[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Taylor vortices in a miniature mixed-flow rotodynamic blood pump were investigated using micro-scale particle image velocimetry (μ-PIV) and a tracer particle visualization technique. The pump featured a cylindrical rotor (14.9 mm diameter) within a cylindrical bore, having a radial clearance of 500 μm and operated at rotational speeds varying from 1000 to 12 000 rpm. Corresponding Taylor numbers were 700-101 800, respectively. The critical Taylor number was observed to be highly dependent on the ratio of axial to circumferential velocity, increasing from 1200 to 18 000 corresponding to Rossby numbers from 0 to 0.175. This demonstrated a dramatic stabilizing effect of the axial flow. The size of Taylor vortices was also found to be inversely related to Rossby number. It is concluded that Taylor vortices can enhance the mixing in the annular gap and decrease the dwell time of blood cells in the high-shear-rate region, which has the potential to decrease hemolysis and platelet activation within the blood pump.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Artificial Organs
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rotodynamic blood pumps (also known as rotary or continuous flow blood pumps) are commonly evaluated in vitro under steady flow conditions. However, when these devices are used clinically as ventricular assist devices (VADs), the flow is pulsatile due to the contribution of the native heart. This study investigated the influence of this unsteady flow upon the internal hemodynamics of a centrifugal blood pump. The flow field within the median axial plane of the flow path was visualized with particle image velocimetry (PIV) using a transparent replica of the Levacor VAD. The replica was inserted in a dynamic cardiovascular simulator that synchronized the image acquisition to the cardiac cycle. As compared to steady flow, pulsatile conditions produced periodic, transient recirculation regions within the impeller and separation in the outlet diffuser. Dimensional analysis revealed that the flow characteristics could be uniquely described by the non-dimensional flow coefficient (Φ) and its time derivative (Φ˙), thereby eliminating impeller speed from the experimental matrix. Four regimes within the Φ–Φ˙ plane were found to classify the flow patterns, well-attached or disturbed. These results and methods can be generalized to provide insights for both design and operation of rotodynamic blood pumps for safety and efficacy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Functional tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is recognized as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in cardiothoracic surgery. We hypothesized that a variably expandable, transvalvular balloon mounted on a catheter could be percutaneously inserted and fixed to the right ventricle apex. This novel approach could provide a minimally invasive way to eliminate clinically relevant TR caused by annular dilatation. This study was performed to test the ex vivo hemodynamic effects and the feasibility of the "balloon plug concept."
Twenty harvested calf tricuspid valves were placed in a mechanical simulator. Tricuspid regurgitation was created by annular stretching and displacement of the papillary muscles so as to create central TR. A flexible catheter with a 4-cm-long, soft, fusiform balloon was positioned across the valve so that the balloon was suspended centrally across the valve annular plane. After activating the mechanical ventricle, data were collected with balloon inflation volumes of saline from 5 to 20 mL. Transvalvular pressure gradients and leaflet mechanics were evaluated with incremental inflation.
In all cases, 5-mL inflation did not significantly reduce TR and 20-mL inflation caused obstruction to antegrade flow (mean transvalvular gradient > 4 mm Hg). Inflation between 10 and 15 mL caused significant reduction in TR with acceptable transvalvular gradients (<3 mm Hg).
The balloon plug concept showed promising ex vivo hemodynamic results. In vivo investigations are warranted to evaluate percutaneous techniques, thrombogenicity, and effects of repeated balloon-leaflet contact on valve integrity.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Innovations Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arterial waves are seen as possible independent mediators of cardiovascular risks, and the wave intensity analysis (WIA) has therefore been proposed as a method for patient selection for ventricular assist device (VAD) implantation. Interpreting measured wave intensity (WI) is challenging, and complexity is increased by the implantation of a VAD. The waves generated by the VAD interact with the waves generated by the native heart, and this interaction varies with changing VAD settings. Eight sheep were implanted with a pulsatile VAD (PVAD) through ventriculoaortic cannulation. The start of PVAD ejection was synchronized to the native R wave and delayed between 0 and 90% of the cardiac cycle in 10% steps or phase shifts (PS). Pressure and velocity signals were registered, with the use of a combined Doppler and pressure wire positioned in the abdominal aorta, and used to calculate the WI. Depending on the PS, different wave interference phenomena occurred. Maximum unloading of the left ventricle (LV) coincided with constructive interference and maximum blood flow pulsatility, and maximum loading of the LV coincided with destructive interference and minimum blood flow pulsatility. We believe that noninvasive WIA could potentially be used clinically to assess the mechanical load of the LV and to monitor the peripheral hemodynamics such as blood flow pulsatility and risk of intestinal bleeding.
No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lumped parameter models have been employed for decades to simulate important hemodynamic couplings between a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) and the native circulation. However, these studies seldom consider the pathological descending limb of the Frank-Starling response of the overloaded ventricle. This study introduces a dilated heart failure model featuring a unimodal end systolic pressure-volume relationship (ESPVR) to address this critical shortcoming. The resulting hemodynamic response to mechanical circulatory support are illustrated through numerical simulations of a rotodynamic, continuous flow ventricular assist device (cfVAD) coupled to systemic and pulmonary circulations with baroreflex control. The model further incorporated septal interaction to capture the influence of left ventricular (LV) unloading on right ventricular function. Four heart failure conditions were simulated (LV and bi-ventricular failure with/without pulmonary hypertension) in addition to normal baseline. Several metrics of LV function, including cardiac output and stroke work, exhibited a unimodal response whereby initial unloading improved function, and further unloading depleted preload reserve thereby reducing ventricular output. The concept of extremal loading was introduced to reflect the loading condition in which the intrinsic LV stroke work is maximized. Simulation of bi-ventricular failure with pulmonary hypertension revealed inadequacy of LV support alone. These simulations motivate the implementation of an extremum tracking feedback controller to potentially optimize ventricular recovery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current article presents a novel physiological control algorithm for ventricular assist devices (VADs), which is inspired by the preload recruitable stroke work. This controller adapts the hydraulic power output of the VAD to the end-diastolic volume of the left ventricle. We tested this controller on a hybrid mock circulation where the left ventricular volume (LVV) is known, i.e., the problem of measuring the LVV is not addressed in the current article. Experiments were conducted to compare the response of the controller with the physiological and with the pathological circulation, with and without VAD support. A sensitivity analysis was performed to analyze the influence of the controller parameters and the influence of the quality of the LVV signal on the performance of the control algorithm. The results show that the controller induces a response similar to the physiological circulation and effectively prevents over- and underpumping, i.e., ventricular suction and backflow from the aorta to the left ventricle, respectively. The same results are obtained in the case of a disturbed LVV signal. The results presented in the current article motivate the development of a robust, long-term stable sensor to measure the LVV.
No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Artificial Organs
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A lumped parameter model of the cardiovascular system has been developed and optimized using experimental data obtained from 13 healthy subjects during graded head-up tilt (HUT) from the supine position to [Formula: see text]. The model includes descriptions of the left and right heart, direct ventricular interaction through the septum and pericardium, the systemic and pulmonary circulations, nonlinear pressure volume relationship of the lower body compartment, arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreceptors, as well as autoregulatory mechanisms. A number of important features, including the separate effects of arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreflexes, and autoregulation in the lower body, as well as diastolic ventricular interaction through the pericardium have been included and tested for their significance. Furthermore, the individual effect of parameter associated with heart failure, including LV and RV contractility, baseline systemic vascular resistance, pulmonary vascular resistance, total blood volume, LV diastolic stiffness and reflex gain on HUT response have also been investigated. Our fitted model compares favorably with our experimental measurements and published literature at a range of tilt angles, in terms of both global and regional hemodynamic variables. Compared to the normal condition, a simulated congestive heart failure condition produced a blunted response to HUT with regards to the percentage changes in cardiac output, stroke volume, end diastolic volume and effector response (i.e., heart contractility, venous unstressed volume, systemic vascular resistance and heart rate) with progressive tilting.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinical importance of pulsatility is a recurring topic of debate in mechanical circulatory support. Lack of pulsatility has been identified as a possible factor responsible for adverse events and has also demonstrated a role in myocardial perfusion and cardiac recovery. A commonly used method for restoring pulsatility with rotodynamic blood pumps (RBPs) is to modulate the speed profile, synchronized to the cardiac cycle. This introduces additional parameters that influence the (un)loading of the heart, including the timing (phase shift) between the native cardiac cycle and the pump pulses, and the amplitude of speed modulation. In this study, the impact of these parameters upon the heart-RBP interaction was examined in terms of the pressure head-flow (HQ) diagram. The measurements were conducted using a rotodynamic Deltastream DP2 pump in a validated hybrid mock circulation with baroreflex function. The pump was operated with a sinusoidal speed profile, synchronized to the native cardiac cycle. The simulated ventriculo-aortic cannulation showed that the level of (un)loading and the shape of the HQ loops strongly depend on the phase shift. The HQ loops displayed characteristic shapes depending on the phase shift. Increased contribution of native contraction (increased ventricular stroke work [WS ]) resulted in a broadening of the loops. It was found that the previously described linear relationship between WS and the area of the HQ loop for constant pump speeds becomes a family of linear relationships, whose slope depends on the phase shift.
No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Artificial Organs
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims: To investigate a pressure-controlled intermittent coronary sinus occlusion (PICSO) system in an ischaemia/reperfusion model. Methods and results: We randomly assigned 18 pigs subjected to 60 minutes ischaemia by left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery balloon occlusion to PICSO (n=12, groups A and B) or to controls (n=6, group C). PICSO started 10 minutes before (group A), or 10 minutes after (group B) reperfusion and was maintained for 180 minutes. A continuous drop of distal LAD pressure was observed in group C. At 180 minutes of reperfusion, LAD diastolic pressure was significantly lower in group C compared to groups A and B (p=0.02). LAD mean pressure was significantly less than the systemic arterial mean pressure in group C (p=0.02), and the diastolic flow slope was flat, compared to groups A and B (p=0.03). IgG and IgM antibody deposition was significantly higher in ischaemic compared to non-ischaemic tissue in group C (p<0.05). Significantly more haemorrhagic lesions were seen in the ischaemic myocardium of group C, compared to groups A and B (p=0.002). The necrotic area differed non-significantly among groups. Conclusions: PICSO was safe and effective in improving coronary perfusion pressure and reducing antibody deposition consistent with reduced microvascular obstruction and ischaemia/reperfusion injury.
No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · EuroIntervention: journal of EuroPCR in collaboration with the Working Group on Interventional Cardiology of the European Society of Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: /st>Cardiac output (CO) measurement with lithium dilution (COLD) has not been fully validated in sheep using precise ultrasonic flow probe technology (COUFP). Sheep generate important cardiovascular research models and the use of COLD has become more popular in experimental settings.
/st>Ultrasonic transit-time perivascular flow probes were surgically implanted on the pulmonary artery of 13 sheep. Paired COLD readings were taken at six time points, before and after implantation of a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) and compared with COUFP recorded just after lithium injection.
/st>The mean COLD was 5.7 litre min(-1) (range 3.8-9.6 litre min(-1)) and mean COUFP 5.9 litre min(-1) (range 4.0-9.2 litre min(-1)). The bias (standard deviation) was 0.3 (1.0) litre min(-1) [5.1 (16.9)%] and limits of agreement (LOA) were -1.7 to 2.3 litre min(-1) (-28.8 to 39.0%) with a percentage error (PE) of 34.4%. Data to assess trending [rate (95% confidence intervals)] included a 78 (62-93)% concordance rate in the four-quadrant plot (n=27). In the half moon polar plot (n=19), the mean polar angle was +5°, the radial LOA were -49 to +35° and 68 (47-89)% of data points fell within 22.5° of the mean polar angle. Both tests indicated moderate to poor trending ability.
/st>COLD is not precise when evaluated against COUFP in sheep based on the statistical criteria set, but the results are comparable with previously published animal studies.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and purpose:
Conventional platinum coils cause imaging artifacts that reduce imaging quality and therefore impair imaging interpretation on intraprocedural or noninvasive follow-up imaging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate imaging characteristics and artifact production of polymeric coils compared with standard platinum coils in vitro and in vivo.
Materials and methods:
Polymeric coils and standard platinum coils were evaluated in vitro with the use of 2 identical silicon aneurysm models coiled with a packing attenuation of 20% each. DSA, flat panel CT, CT, and MR imaging were performed. In vivo evaluation of imaging characteristics of polymeric coils was performed in experimentally created rabbit carotid bifurcation aneurysms. DSA, CT/CTA, and MR imaging were performed after endovascular treatment of the aneurysms. Images were evaluated regarding visibility of individual coils, coil mass, artifact production, and visibility of residual flow within the aneurysm.
Overall, in vitro and in vivo imaging showed relevantly reduced artifact production of polymeric coils in all imaging modalities compared with standard platinum coils. Image quality of CT and MR imaging was improved with the use of polymeric coils, which permitted enhanced depiction of individual coil loops and residual aneurysm lumen as well as the peri-aneurysmal area. Remarkably, CT images demonstrated considerably improved image quality with only minor artifacts compared with standard coils. On DSA, polymeric coils showed transparency and allowed visualization of superimposed vessel structures.
This initial experimental study showed improved imaging quality with the use of polymeric coils compared with standard platinum coils in all imaging modalities. This might be advantageous for improved intraprocedural imaging for the detection of complications and posttreatment noninvasive follow-up imaging.
No preview · Article · May 2013 · American Journal of Neuroradiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ventricular assist devices are blood pumps that offer an option to support the circulation of patients with severe heart failure. Since a failing heart has a remaining pump function, its interaction with the ventricular assist device influences the hemodynamics. Ideally, the hearts action is taken into account for actuating the device such that the device is synchronized to the natural cardiac cycle. To realize this in practice, a reliable real-time algorithm for the automatic synchronization of the ventricular assist device to the heart rate is required. This paper defines the tasks such an algorithm needs to fulfill: the automatic detection of irregular heart beats and the feedback control of the phase shift between the systolic phases of the heart and the assist device. We demonstrate a possible solution to these problems and analyze its performance in two steps. First, the algorithm is tested using the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. Second, the algorithm is implemented in a controller for a pulsatile and a continuousflow ventricular assist device. These devices are connected to a hybrid mock circulation where three test scenarios are evaluated. The proposed algorithm ensures a reliable synchronization of the ventricular assist device to the heart cycle, while being insensitive to irregularities in the heart rate.
No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Current pulsatile ventricular assist devices operate asynchronous with the left ventricle in fixed-rate or fill-to-empty modes because electrocardiogram-triggered modes have been abandoned. We hypothesize that varying the ejection delay in the synchronized mode yields more precise control of hemodynamics and left ventricular loading. This allows for a refined management that may be clinically beneficial.
Eight sheep received a Thoratec paracorporeal ventricular assist device (Thoratec Corp, Pleasanton, Calif) via ventriculo-aortic cannulation. Left ventricular pressure and volume, aortic pressure, pulmonary flow, pump chamber pressure, and pump inflow and outflow were recorded. The pump was driven by a clinical pneumatic drive unit (Medos Medizintechnik AG, Stolberg, Germany) synchronously with the native R-wave. The start of pump ejection was delayed between 0% and 100% of the cardiac period in 10% increments. For each of these delays, hemodynamic variables were compared with baseline data using paired t tests.
The location of the minimum of stroke work was observed at a delay of 10% (soon after aortic valve opening), resulting in a median of 43% reduction in stroke work compared with baseline. Maximum stroke work occurred at a median delay of 70% with a median stroke work increase of 11% above baseline. Left ventricular volume unloading expressed by end-diastolic volume was most pronounced for copulsation (delay 0%).
The timing of pump ejection in synchronized mode yields control over left ventricular energetics and can be a method to achieve gradual reloading of a recoverable left ventricle. The traditionally suggested counterpulsation is not optimal in ventriculo-aortic cannulation when maximum unloading is desired.
No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery