[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi A is a highly clonal organism; pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is insufficient in discriminating isolates. A multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) was developed, and its usefulness in discriminating isolates was compared. PFGE analysis with XbaI and BlnI discriminated 55 isolates into 14 types, with a discriminatory index (DI) of 0.741 (confidence interval [CI], 0.635-0.847). MLVA divided the isolates into 23 types, with a DI of 0.937 (CI, 0.909-0.964), which was significantly higher than that for PFGE. Clustering analysis of PFGE and MLVA patterns indicated that S. Paratyphi A isolates recovered from 2000 to 2010 in South and Southeast Asia were highly clonal. Although MLVA is not sufficiently powerful in discriminating epidemiologically unrelated isolates, it can complement PFGE for epidemiologic investigation of S. Paratyphi A infections.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We identified 16 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. These VNTRs were evaluated with panels of 183 diverse isolates, 203 closely related isolates and 54 isolates from seven outbreaks. The evaluations revealed that five of the 16 VNTRs had diversity values greater than 0.5, and three (STTR5, STTR6 and STTR10) were hypervariable. The results obtained from the outbreak isolates suggested that the 16 VNTRs were considerably stable in isolates recovered during a normal outbreak time course. Multilocus VNTR analysis (MLVA) based on four most variable VNTRs (MLVA4), exhibited a better resolving power over pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) in discriminating among isolates, in particular among the closely-related isolates. An MLVA5, which is based on five VNTRs and has been widely used in many European laboratories, displayed a level of discrimination close to MLVA4. The phylogenetic tree established using the MLVA16 profiles presented four distinct clusters, which were associated with four different phage types. Therefore, MLVA based on four or five highly variable VNTRs is sufficiently powerful to supplement or replace PFGE for outbreak investigation and surveillance of S. Typhimurium infections, and MLVA data based on 16 VNTRs can be useful in establishing clonal structures among isolates.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · International journal of food microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Shigella flexneri is one of the causative agents of shigellosis, a major cause of childhood mortality in developing countries. Multilocus variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) is a prominent subtyping method to resolve closely related bacterial isolates for investigation of disease outbreaks and provide information for establishing phylogenetic patterns among isolates. The present study aimed to develop an MLVA method for S. flexneri and the VNTR loci identified were tested on 242 S. flexneri isolates to evaluate their variability in various serotypes. The isolates were also analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to compare the discriminatory power and to evaluate the usefulness of MLVA as a tool for phylogenetic analysis of S. flexneri.
Thirty-six VNTR loci were identified by exploring the repeat sequence loci in genomic sequences of Shigella species and by testing the loci on nine isolates of different subserotypes. The VNTR loci in different serotype groups differed greatly in their variability. The discriminatory power of an MLVA assay based on four most variable VNTR loci was higher, though not significantly, than PFGE for the total isolates, a panel of 2a isolates, which were relatively diverse, and a panel of 4a/Y isolates, which were closely-related. Phylogenetic groupings based on PFGE patterns and MLVA profiles were considerably concordant. The genetic relationships among the isolates were correlated with serotypes. The phylogenetic trees constructed using PFGE patterns and MLVA profiles presented two distinct clusters for the isolates of serotype 3 and one distinct cluster for each of the serotype groups, 1a/1b/NT, 2a/2b/X/NT, 4a/Y, and 6. Isolates that had different serotypes but had closer genetic relatedness than those with the same serotype were observed between serotype Y and subserotype 4a, serotype X and subserotype 2b, subserotype 1a and 1b, and subserotype 3a and 3b.
The 36 VNTR loci identified exhibited considerably different degrees of variability among S. flexneri serotype groups. VNTR locus could be highly variable in a serotype but invariable in others. MLVA assay based on four highly variable loci could display a comparable resolving power to PFGE in discriminating isolates. MLVA is also a prominent molecular tool for phylogenetic analysis of S. flexneri; the resulting data are beneficial to establish clear clonal patterns among different serotype groups and to discern clonal groups among isolates within the same serotype. As highly variable VNTR loci could be serotype-specific, a common MLVA protocol that consists of only a small set of loci, for example four to eight loci, and that provides high resolving power to all S. flexneri serotypes may not be obtainable.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A panel of 916 isolates, including 703 closely related IST1 isolates, were characterized by inter-IS1 spacer typing (IST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis
(MLVA) to evaluate the utility of MLVA as a molecular tool for the phylogenetic analysis of Shigella sonnei. The global phylogenetic patterns determined by IST, PFGE, and MLVA were concordant. MLVA was carried out using 26 VNTR loci
with a range of degrees of variability. MLVA data for the 703 IST1 isolates revealed that diversification among the closely
related isolates was attributed mainly to four highly variable loci. The phylogenetic pattern for the closely related isolates
determined using MLVA profiles of 8 highly variable loci was in agreement with that determined using the 26-locus profiles.
A clustering analysis using the profiles of 18 loci with limited variability established clear phylogenetic relationships
among IST clonal groups. Accordingly, MLVA is a useful tool for the phylogenetic analysis of S. sonnei. Combined VNTR loci with higher variability are useful markers for resolving closely related isolates, whereas combined loci
with lower variability are suitable for establishing clear phylogenetic relationships between strains or clones that have
evolved over a longer timescale.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2009 · Journal of clinical microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) method was developed and evaluated for the subtyping of
Shigella sonnei isolates. A total of 26 VNTR loci were identified by exploring the repeat sequence loci in the genomic sequences of S. sonnei strains Ss046 and 53G and by testing 536 isolates that had previously been characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis
(PFGE). The discriminatory power of MLVA (Simpson's index of diversity [D], 0.9524; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9373 to 0.9564) for the 536 isolates was significantly higher than that of PFGE
(D, 0.8882; CI, 0.8667 to 0.9097). MLVA typing with the four and eight most variable loci had D values of 0.9468 and 0.9481, respectively, results approaching that of 26 loci. The usefulness of MLVA for outbreak investigation
was evaluated using 151 isolates from 10 shigellosis outbreaks and 22 PFGE-indistinguishable isolates collected from nine
epidemiologically unrelated events in five different countries. The evaluations indicated that MLVA was a powerful typing
tool to distinguish isolates for outbreak investigation and that it exhibited a good discrimination of the 22 PFGE-indistinguishable
isolates. Single-locus variants did occur during the outbreak; therefore, S. sonnei isolates with MLVA profiles differing at no more than a single locus should be considered part of the same outbreak. The
present study suggests that MLVA has the potential to replace PFGE as a standard method of typing S. sonnei isolates for disease surveillance and outbreak investigation.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2007 · Journal of Clinical Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Shigella sonnei replaced Shigella flexneri to become the predominant species for shigellosis in 2001 to 2003 in central Taiwan. A total of 425 S. sonnei isolates collected from 1996 to 2004 were available for characterization by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), inter-IS1 spacer typing (IST), and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The results showed that at least 21 IST clones had emerged for the S. sonnei infections in 1996 to 2004. Most IST clones lasted for a short time; some circulated for 2 to 3 years. An IST1 clone, detected for the first time in 2000, was the most prevalent and responsible for the shigellosis epidemic in 2001 to 2003. Over 3 years of sustained transmission, the IST1 clone evolved into many strains with different PFGE genotypes and antibiograms. The ancestor, with a J16N09.0019 PFGE genotype, remained to be the predominant circulating strain in the period studied; however, new strains with certain PFGE genotypes and antibiograms could become major circulating strains for subsequent infections.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The feasibility of sequence analysis of the ribosomal 16S-23S intergenic spacer region (ITS) was evaluated for identification of 24 species of Streptococcus, one species of Abiotrophia, 18 species of Enterococcus and three species of Granulicatella. As GenBank currently lacks ITS sequence entries for many species of these four genera, the ITS sequences of 38 type strains were first sequenced and submitted to GenBank to facilitate species identification of these genera. Subsequently, the ITS sequences of 217 strains (84 reference strains and 133 clinical isolates) were determined and species identification was made by blast search for homologous sequences in public databases. Species other than Streptococcus contained multiple ITS fragments and only the shortest fragment was analysed. A total of 25 isolates (11.5 %) produced discrepant identification by ITS sequencing. The 25 discordant strains were analysed further by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene for species clarification, and 21 were found to be identified correctly by ITS sequence analysis. The correct identification rate by ITS sequencing was 98.2 % (213/217). Several closely related enterococcal and streptococcal species/subspecies contained specific ITS signature sequences that were useful for differentiating these bacteria. In conclusion, ITS sequencing provides a useful approach towards identifying this group of pathogens on a molecular platform alongside 16S rRNA gene sequencing.
Full-text · Article · May 2007 · Journal of Medical Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some species of enterococci and streptococci are difficult to differentiate by phenotypic traits. The feasibility of using an oligonucleotide array for identification of 11 viridans group streptococci was previously established. The aim of this study was to expand the array to identify species of Abiotrophia (1 species), Enterococcus (18 species), Granulicatella (3 species), and Streptococcus (31 species and 6 subspecies). The method consisted of PCR amplification of the ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer (ITS) regions, followed by hybridization of the digoxigenin-labeled PCR products to a panel of oligonucleotide probes (16- to 30-mers) immobilized on a nylon membrane. Probes could be divided into three categories: species specific, group specific, and supplemental probes. All probes were designed either from the ITS regions or from the 3' ends of the 16S rRNA genes. A collection of 312 target strains (162 reference strains and 150 clinical isolates) and 73 nontarget strains was identified by the array. Most clinical isolates were isolated from blood cultures or deep abscesses, and only those strains having excellent species identification with the Rapid ID 32 STREP system (bioMérieux Vitek, Taipei, Taiwan) were used for array testing. The test sensitivity and specificity of the array were 100% (312/312) and 98.6% (72/73), respectively. The whole procedure of array hybridization took about 8 h, starting from isolated colonies, and the hybridization patterns could be read by the naked eye. The oligonucleotide array is accurate for identification of the above microorganisms and could be used as a reliable alternative to phenotypic identification methods.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2007 · Journal of Clinical Microbiology