[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Salpingoscopy is an endoscopic technique that allows the direct visualization of the tubal mucosa. The status of the tubal mucosa is the best prognostic factor when evaluating patients with tubal infertility. Salpingoscopy, performed during laparoscopy, has not reached wide acceptance due the costly, non-user-friendly, dedicated instrumentation needed. In this article, a simplified technique to perform salpingoscopy at the time of laparoscopy is reported, using a standard 2.9-mm diagnostic hysteroscope, with a 3.7-mm single-flow diagnostic sheath, introduced through an accessory port. Salpingoscopy, with this new technique, was performed in 13 patients with tubal infertility. The tubes were successfully cannulated in all patients, for a total of 24 tubes evaluated (2 patients had a single tube). Salpingoneostomy and salpingoovarolysis were completed after salpingoscopy only when the tubal mucosa was normal. In 1 patient with severe tubal damage, salpingectomy of the single remaining tube was performed. Salpingoscopy added a mean of 15 minutes to surgical time. Intrauterine pregnancies were obtained, after salpingoneostomy, fimbrioplasty, or adhesiolysis, in 5 of 12 patients (42%), with a mean follow-up of 9 months. The simplified technique of salpingoscopy, with a diagnostic hysteroscope introduced through an accessory trocar at the time of laparoscopy, adds important information on the reproductive potential of patients with tubal disease.
No preview · Article · Sep 2010 · Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infertility, defined as the inability to conceive despite regular unprotected sexual intercourse over 12 years, affects approximately 10% of the fertile population. The commonest cause of tubal damage is pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which in the developed world is caused mainly by Chlamydia trachomatis infection. The incidence of tubal damage after one episode of pelvic infection is approximately 12%, 23% after two episodes and 54% after three episodes. Other causes of tubal damage include postsurgical adhesions or endometriosis. Tubal patency can be diagnosed by hysterosalpingography (HSG) or laparoscopy with chromopertubation. Surgery represents the best therapeutic approach for tubal pathology, with a term pregnancy rate of 70% after surgery in selected patients, while the latest results in Italy of assisted reproductive technology (ART) report a live birth rate per cycle of 13.8%. In conclusion, tubal reconstructive surgery remains an important option for many couples and surgery should be the fi rst line approach for a correct diagnosis and treatment of tubal infertility.
No preview · Article · Jan 2010 · La Clinica terapeutica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the benefit of intraoperative ultrasound applied directly to the uterine serosa during surgery for uterine fibroids.
University hospital, tertiary care.
Women admitted for open myomectomy due to uterine fibroids.
Intraoperative ultrasound (IUS) and intraoperative palpation were performed to detect the number of residual fibroids at the end of surgery, then the number of fibroids was recorded at anatomopathology examination.
Residual fibroids detected at IUS and intraoperative palpation at the end of open myomectomy.
The comparison between the number of residual fibroids at IUS and at intraoperative palpation was statistically significant.
Intraoperative ultrasound is more efficient than palpation in detecting residual leiomyomata at the end of open myomectomy.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2009 · Fertility and sterility
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy of GnRH analogue treatment before hysteroscopic resection of submucous myomas in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding.
Multicenter, prospective, randomized, clinical study.
Tertiary-care university hospitals.
Thirty-nine consecutive patients with submucous myomas graded as G0 or G1 according to the European Society for Gynecological Endoscopy classification (myoma size 10-35 mm).
Patients were randomized to either direct surgery or 2 months of GnRH analogues before undergoing hysteroscopic resection of the submucous myoma.
Operating times, fluid absorption, difficulty of the operation, surgeon satisfaction with the procedure, intra- and postoperative complications, postoperative pain, and patient satisfaction were recorded.
Patients treated with GnRH analogue had significantly shorter operative times (15.9+/-3.1 minutes vs. 21.3+/-4.0 minutes) and significantly reduced fluid absorption (378+/-137 mL vs. 566+/-199 mL) compared with no preoperative medical treatment. Operative difficulty and overall surgeon satisfaction were significantly better in the GnRH analogue group. Patient satisfaction was similar in the two groups.
GnRH analogue treatment before hysteroscopic resection of G0-G1 10-35 mm submucous myomas was effective in reducing operative times, fluid absorption, and difficulty of the procedure.
No preview · Article · Jul 2009 · Fertility and sterility
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Urinary incontinence consist in voluntary urine leakage. Female affected in the world are about 200 thousand. Urinary incontinence affect severely women quality of life. There are different kinds of urinary incontinence that can be treated in different ways. We can use pelvic floor rehabilitation, drug therapy, invasive and non-invasive surgical treatment. Different treatments are used for different incontinence types. Periurethral injection is the most common procedure between non-invasive surgery. The most recent bulking agents occasionally determine severe adverse reaction or complication. Frequently we can have just pain during injection and a temporary urine retention. During the latest years we used a lot of bulking agents: bovine collagen, autologous fat, carbon particles, macroplastique, calcium hydroxylapatite, ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer, dextranomer. Urethral injection have success in 40-90%. We can assert that macroplastique is the most efficacy and safe on the basis of literature data and of our experience data. This surgical procedure, in fact, has good percentage of success in accurately selected patients. In our experience Macroplastique can also be used in oncological patients, in elderly women, in patients with important comorbidity and with high surgical risk with good objective and subjective results.
No preview · Article · Jan 2009 · Minerva ginecologica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study is to prospectively investigate the efficacy and complications of macroplastique transurethral implantation in cervical cancer patients affected by stress urinary incontinence (SUI) after radical hysterectomy (RH).
Patients affected by de novo SUI post type 3 RH were considered for eligibility in this study. Preoperative and postoperative assessment included a standardized urogynecological history, urogynecological and neurological physical examination, evaluation of severity of SUI symptoms, a 3-day voiding diary, urine culture and urodynamic assessment. All patients underwent transurethral implantation using Macroplastique Implantation System (MIS). Patient follow-up was performed 6 and 12 months after surgery.
A total of 24 consecutive patients were enrolled. At the 12 month follow up SUI cure rate was 42% (10 of 24 patients), the improvement rate was 42% (10 of 24) and the failure rate was 16% (4 of 24). The overall success rate was 84% (10 patients cured and 10 improved). No intraoperative or postoperative early complications were found. The 4 patients in whom treatment was not a success had preoperative urethral hypermobility. Subjective patient perception of SUI symptom severity showed significant improvement (mean severity of urinary loss perception 6.6+/-1.8 vs 2.3+/-3.3, p<0.05). The frequency of incontinence on the 3-day voiding diary was significantly reduced at the follow up (14.5+/-5.8 vs 4.3+/-7.9 episodes per 3 days, p<0.05).
Bulking agents urethral injection could be a valid option having no surgical complications. This therapeutic strategy is able to treat SUI and improve well being of cervical cancer patients after radical surgery.
No preview · Article · Oct 2008 · Gynecologic Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of systematic lymphadenectomy, feasibility, complications rate, and outcome in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients with recurrent bulky lymph node disease. A prospective observational study of EOC patients with pelvic/aortic lymph node relapse was conducted between January 1995 and June 2005. After a clinical and laparoscopic staging, secondary cytoreduction, including systematic lymphadenectomy, were performed. The eligibility criteria were as follows: disease-free interval > or =6 months, radiographic finding suggestive of bulky lymph node recurrence, and patients' consent to be treated with chemotherapy. Forty-eight EOC patients with lymph node relapse were recruited. Twenty-nine patients were amenable to cytoreductive surgery. Postoperatively, all patients received adjuvant treatment. The median numbers of resected aortic and pelvic nodes were 15 (2-32) and 17 (8-47), respectively. The median numbers of resected aortic and pelvic positive lymph nodes were 4 (1-18) and 3 (1-17), respectively. The mean size of bulky nodes was 3.3 cm. Four patients (14%) experienced one severe complication. No treatment-related deaths were observed. After a median follow-up of 26 months, among cytoreduced patients, 18 women were alive with no evidence of disease, nine were alive with disease. Among the 11 patients not amenable to surgery, five women were alive with persistent disease, six patients died of disease, at a median follow-up of 18 months. Estimated 5-year overall survival and disease-free interval for operated women were 87% and 31%, respectively. In conclusion, patients with bulky lymph node relapse can benefit from systematic lymphadenectomy in terms of survival. The procedure is feasible with an acceptable morbidity rate.
No preview · Article · Nov 2007 · International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine advantages and disadvantages of minilaparotomy and laparoscopy in managing patients affected by benign adnexal masses.
Prospective, randomized, clinical trial on 127 patients affected by adnexal cysts. Patients were submitted to adnexal surgery through a laparoscopic or minilaparotomy approach on a random basis.
Hundred and twenty-seven patients were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to laparoscopy (63 patients) or minilaparotomy (64 patients). Characteristics of the patients and of the cysts were homogeneous between the two groups. No significant differences between the two groups were recorded in terms of operative time, intraoperative complications, ileus, length of stay and recovery time. The intraoperative rupture rate of the cyst was significantly higher in the laparoscopy group only in a subgroup of patients affected by cysts greater than 7 cm in diameter (p=0.01). Three patients randomized to laparoscopy required conversion to laparotomy. Concerning postoperative outcomes, postoperative pain and minor complications were significantly less in patients undergoing laparoscopy (p=0.001 and 0.04).
Operative laparoscopy appears to be the preferable approach for the management of adnexal cysts. Minilaparotomy can be considered a mini-invasive approach as well, with acceptable operative and postoperative outcomes, and is a suitable alternative in case of contraindications to laparoscopy.
No preview · Article · Sep 2007 · European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objectives of the present study were to evaluate hemoglobin levels and consequent clinical behaviors related to anemia developed in patients affected by locally advanced cervical cancer treated with neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in the last decade and to evaluate the impact that the introduction of erythropoietic growth factors had in the clinical practice.
Blood chemistries, prospectively recorded from 98 cervical cancer patients, treated with neo-adjuvant chemotherapy and, if necessary, erythropoietic growth factors, were compared with matched historical controls before the introduction of growth factors in clinical practice.
Hemoglobin level in the study group did not differ significantly during chemotherapy. At the third cycle of chemotherapy and at the end of chemotherapy, hemoglobin level was significantly higher in the study group compared with the control group. Transfusion rates in the study group were significantly lower. The analysis within the study group revealed that hemoglobin level in patients who suffer at diagnosis from anemia tends to increase whereas hemoglobin level in nonanemic patients tends to decrease.
Erythropoietic growth factors increase hemoglobin level and reduce blood transfusions in cervical cancer patients undergoing neo-adjuvant chemotherapy followed by radical surgery. An appropriate autologous blood donation program can noticeably reduce homologous blood transfusions.
Full-text · Article · May 2007 · Annals of Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate by thorough pathologic analysis the histologic features of the endometrioma wall excised at laparoscopy.
Prospective series of consecutive patients.
Tertiary care, university hospital.
Fifty-nine patients with ovarian endometriomas. A total of 70 cysts were examined.
Patients underwent operative laparoscopy with the stripping technique for excision of the ovarian endometrioma.
A thorough histologic examination was performed on the entire cyst wall specimen.
Histologic examination confirmed the endometriotic nature of the cyst in 100% of the cases. The inner wall of the endometrioma was covered by endometriotic tissue on 60% of the surface. The mean cyst wall thickness was 1.4 mm. The mean value of maximal depth of endometriosis penetration in the endometrioma wall was 0.6 mm. In 99% of the cases the maximal penetration of the endometriotic tissue was <1.5 mm.
In the present study, we demonstrate that the endometrioma wall contains endometriotic tissue in 100% of the cases. However, the endometriotic tissue may cover the inner cyst wall for a surface that varies between 10% and 98% of the entire wall (median value 60%). This tissue may reach a depth of 2 mm, but for most of the surface it does not penetrate >1.5 mm. These histologic data may help the gynecologic laparoscopist select the surgical approach that maximally preserves healthy ovarian tissue.
No preview · Article · Mar 2007 · Fertility and sterility
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of liposome-encapsulated doxorubicin citrate (LEDC) in patients affected by recurrent/metastatic gynecological malignancies scheduled for palliative chemotherapy. Inclusion criteria were proven recurrent/advanced gynecological neoplasms, measurable/assessable disease, adequate organ function, left ventricular ejection fraction >50% as determined by echocardiography, informed consent. LEDC was administered intravenously over 1 h at the dose of either 75 mg/m(2) or 60 mg/m(2) (every 3 weeks until disease progression or toxicity prohibiting further therapy). From May 2003 to September 2005, 36 patients were enrolled. Primary disease was ovarian, endometrial, and cervical cancers in 15 (42%), 11 (30%), and 10 (28%) patients, respectively. LEDC was employed as third- or fourth-line chemotherapy in 25 (70%) and 11 (30%) patients, respectively. The median number of courses of LEDC received was 3 (range 2-9). Six patients (17%) achieved a partial response to treatment lasting 27 weeks and 10 patients (28%) experienced stable disease lasting 18 weeks. The predominant toxicity was hematological, especially neutropenia. Among patients receiving a dose of 75 mg/m(2), two (11%) suspended therapy for febrile neutropenia, and nine (50%) required a dose reduction of 25%. As a result, the next 18 patients were treated at a reduced dose (60 mg/m(2)) of LEDC. Severe neutropenia (G3-G4) was significantly less common in this group (61% versus 22%; P= 0.04). LEDC has shown antineoplastic activity in previously treated recurrent/metastatic gynecological cancer patients and the toxicity profile could be considered acceptable at a 60 mg/m(2) dosage.
No preview · Article · Jan 2007 · International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate by serial ultrasound scans how long a Ringer's lactate instillation remains in the peritoneal cavity after laparoscopy.
Prospective, randomized, double blind, clinical trial.
Tertiary care, university hospital.
Thirty-six patients undergoing diagnostic or minor operative laparoscopy.
At the end of laparoscopy, the patients were tilted to an anti-Trendelenburg position and all fluid was aspirated. The patients were then randomized to receive an instillation of 300 mL of Ringer's lactate or no fluid instillation. Serial transvaginal ultrasound scans were performed at the end of surgery and at 24, 48, and 96 hours after the surgery.
Through direct measurements of scalar fluid volumes instilled in the operating room and real-time ultrasound comparisons, an empiric formula was calculated to correlate actual intraperitoneal volumes to ultrasonically derived measurements of fluid pockets. With this formula, the volume of intraperitoneal fluid at 24, 48, and 96 hours after surgery was calculated.
Twenty-four hours after surgery, a mean volume of 184 mL was present in the Ringer's lactate group versus 46 mL in the control group. At 48 hours after surgery, the mean volumes were 78 mL versus 30 mL, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found after 96 hours.
Peritoneal absorption of instilled crystalloids is traditionally reported to be 30 to 60 mL/hour. We report detecting statistically significant amounts of fluid at 24 and 48 hours after surgery, after infusion of 300 mL of Ringer's lactate. This suggests that fluid remains in the peritoneal cavity longer than traditionally believed.
No preview · Article · Aug 2005 · Fertility and sterility
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate feasibility and outcome of minilaparotomy hysterectomy in a consecutive series of patients.
Cohort analytic study. From October 1995 to March 2001, 148 out of 228 (65%) consecutive hysterectomies for benign gynecologic disease were performed by an abdominal route. Minilaparotomy hysterectomy (transversal cutaneous incision < 10 cm, within the pubic hair) was attempted in all patients with benign uterine disease and contraindications for vaginal surgery. Surgical parameters were prospectively assessed in terms of length of incision, operative time, estimated blood loss, duration of ileus, perioperative complications and length of postoperative stay.
A minilaparotomic approach was performed in 118 patients (80%). Conversion to Pfannenstiel was necessary in three cases. The minilaparotomy incision, 8 cm (range 6-10) of median length, was performed below the pubic hair line. The median operating time was 50 min (range 34-88). No intraoperative complications or perioperative blood transfusions were reported, while minor postoperative complications occurred in 16 patients (14%). The median postoperative stay was three days (range 2-5).
The minilaparotomy hysterectomy is feasible in the majority of women undergoing hysterectomy for benign disease. Because of the excellent outcome achieved, it should be considered a valid alternative to the classic abdominal hysterectomy.
No preview · Article · Apr 2005 · European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology