival under low aeration by affecting the expression of genes known for hypoxia response.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Tuberculosis (Edinburgh, Scotland)
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    ABSTRACT: The interleukin-1 receptor I (IL-1RI) is critical for host resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), yet the mechanisms of IL-1RI-mediated pathogen control remain unclear. Here, we show that without IL-1RI, Mtb-infected newly recruited Ly6Ghi myeloid cells failed to upregulate tumor necrosis factor receptor I (TNF-RI) and to produce reactive oxygen species, resulting in compromised pathogen control. Furthermore, simultaneous ablation of IL-1RI and TNF-RI signaling on either stroma or hematopoietic cells led to early lethality, indicating non-redundant and synergistic roles of IL-1 and TNF in mediating macrophage-stroma cross-talk that was critical for optimal control of Mtb infection. Finally, we show that even in the presence of functional Mtb-specific adaptive immunity, the lack of IL-1α and not IL-1β led to an exuberant intracellular pathogen replication and progressive non-resolving inflammation. Our study reveals functional interdependence between IL-1 and TNF in enabling Mtb control mechanisms that are critical for host survival.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Immunity
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    ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is the causative bacterium of tuberculosis, a disease responsible for over a million deaths worldwide annually with a growing number of strains resistant to antibiotics. The development of better therapeutics would greatly benefit from improved understanding of the mechanisms associated with MTB responses to different genetic and environmental perturbations. Therefore, we expanded a genome-scale regulatory-metabolic model for MTB using the Probabilistic Regulation of Metabolism (PROM) framework. Our model, MTBPROM2.0, represents a substantial knowledge base update and extension of simulation capability. We incorporated a recent ChIP-seq based binding network of 2555 interactions linking to 104 transcription factors (TFs) (representing a 3.5-fold expansion of TF coverage). We integrated this expanded regulatory network with a refined genome-scale metabolic model that can correctly predict growth viability over 69 source metabolite conditions and predict metabolic gene essentiality more accurately than the original model. We used MTBPROM2.0 to simulate the metabolic consequences of knocking out and overexpressing each of the 104 TFs in the model. MTBPROM2.0 improves performance of knockout growth defect predictions compared to the original PROM MTB model, and it can successfully predict growth defects associated with TF overexpression. Moreover, condition-specific models of MTBPROM2.0 successfully predicted synergistic growth consequences of overexpressing the TF whiB4 in the presence of two standard anti-TB drugs. MTBPROM2.0 can screen in silico condition-specific transcription factor perturbations to generate putative targets of interest that can help prioritize future experiments for therapeutic development efforts.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · PLoS Computational Biology
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    ABSTRACT: Antifolates are widely used to treat several diseases but are not currently used in the first-line treatment of tuberculosis, despite evidence that some of these molecules can target Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) bacilli in vitro. To identify new antifolate candidates for animal-model efficacy studies of tuberculosis, we paired knowledge and tools developed in academia with the infrastructure and chemistry resources of a large pharmaceutical company. Together we curated a focused library of 2508 potential antifolates, which were then tested for activity against live Mtb. We identified 210 primary hits, confirmed the on-target activity of potent compounds, and now report the identification and characterization of 5 hit compounds, representative of 5 different chemical scaffolds. These antifolates have potent activity against Mtb and represent good starting points for improvement that could lead to in vivo efficacy studies.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015

  • No preview · Article · Aug 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is a pathogenic bacterium responsible for 12 million active cases of tuberculosis (TB) worldwide. The complexity and critical regulatory components of MTB pathogenicity are still poorly understood despite extensive research efforts. In this study, we constructed the first systems-scale map of transcription factor (TF) binding sites and their regulatory target proteins in MTB. We constructed FLAG-tagged overexpression constructs for 206 TFs in MTB, used ChIP-seq to identify genome-wide binding events and surveyed global transcriptomic changes for each overexpressed TF. Here we present data for the most comprehensive map of MTB gene regulation to date. We also define elaborate quality control measures, extensive filtering steps, and the gene-level overlap between ChIP-seq and microarray datasets. Further, we describe the use of TF overexpression datasets to validate a global gene regulatory network model of MTB and describe an online source to explore the datasets.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Elicitation of CD4 IFN-gamma T cell responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is a rational vaccine strategy to prevent clinical tuberculosis. Diagnosis of MTB infection is based on T-cell immune memory to MTB antigens. The MTB proteome contains over four thousand open reading frames (ORFs). We conducted a pilot antigen identification study using 164 MTB proteins and MTB-specific T-cells expanded in vitro from 12 persons with latent MTB infection. Enrichment of MTB-reactive T-cells from PBMC used cell sorting or an alternate system compatible with limited resources. MTB proteins were used as single antigens or combinatorial matrices in proliferation and cytokine secretion readouts. Overall, our study found that 44 MTB proteins were antigenic, including 27 not previously characterized as CD4 T-cell antigens. Antigen truncation, peptide, NTM homology, and HLA class II tetramer studies confirmed malate synthase G (encoded by gene Rv1837) as a CD4 T-cell antigen. This simple, scalable system has potential utility for the identification of candidate MTB vaccine and biomarker antigens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Tuberculosis (Edinburgh, Scotland)
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    ABSTRACT: Rationale: Hypoxia promotes dormancy by causing physiologic changes to actively replicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis. DosR controls the response of M. tuberculosis to hypoxia. Objectives: To understand DosR's contribution in the persistence of M. tuberculosis, we compared the phenotype of various DosR regulon mutants and a complemented strain to M. tuberculosis in macaques, which faithfully model M. tuberculosis infection. Methods: We measured clinical and microbiologic correlates of infection with M. tuberculosis relative to mutant/complemented strains in the DosR regulon, studied lung pathology and hypoxia, and compared immune responses in lung using transcriptomics and flow cytometry. Measurements and main results: Despite being able to replicate initially, mutants in DosR regulon failed to persist or cause disease. On the contrary, M. tuberculosis and a complemented strain were able to establish infection and tuberculosis. The attenuation of pathogenesis in animals infected with the mutants coincided with the appearance of a Th1 response and organization of hypoxic lesions wherein M. tuberculosis expressed dosR. The lungs of animals infected with the mutants (but not the complemented strain) exhibited early transcriptional signatures of T-cell recruitment, activation, and proliferation associated with an increase of T cells expressing homing and proliferation markers. Conclusions: Delayed adaptive responses, a hallmark of M. tuberculosis infection, not only lead to persistence but also interfere with the development of effective antituberculosis vaccines. The DosR regulon therefore modulates both the magnitude and the timing of adaptive immune responses in response to hypoxia in vivo, resulting in persistent infection. Hence, DosR regulates key aspects of the M. tuberculosis life cycle and limits lung pathology.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infects 30% of all humans and kills someone every 20-30 s. Here we report genome-wide binding for ~80% of all predicted MTB transcription factors (TFs), and assayed global expression following induction of each TF. The MTB DNA-binding network consists of ~16,000 binding events from 154 TFs. We identify >50 TF-DNA consensus motifs and >1,150 promoter-binding events directly associated with proximal gene regulation. An additional ~4,200 binding events are in promoter windows and represent strong candidates for direct transcriptional regulation under appropriate environmental conditions. However, we also identify >10,000 'dormant' DNA-binding events that cannot be linked directly with proximal transcriptional control, suggesting that widespread DNA binding may be a common feature that should be considered when developing global models of coordinated gene expression.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Nature Communications
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    ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium tuberculosis senses and responds to the shifting and hostile landscape of the host. To characterize the underlying intertwined gene regulatory network governed by approximately 200 transcription factors of M. tuberculosis, we have assayed the global transcriptional consequences of overexpressing each transcription factor from an inducible promoter. We cloned and overexpressed 206 transcription factors in M. tuberculosis to identify the regulatory signature of each. We identified 9,335 regulatory consequences of overexpressing each of 183 transcription factors, providing evidence of regulation for 70% of the M. tuberculosis genome. These transcriptional signatures agree well with previously described M. tuberculosis regulons. The number of genes differentially regulated by transcription factor overexpression varied from hundreds of genes to none, with the majority of expression changes repressing basal transcription. Exploring the global transcriptional maps of transcription factor overexpressing (TFOE) strains, we predicted and validated the phenotype of a regulator that reduces susceptibility to a first line anti-tubercular drug, isoniazid. We also combined the TFOE data with an existing model of M. tuberculosis metabolism to predict the growth rates of individual TFOE strains with high fidelity. This work has led to a systems-level framework describing the transcriptome of a devastating bacterial pathogen, characterized the transcriptional influence of nearly all individual transcription factors in M. tuberculosis, and demonstrated the utility of this resource. These results will stimulate additional systems-level and hypothesis-driven efforts to understand M. tuberculosis adaptations that promote disease.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Genome Biology
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    ABSTRACT: Background Mycobacterium tuberculosis senses and responds to the shifting and hostile landscape of the host. To characterize the underlying intertwined gene regulatory network governed by approximately 200 transcription factors of M. tuberculosis, we have assayed the global transcriptional consequences of overexpressing each transcription factor from an inducible promoter.ResultsWe cloned and overexpressed 206 transcription factors in M. tuberculosis to identify the regulatory signature of each. We identified 9,335 regulatory consequences of overexpressing each of 183 transcription factors, providing evidence of regulation for 70% of the M. tuberculosis genome. These transcriptional signatures agree well with previously described M. tuberculosis regulons. The number of genes differentially regulated by transcription factor overexpression varied from hundreds of genes to none, with the majority of expression changes repressing basal transcription. Exploring the global transcriptional maps of transcription factor overexpressing (TFOE) strains, we predicted and validated the phenotype of a regulator that reduces susceptibility to a first line anti-tubercular drug, isoniazid. We also combined the TFOE data with an existing model of M. tuberculosis metabolism to predict the growth rates of individual TFOE strains with high fidelity.Conclusion This work has led to a systems-level framework describing the transcriptome of a devastating bacterial pathogen, characterized the transcriptional influence of nearly all individual transcription factors in M. tuberculosis, and demonstrated the utility of this resource. These results will stimulate additional systems-level and hypothesis-driven efforts to understand M. tuberculosis adaptations that promote disease.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Genome Biology
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    ABSTRACT: Rationale: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) must counter hypoxia within granulomas in order to persist. DosR, in concert with sensor kinases DosS and DosT, regulates the response to hypoxia. Yet, Mtb lacking functional DosR colonize the lungs of C57Bl/6 mice, presumably due to the lack of organized lesions with sufficient hypoxia in that model. Objectives: We compared the phenotype of the Δ-dosR, Δ-dosS, and Δ-dosT mutants to Mtb using C3HeB/FeJ mice, an alternate mouse model where lesions develop hypoxia. Methods: C3HeB/FeJ mice were infected via aerosol and the progression of infection analyzed by tissue bacterial burden and histopathology as well as a measure of the comparative global immune responses. Measurements and Main Results: While Δ-dosR and Δ-dosT grew comparably to wild type Mtb, Δ-dosS exhibited a significant defect in bacterial burden and pathology in-vivo, accompanied by ablated pro-inflammatory response. Δ-dosS retained the ability to induce DosR. The Δ-dosS mutant was also attenuated in murine macrophages ex-vivo, with evidence of reduced expression of the pro-inflammatory signature. Conclusions: DosS, but not DosR and DosT, is required by Mtb to survive in C3HeB/FeJ mice. The attenuation of Δ-dosS is not due to its inability to induce the DosR regulon, nor is it a result of the accumulation of hypoxia. That the in-vivo growth restriction of Δ-dosS could be mimicked ex-vivo suggested sensitivity to macrophage oxidative burst. Anoxic caseous centers within TB lesions eventually progress to cavities. Our results provide greater insight into the molecular mechanisms of Mtb persistence within host lungs.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
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    ABSTRACT: The innate immune response plays an important but unknown role in host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To define the function of innate immunity during tuberculosis, we evaluated M. tuberculosis replication dynamics during murine infection. Our data show that the early pulmonary innate immune response limits M. tuberculosis replication in a MyD88-dependent manner. Strikingly, we found that little M. tuberculosis cell death occurs during the first 2 weeks of infection. In contrast, M. tuberculosis cells deficient in the surface lipid phthiocerol dimycocerosate (PDIM) exhibited significant death rates, and consequently, total bacterial numbers were reduced. Host restriction of PDIM-deficient M. tuberculosis was not alleviated by the absence of interferon gamma (IFN-γ), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), or the phagocyte oxidase subunit p47. Taken together, these data indicate that PDIM protects M. tuberculosis from an early innate host response that is independent of IFN-γ, reactive nitrogen intermediates, and reactive oxygen species. By employing a pathogen replication tracking tool to evaluate M. tuberculosis replication and death during infection, we identify both host and pathogen factors affecting the outcome of infection.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Infection and Immunity
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    ABSTRACT: The resilience of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is largely due to its ability to effectively counteract and even take advantage of the hostile environments of a host. In order to accelerate the discovery and characterization of these adaptive mechanisms, we have mined a compendium of 2325 publicly available transcriptome profiles of MTB to decipher a predictive, systems-scale gene regulatory network model. The resulting modular organization of 98% of all MTB genes within this regulatory network was rigorously tested using two independently generated datasets: a genome-wide map of 7248 DNA-binding locations for 143 transcription factors (TFs) and global transcriptional consequences of overexpressing 206 TFs. This analysis has discovered specific TFs that mediate conditional co-regulation of genes within 240 modules across 14 distinct environmental contexts. In addition to recapitulating previously characterized regulons, we discovered 454 novel mechanisms for gene regulation during stress, cholesterol utilization and dormancy. Significantly, 183 of these mechanisms act uniquely under conditions experienced during the infection cycle to regulate diverse functions including 23 genes that are essential to host-pathogen interactions. These and other insights underscore the power of a rational, model-driven approach to unearth novel MTB biology that operates under some but not all phases of infection.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Nucleic Acids Research
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    David R. Sherman · Christoph Grundner
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    ABSTRACT: The flow of information from the outside to the inside of bacterial cells is largely directed by protein kinases. In addition to histidine/aspartate phosphorelays of two-component response regulators, recent work in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) reinforces the idea that phosphorylation on serine (Ser), threonine (Thr), and tyrosine (Tyr) is central to bacterial physiology and pathogenesis, and that the corresponding phosphosystems are highly similar to those in eukaryotes. In this way, eukaryotes are a useful guide to understanding Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphorylation (O-phosphorylation) in prokaryotes such as Mtb. However, as novel functions and components of bacterial O-phosphorylation are identified, distinct differences between pro- and eukaryotic phosphosignaling systems become apparent. The emerging picture of O-phosphorylation in Mtb is complicated, goes beyond the eukaryotic paradigms, and shows the limitations of viewing bacterial phosphosignaling within the confines of the “eukaryotic-like” model. Here, we summarize recent findings about Ser/Thr and the recently discovered Tyr phosphorylation pathways in Mtb, highlight the similarities and differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic O-phosphorylation, and pose additional questions about signaling components, pathway organization, and ultimately, the cellular roles of O-phosphorylation in Mtb physiology and pathogenesis.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Molecular Microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we identified antifolates with potent, targeted activity against whole-cell Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of antifolate-treated cultures revealed metabolic disruption, including decreased pools of methionine and S-adenosylmethionine. Transcriptomic analysis highlighted altered regulation of genes involved in the biosynthesis and utilization of these two compounds. Supplementation with amino acids or S-adenosylmethionine was sufficient to rescue cultures from antifolate treatment. Instead of the "thymineless death" that characterizes folate pathway inhibition in a wide variety of organisms, these data suggest that MTB is vulnerable to a critical disruption of the reactions centered around S-adenosylmethionione, the activated methyl cycle.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Chemistry & Biology
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    ABSTRACT: Reversible protein phosphorylation determines growth and adaptive decisions in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). At least 11 two-component systems and 11 Ser/Thr protein kinases (STPKs) mediate phosphorylation on Asp, His, Ser, and Thr. In contrast, protein phosphorylation on Tyr has not been described previously in Mtb. Here, using a combination of phospho-enrichment and highly sensitive mass spectrometry, we show extensive protein Tyr phosphorylation of diverse Mtb proteins, including STPKs. Several STPKs function as dual-specificity kinases that phosphorylate Tyr in cis and in trans, suggesting that dual-specificity kinases have a major role in bacterial phospho-signaling. Mutation of a phosphotyrosine site of the essential STPK PknB reduces its activity in vitro and in live Mtb, indicating that Tyr phosphorylation has a functional role in bacterial growth. These data identify a previously unrecognized phosphorylation system in a human pathogen that claims ∼1.4 million lives every year.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: The majority of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infections are clinically latent, characterized by drug tolerance and little or no bacterial replication. Low oxygen tension is a major host factor inducing bacteriostasis, but the molecular mechanisms driving oxygen-dependent replication are poorly understood. Here, we tested the role of serine/threonine phosphorylation in the Mtb response to altered oxygen status, using an in vitro model of latency (hypoxia) and reactivation (reaeration). Broad kinase inhibition compromised survival of Mtb in reaeration. Activity-based protein profiling and genetic mutation identified PknB as the kinase critical for surviving hypoxia. Mtb replication was highly sensitive to changes in PknB levels in aerated culture, and even more so in hypoxia. A mutant overexpressing PknB specifically in hypoxia showed a 10-fold loss in viability and gross morphological defects in low oxygen conditions. In contrast, chemically reducing PknB activity during hypoxia specifically compromised resumption of growth during reaeration. These data support a model in which PknB activity is reduced to achieve bacteriostasis, and elevated when replication resumes. Together, these data show that phosphosignaling controls replicative transitions associated with latency and reactivation, that PknB is a major regulator of these transitions, and that PknB could provide a highly vulnerable therapeutic target at every step of the Mtb life cycle-active disease, latency, and reactivation.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · PLoS Biology
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    ABSTRACT: Bacteria are able to adapt to dramatically different microenvironments, but in many organisms, the signaling pathways, transcriptional programs, and downstream physiological changes involved in adaptation are not well-understood. Here, we discovered that osmotic stress stimulates a signaling network in Mycobacterium tuberculosis regulated by the eukaryotic-like receptor Ser/Thr protein kinase PknD. Expression of the PknD substrate Rv0516c was highly induced by osmotic stress. Furthermore, Rv0516c disruption modified peptidoglycan thickness, enhanced antibiotic resistance, and activated genes in the regulon of the alternative σ-factor SigF. Phosphorylation of Rv0516c regulated the abundance of EspA, a virulence-associated substrate of the type VII ESX-1 secretion system. These findings identify an osmosensory pathway orchestrated by PknD, Rv0516c, and SigF that enables adaptation to osmotic stress through cell wall remodeling and virulence factor production. Given the widespread occurrence of eukaryotic-like Ser/Thr protein kinases in bacteria, these proteins may play a broad role in bacterial osmosensing.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: The enzyme pantothenate synthetase, PanC, is an attractive drug target in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is essential for the in vitro growth of M. tuberculosis and for survival of the bacteria in the mouse model of infection. PanC is absent from mammals. We developed an enzyme-based assay to identify inhibitors of PanC, optimized it for high-throughput screening, and tested a large and diverse library of compounds for activity. Two compounds belonging to the same chemical class of 3-biphenyl-4- cyanopyrrole-2-carboxylic acids had activity against the purified recombinant protein, and also inhibited growth of live M. tuberculosis in manner consistent with PanC inhibition. Thus we have identified a new class of PanC inhibitors with whole cell activity that can be further developed.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · PLoS ONE

Publication Stats

6k Citations
626.94 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • Seattle Institute for Cardiac Research
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2000-2015
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • • Department of Global Health
      • • Department of Pathology
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2011-2014
    • Seattle BioMed
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2009-2014
    • Seattle Institute for Biomedical and Clinical Research
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2013
    • Boston University
      • Department of Biomedical Engineering
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2012
    • Imperial College London
      • Department of Medicine
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2003-2010
    • McGill University
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Centre for the Study of Host Resistance
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada