[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inbred male CBA/J mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni develop either hypersplenomegaly syndrome (HSS) or moderate splenomegaly syndrome (MSS) by 20 weeks of infection. Pathologically and immunologically, MSS and HSS closely parallel the intestinal and hepatosplenic clinical forms of schistosomiasis in humans, respectively. By 6 weeks after infection, mice that eventually will become MSS develop T cell-stimulatory, cross-reactive idiotypes (CRI) while HSS mice never produce CRI. Because presence of CRI is useful to predict degree of chronic pathology, we used this measure to investigate what other early immunological events occurred in animals destined to develop severe morbidity. At 8 weeks of infection, there was a strong inverse correlation between CRI and splenomegaly, egg counts, and liver hydroxyproline. Similarly, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)- and ionomycin-stimulated intracellular cytokine expression of IL-4, IL-5, and GM-CSF in splenic CD4(+) T cells was inversely correlated with serum CRI and directly correlated with spleen size. In contrast, spleen cell intracellular TNF-alpha and peritoneal cell production of nitric oxide demonstrated positive correlations with CRI and inverse correlations with measures of morbidity. Surprisingly, IL-10 and IFN-gamma were not correlated with CRI levels. These studies link chronic pathology to certain immunological responses during the acute phase of schistosomiasis.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2007 · Parasite Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In murine Schistosoma mansoni infections, schistosome-specific cross-reactive idiotypes (CRI) are present in the sera of mice with moderate splenomegaly syndrome (MSS) at 20 wk after infection. In contrast, sera from animals that have the more severe hypersplenomegaly syndrome (HSS) at 20 wk of infection do not express these CRI in their sera. To examine when these regulatory CRI first appear in mice that eventually develop MSS, sera from infected animals were monitored for CRI from 1.5 to 20 wk of infection. In mice that eventually developed MSS, CRI were detected by 5 to 6 wk after infection, plateaued by 8 to 10 wk, and persisted through 20 wk of infection. Animals that developed HSS pathology or that died before 20 wk of infection never expressed CRI. Moreover, CRI levels present in the sera of mice at 6 wk of infection were inversely correlated with splenomegaly and hepatic fibrosis, but not with parasitologic measures, at 20 wk after infection. These results suggest that critical events occur very early in some schistosome infections that induce the production of regulatory idiotypes and that the presence or absence of these idiotypes predicts, and possibly determines, subsequent morbidity.
Preview · Article · Jun 2002 · Journal of Experimental Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exposure of neonatal mice to appropriate, cross-reactive Id (CRI) preparations alters immune responsiveness, ameliorates pathology, and prolongs survival of animals upon subsequent Schistosoma mansoni infection. However, because schistosome infections profoundly affect host immunobiology, which responses are effected by neonatal Id exposure alone and which responses are influenced by infection is unclear. To directly examine the schistosome soluble egg Ag (SEA)-specific immune responses altered by CRI exposure, neonatal mice were injected with CRI-expressing (CRI+) SEA-specific Ab preparations, SEA-specific Abs that did not express CRI (CRI-), or normal mouse Ig. At 9 wk of age, only mice that were neonatally exposed to CRI+ anti-SEA Abs displayed significant SEA-specific IgG serum levels and spleen cell proliferative responses. SEA-stimulated spleen cells from these CRI+-exposed mice also produced IFN-gamma, although not at significantly higher levels than mice receiving CRI- Id or normal mouse Ig. If CRI+-exposed mice were also injected with SEA at 8 wk of age, the 9-wk IFN-gamma responses were significantly higher than those of the other neonatal injection groups. The presence of both CRI and anti-CRI in the sera of animals neonatally injected with CRI, but receiving no exposure to S. mansoni Ags or infection, suggested a functional idiotypic network led to these responses. These data demonstrate that appropriate idiotypic exposure induces B and T cell responsiveness to the Ag recognized by the Id and support the hypothesis that neonatal idiotypic exposure can be an important immunoregulatory factor in schistosomiasis.
Full-text · Article · Aug 1999 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this and previous publications, we have described two areas of study that now converge, and that we propose provide insights into immunoregulatory processes that may develop during chronic endemic diseases and contribute to the balance and chronicity of the essential host/parasite relationship. The first area of study is that of idiotypic/antiidiotypic interactions within human and experimental immune systems during Schistosoma mansoni infections. The companion study concerns a naturally developing differential development of morbidity and mortality during chronic experimental schistosomiasis mansoni. Based on the data presented and reviewed, we propose that either by six weeks of infection, or through perinatal idiotypic manipulation, the immune system of the infected host is 'programmed' into responding either with regulatory cross-reactive idiotypes or not, and that this commitment differentially controls multiple subsequent immune responses and can determine the degree of consequent morbidity and mortality due to schistosomiasis.
No preview · Article · Jul 1999 · Microbes and Infection
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exposure to maternal idiotypes (Ids) or antigens might predispose a child to develop an immunoregulated, asymptomatic clinical presentation of schistosomiasis. We have used an experimental murine system to address the role of Ids in this immunoregulation. Sera from mice with 8-wk Schistosoma mansoni infection, chronic (20-wk infection) moderate splenomegaly syndrome (MSS), or chronic hypersplenomegaly syndrome (HSS) were passed over an S. mansoni soluble egg antigen (SEA) immunoaffinity column to prepare Ids (8WkId, MSS Id, HSS Id). Newborn mice were injected with 8WkId, MSS Id, HSS Id, or normal mouse immunoglobulin (NoMoIgG) and infected with S. mansoni 8 wk later. Mice exposed to 8WkId or MSS Id as newborns had prolonged survival and decreased morbidity compared with mice that received HSS Id or NoMoIgG. When stimulated with SEA, 8WkId, or MSS Id, spleen cells from mice neonatally injected with 8WkId or MSS Id produced more interferon gamma than spleen cells from mice neonatally injected with HSS Id or NoMoIgG. Furthermore, neonatal exposure to 8WkId or MSS Id, but not NoMoIgG or HSS Id, led to significantly smaller granuloma size and lower hepatic fibrosis levels in infected mice. Together, these results indicate that perinatal exposure to appropriate anti-SEA Ids induces long-term effects on survival, pathology, and immune response patterns in mice subsequently infected with S. mansoni.
Full-text · Article · Mar 1999 · Journal of Experimental Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inbred male CBA/J mice with chronic Schistosoma mansoni infections develop two distinct syndromes. Hypersplenomegaly syndrome (HSS) demonstrates pathologic similarities to the hepatosplenic form of chronic human schistosomiasis, and moderate splenomegaly syndrome (MSS) resembles the asymptomatic intestinal form. Immunoaffinity-purified Abs against S. mansoni soluble egg Ags (SEA) from infected patients' sera differ idiotypically according to the donor's clinical form of the disease. We now show that immunoaffinity-purified anti-SEA Abs (Id) from MSS or HSS mice parallel idiotypic preparations of the analogous human clinical form by their differential ability to stimulate the proliferation of anti-Id T cells. MSS Id preparations stimulate spleen cells from either MSS or HSS animals. In contrast, HSS Id does not stimulate spleen cells from either group. In an anti-SEA ELISA, MSS and HSS Id preparations contained comparable levels of IgM and IgG1. However, the MSS Id preparation had higher levels of SEA-specific IgG2a and IgG2b than did HSS Id. The Ig isotypes of these Id preparations suggested differences in cytokine expression patterns. Studies of the cytokine profiles of the spleen cells responding to anti-SEA Id preparations demonstrated that while Id preparations from acutely infected mice stimulate IL-4 and IL-10 production, Id preparations from chronic MSS mice stimulate IFN-gamma production. HSS Id did not stimulate the production of any of these cytokines. The possibility that distinct immunoregulatory environments may contribute to the development of MSS and HSS correlates with earlier hypotheses that hepatosplenic pathology results at least in part from a lack of development or expression of appropriate regulatory Ids.
No preview · Article · May 1997 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inbred CBA/J mice with chronic (20-week) Schistosoma mansoni infections demonstrate two distinct syndromes. Hypersplenomegaly syndrome (HSS), characterized by a massive spleen, liver fibrosis, ascites, and anemia, resembles hepatosplenic human schistosomiasis, complete with portal hypertension and shunting. Moderate splenomegaly (MSS) syndrome, with less severe pathology, parallels most chronic human infections. Phenotypic analyses of spleen cells for CD44, CD62L, CD45RB, Ia, and CD25 indicate that HSS mice have more activated and memory CD4+ T cells than do MSS mice. HSS animals also have more B cells that highly express B7-2. Anti-CD3 stimulated spleen cells from 8-week or chronically infected mice produce IL-4 and IL-10 in a manner that appears not to involve the CD28/B7-2 costimulation pathway. By contrast IFN-gamma production is augmented in the presence of anti-CD28 and decreased in the presence of anti-B7-2. Infected mice make very little IL-2 to anti-CD3, even with added anti-CD28. As cytokines affect resultant B-cell responses and HSS and MSS mice display distinctive isotypes, differential regulatory or anergy hypotheses may best explain MSS/HSS differences.
No preview · Article · Nov 1996 · Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Humans chronically infected with Schistosoma mansoni most commonly present with the relatively asymptomatic intestinal form of the disease, whereas a small minority develop hepatosplenism characterized by severe hepatic disease with portal hypertension. Investigation of hypotheses describing the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the clinical forms of the human disease has been limited by the absence of an animal model that predictably develops such a spectrum of disease. We report that inbred male CBA/J mice that are chronically infected with S. mansoni develop two distinct syndromes, hypersplenomegaly syndrome (HSS) and moderate splenomegaly syndrome (MSS). Pathologically and immunologically, MSS and HSS remarkably parallel the intestinal and hepatosplenic clinical forms, respectively, in humans. HSS affects approximately 20% of these mice and consists of massive splenomegaly, ascites, thymic atrophy, severe anemia, and cachexia. The remaining majority of mice with MSS develop moderate splenomegaly only. Histopathological features of HSS include 1) relatively extensive hepatic fibrosis and granulomatous inflammation, 2) splenic congestion, 3) lymph node plasmacytosis, and 4) worms and eggs in the pulmonary vasculature. Immunologically, the idiotypes present on antisoluble egg antigen antibodies from HSS mice are distinct from those from mice with acute infections or the chronic MSS infection. These idiotypic differences are similar to those observed in patients with intestinal and hepatosplenic forms of the disease and may have regulatory importance. Investigation of the cellular and molecular events that lead to the development of MSS and HSS may advance current understanding of the pathogenesis of the clinical forms of chronic schistosomiasis in humans.
Full-text · Article · Apr 1993 · American Journal Of Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A monoclonal human anti-soluble schistosomal egg Ag(SEA) antibody (E5) that stimulates anti-Id T cells and is idiotypically represented in pools of immunoaffinity-purified human anti-SEA antibodies from chronic, generally asymptomatic, intestinal (INT) patients (AM1 and AM5) was used to raise several monoclonal anti-Id: 1C2, 1C6, 4A8, 4F9, and 2A7. Cross-inhibition between these anti-Id identified distinct idiotopes on E5. Anti-SEA preparations from schistosomiasis patients (AM1, AM5, and others) were tested for their inhibition of the E5/monoclonal anti-Id reactions, in competitive ELISA. In either the E5/4A8 or E5/1C6 ELISA system, anti-SEA from INT (AM1 or AM5) or hepatointestinal (HI) (AM7) patients were able to inhibit these reactions. However, anti-SEA antibodies from acute (AM9) or hepatosplenic (HS) (AM3 or AM8) patients did not express Id that were inhibitory in these systems. These results suggest that a relatively high proportion of INT and HI anti-SEA antibodies express a dominant cross-reactive idiotope (CRI) recognized by 1C6/4A8. This CRI is also easily detected in plasmas from individual INT patients. Anti-Id 1C2 reacted strongly with an Id in AM1, AM5, or AM7, but one which also occurred, to a lesser extent, in AM3, AM8, and AM9. Monoclonal anti-Id 4F9 and 2A7 reacted weakly with idiotopes expressed by antibodies from all patients, regardless of the clinical form of their infection. These observations indicate that anti-SEA antibodies from INT and HI, but not acute or HS patients express dominant, CRI that are identified by 1C6, 4A8, or 1C2 and are also expressed on the INT-derived anti-SEA mAb E5.
No preview · Article · Dec 1990 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immunoaffinity-purified antibodies against Schistosoma mansoni soluble egg Ag (SEA) from infected patients' sera differ idiotypically according to the donor's clinical form of the disease. The Id differ both by their ability to stimulate proliferation of anti-Id T cells and their recognition by anti-Id-specific sera. Also, mice infected with S. mansoni develop anti-Id T and B cell responses against mouse anti-SEA antibodies. We now show that anti-SEA antibodies from serum pools of chronic, but asymptomatic patients (AM1 and AM5) stimulate proliferation of spleen cells from mice infected with S. mansoni. However, AM8, anti-SEA antibodies from hepatosplenic patients, did not stimulate these spleen cells. The murine responses directly parallel patient studies where AM1 and AM5 Id-stimulated human PBMC, but AM8 Id did not. In competitive ELISA, using AM1 or AM-5-specific rabbit antisera or human anti-SEA mAb E5-specific rabbit antiserum, sera from mice infected for 8 and 16 wk (but not from uninfected mice) compete with AM1, AM5, or E5. These sera do not compete in the AM8/anti-AM8 competitive ELISA. Sera from 8-wk-infected mice inhibit more against AM1, AM5, and E5 than do sera from later infections, and anti-SEA immunoaffinity-purified antibodies from 8-wk-infected mice stimulate spleen cells from infected mice more than anti-SEA antibodies from sera of mice late in infection. However, spleen cells from more chronically infected mice are more responsive to either the murine or human anti-SEA antibody preparations than cells from mice with earlier infections. Both the ELISA data and lymphocyte responses indicate that anti-SEA antibodies from mice infected with S. mansoni for 8 wk bear Id cross-reactive with those expressed on anti-SEA antibodies from humans with chronic, asymptomatic schistosomiasis, but not those from hepatosplenic patients.
No preview · Article · Sep 1990 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antibodies were purified from pooled sera from patients with different clinical forms of schistosomiasis mansoni on immunoaffinity columns of schistosome soluble egg Ag (SEA). As previously reported, T lymphocytes in PBMC preparations from schistosomiasis patients (but not control subjects who have never been infected) proliferate when cultured in the presence of certain of these anti-SEA purified antibodies. We now show that PBMC from most patients with chronic schistosomiasis, regardless of the clinical form of their infection, respond to anti-SEA antibodies from sera of asymptomatic (intestinal) or hepatointestinal patients. In stark contrast, none responds to anti-SEA antibodies purified from sera of acute or hepatosplenic patients. All of these multiclonal anti-SEA antibody preparations were active in anti-SEA ELISA assays and gave comparable patterns of reactivity with SEA upon immunoblotting analysis. Immunization of rabbits with some of these anti-SEA antibody preparations, followed by absorption of the rabbit antisera on absorbents of normal Ig, produced specific anti-Id reagents. Use of these reagents in competitive ELISA systems demonstrated that the Id in stimulatory and nonstimulatory anti-SEA antibody preparations differ with regard to the proportion of the serologically defined Id expressed by each. It appears possible to screen patients' plasmas for the presence of shared Id by use of suitable Id/anti-Id competitive ELISA assays. Taken together these data indicate that only certain Id-positive preparations are stimulatory to patients' PBMC, and the expression of these T cell stimulatory, immunoregulatory Id on anti-SEA antibodies correlates with the clinical form of a patient's infection.
No preview · Article · May 1989 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anti-idiotypic (anti-Id) T cells from schistosomiasis patients or former patients proliferate upon exposure to polyclonal or monoclonal anti-soluble egg antigen (SEA) antibodies. Chloroquine does not inhibit, the response, which is induced by F(ab')2 (but not soluble Fab) fragments of these antibodies. Purified T cells from former patients require macrophages or exogenous IL-1 to respond to anti-SEA Ids and can respond to matrix-bound Fab fragments in the presence of IL-1. These anti-Id T cells recognize the Ids directly. Chronic schistosomiasis patients immunoregulate the production of a non-IL-2 lymphokine that stimulates IL-2 receptor expression on resting T cells. This regulation is reversed upon chemotherapeutic cure.
Full-text · Article · Feb 1987 · Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a method for the examination of antiidiotypic cell-mediated reactivity during chronic human infections. Pooled and individual sera from patients with schistosomiasis mansoni were purified on immunoaffinity columns of schistosomal egg antigens (SEA). The eluates contained anti-SEA antibodies, but not SEA. These antibody preparations, and their F(ab)2 fragments, stimulated dose-dependent proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMN) and T lymphocytes from some, but not all active or former schistosomiasis mansoni patients, and could do so autologously. Stimulation required presentation by plastic-adherent cells. The eluates did not stimulate PBMN from persons who had never had schistosomiasis. Affinity-purified anti-SEA antibodies from former patients (cured for greater than 10 yr) did not stimulate PBMN from patients with active infections. Reabsorption on SEA columns removed stimulatory activity from the eluates. We propose that multiclonal, SEA-related idiotypes expressed by some anti-SEA antibodies stimulate proliferation of T lymphocytes that express antiidiotypic specificities.
Full-text · Article · Nov 1986 · Journal of Clinical Investigation