[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is a nuclear receptor expressed in tissues with high oxidative activity that plays a central role in metabolism. In this work, we investigated the effect of hepatocyte PPARα on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).
We constructed a novel hepatocyte-specific PPARα knockout (Pparα(hep-/-)) mouse model. Using this novel model, we performed transcriptomic analysis following fenofibrate treatment. Next, we investigated which physiological challenges impact on PPARα. Moreover, we measured the contribution of hepatocytic PPARα activity to whole-body metabolism and fibroblast growth factor 21 production during fasting. Finally, we determined the influence of hepatocyte-specific PPARα deficiency in different models of steatosis and during ageing.
Hepatocyte PPARα deletion impaired fatty acid catabolism, resulting in hepatic lipid accumulation during fasting and in two preclinical models of steatosis. Fasting mice showed acute PPARα-dependent hepatocyte activity during early night, with correspondingly increased circulating free fatty acids, which could be further stimulated by adipocyte lipolysis. Fasting led to mild hypoglycaemia and hypothermia in Pparα(hep-/-) mice when compared with Pparα(-/-) mice implying a role of PPARα activity in non-hepatic tissues. In agreement with this observation, Pparα(-/-) mice became overweight during ageing while Pparα(hep-/-) remained lean. However, like Pparα(-/-) mice, Pparα(hep-/-) fed a standard diet developed hepatic steatosis in ageing.
Altogether, these findings underscore the potential of hepatocyte PPARα as a drug target for NAFLD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCA1 is required for the conversion of apoA-1 to high density lipoprotein (HDL) and its defect causes Tangier disease, a rare disorder characterized by an absence of HDL and accumulation of cholesterol in peripheral tissues. The role of ABCA1 in platelet functions remains poorly characterized.
To determine the role of ABCA1 in platelet functions and clarify controversies concerning its implication in processes as fundamental as platelet phosphatidylserine exposure and control of platelet membrane lipid composition.
Methods and results:
We studied the impact of ABCA1 deficiency on platelet responses in a mouse model and in two Tangier patients. We show that platelets in ABCA1-deficient mice are slightly larger in size and exhibit aggregation and secretion defects in response to low concentrations of thrombin and collagen. These platelets have normal cholesterol and major phospholipid composition, granule morphology or calcium-induced phosphatidylserine exposure. Interestingly, ABCA1-deficient platelets display a reduction in positive feedback loop mechanisms, particularly in thromboxane A2 (TXA2) production. Hematopoietic chimera mice demonstrated that defective eicosanoids production, particularly TXA2, was primarily dependent on external environment and not on the hematopoietic ABCA1. Decreased aggregation and production of TXA2 and eicosanoids were also observed in platelets from Tangier patients.
Absence of ABCA1 and low HDL level induce reduction of platelet reactivity by decreasing positive feedback loops, particularly TXA2 production through a hematopoietic ABCA1-independent mechanism. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Congenital infection by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a leading cause of congenital abnormalities of the central nervous system. Placenta infection by HCMV allows for viral spread to fetus and may result in intrauterine growth restriction, preeclampsia-like symptoms, or miscarriages. We previously reported that HCMV activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) for its own replication in cytotrophoblasts. Here, we investigated the molecular bases of PPARγ activation in infected cytotrophoblasts.
We show that onboarded cPLA2 carried by HCMV particles is required for effective PPARγ activation in infected HIPEC cytotrophoblasts, and for the resulting inhibition of cell migration. Natural PPARγ agonists are generated by PLA2 driven oxidization of linoleic and arachidonic acids. Therefore, using HPLC coupled with mass spectrometry, we disclosed that cellular and secreted levels of 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HODE) and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) were significantly increased in and from HIPEC cytotrophoblasts at soon as 6 hours post infection. 13-HODE treatment of uninfected HIPEC recapitulated the effect of infection (PPARγ activation, migration impairment). We found that infection of histocultures of normal, first-term, human placental explants resulted in significantly increased levels of secreted 15-HETE and 13-HODE.
Our findings reveal that 15-HETE and 13-HODE could be new pathogenic effectors of HCMV congenital infection They provide a new insight about the pathogenesis of congenital infection by HCMV.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the aim of testing tools for tracing cell trafficking of exogenous cholesterol, two fluorescent derivatives of cholesterol, 22-nitrobenzoxadiazole-cholesterol (NBD-Chol) and 21-methylpyrenyl-cholesterol (Pyr-met-Chol), with distinctive chemico-physical characteristics, have been compared for their cell incorporation properties, using two cell models differently handling cholesterol, with two incorporation routes. In the Caco-2 cell model, the cholesterol probes were delivered in bile salt micelles, as a model of intestinal absorption. The two probes displayed contrasting behaviors for cell uptake characteristics, cell staining, and efflux kinetics. In particular, Pyr-met-Chol cell incorporation involved SR-BI, while that of NBD-Chol appeared purely passive. In the PC-3 cell model, which overexpresses lipoprotein receptors, the cholesterol probes were delivered via the serum components, as a model of systemic delivery. We showed that Pyr-met-Chol-labelled purified LDL or HDL were able to specifically deliver Pyr-met-Chol to the PC-3 cells, while NBD-Chol incorporation was independent of lipoproteins. Observations by fluorescence microscopy evidenced that, while NBD-Chol readily stained the cytosolic lipid droplets, Pyr-met-Chol labelling led to the intense staining of intracellular structures of membranous nature, in agreement with the absence of detectable esterification of Pyr-met-Chol. A 48 h incubation of PC-3 cells with either Pyr-met-Chol-labelled LDL or HDL gave same staining patterns, mainly colocalizing with Lamp1, caveolin-1 and CD63. These data indicated convergent trafficking downwards their respective receptors, LDL-R and SR-BI, toward the cholesterol-rich internal membrane compartments, late endosomes and multivesicular bodies. Interestingly, Pyr-met-Chol staining of these structures exhibited a high excimer fluorescence emission, revealing their ordered membrane environment, and indicating that Pyr-met-Chol behaves as a fair cholesterol tracer regarding its preferential incorporation into cholesterol-rich domains. We conclude that, while NBD-Chol is a valuable marker of cholesterol esterification, Pyr-met-Chol is a reliable new lipoprotein fluorescent marker which allows to probe specific intracellular trafficking of cholesterol-rich membranes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carbohydrate responsive element binding protein (ChREBP) is central for de novo fatty acid synthesis under physiological conditions and in the context of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. We explored its contribution to alcohol‐induced steatosis in a mouse model of binge drinking as acute ethanol (EtOH) intoxication has become an alarming health problem. Within 6 hours, ChREBP acetylation and its recruitment onto target gene promoters were increased in liver of EtOH‐fed mice. Acetylation of ChREBP was dependent on alcohol metabolism because inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity blunted ChREBP EtOH‐induced acetylation in mouse hepatocytes. Transfection of an acetylation‐defective mutant of ChREBP (ChREBPK672A) in HepG2 cells impaired the stimulatory effect of EtOH on ChREBP activity. Importantly, ChREBP silencing in the liver of EtOH‐fed mice prevented alcohol‐induced triglyceride accumulation through an inhibition of the lipogenic pathway but also led, unexpectedly, to hypothermia, increased blood acetaldehyde concentrations, and enhanced lethality. This phenotype was associated with impaired hepatic EtOH metabolism as a consequence of reduced ADH activity. While the expression and activity of the NAD+ dependent deacetylase sirtuin 1, a ChREBP‐negative target, were down‐regulated in the liver of alcohol‐fed mice, they were restored to control levels upon ChREBP silencing. In turn, ADH acetylation was reduced, suggesting that ChREBP regulates EtOH metabolism and ADH activity through its direct control of sirtuin 1 expression. Indeed, when sirtuin 1 activity was rescued by resveratrol pretreatment in EtOH‐treated hepatocytes, a significant decrease in ADH protein content and/or acetylation was observed. Conclusion: our study describes a novel role for ChREBP in EtOH metabolism and unravels its protective effect against severe intoxication in response to binge drinking. (Hepatology 2015;62:1086‐1100)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
Brite adipocytes are inducible energy-dissipating cells expressing UCP1 which appear within white adipose tissue of healthy adult individuals. Recruitment of these cells represents a potential strategy to fight obesity and associated diseases.
Using human Multipotent Adipose-Derived Stem cells, able to convert into brite adipocytes, we show that arachidonic acid strongly inhibits brite adipocyte formation via a cyclooxygenase pathway leading to secretion of PGE2 and PGF2α. Both prostaglandins induce an oscillatory Ca++ signaling coupled to ERK pathway and trigger a decrease in UCP1 expression and in oxygen consumption without altering mitochondriogenesis. In mice fed a standard diet supplemented with ω6 arachidonic acid, PGF2α and PGE2 amounts are increased in subcutaneous white adipose tissue and associated with a decrease in the recruitment of brite adipocytes.
Our results suggest that dietary excess of ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids present in Western diets, may also favor obesity by preventing the “browning” process to take place.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Molecular Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a well-known inhibitor of de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis, due to its ability to inhibit ceramide synthases (CerS) activity. In mammals, this toxin triggers broad clinical symptoms with multi-organ dysfunction such as hepatotoxicity or pulmonary edema. The molecular mechanism of CerS inhibition by FB1 remains unknown. Due to the existence of six mammalian CerS isoforms with a tissue-specific expression pattern, we postulated that the organ-specific adverse effects of FB1 might be due to different CerS isoforms. The sphingolipid contents of lung and liver were compared in normal and FB1-exposed piglets (gavage with 1.5 mg FB1/kg body weight daily for 9 days). The effect of the toxin on each CerS was deduced from the analysis of its effects on individual ceramide (Cer) and sphingomyelin (SM) species. As expected, the total Cer content decreased by half in the lungs of FB1-exposed piglets, while in contrast, total Cer increased 3.5-fold in the livers of FB1-exposed animals. Our data also indicated that FB1 is more prone to bind to CerS4 and CerS2 to deplete lung and to enrich liver in d18:1/C20:0 and d18:1/C22:0 ceramides. It also interact with CerS1 to enrich liver in d18:1/C18:0 ceramides. Cer levels were counterbalanced by those of SM. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that the specificity of the effects of FB1 on tissues and organs is due to the effects of the toxin on CerS4, CerS2, and CerS1.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Archive für Toxikologie
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity and aging are characterized by decreased insulin sensitivity (IS) and muscle protein synthesis. Intramuscular ceramide accumulation has been implicated in insulin resistance during obesity. We aimed to measure IS, muscle ceramide level, protein synthesis, and activation of intracellular signaling pathways involved in translation initiation in male Wistar young (YR, 6-month) and old (OR, 25-month) rats receiving a low- (LFD) or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks. A corresponding cellular approach using C2C12 myotubes treated with palmitate to induce intracellular ceramide deposition was taken. A decreased ability of adipose tissue to store lipids together with a reduced adipocyte diameter and a development of fibrosis were observed in OR after the HFD. Consequently, OR fed the HFD were insulin resistant, showed a strong increase in intramuscular ceramide level and a decrease in muscle protein synthesis associated with increased eIF2α phosphorylation. The accumulation of intramuscular lipids placed a lipid burden on mitochondria and created a disconnect between metabolic and regulating pathways in skeletal muscles of OR. In C2C12 cells, palmitate-induced ceramide accumulation was associated with a decreased protein synthesis together with upregulated eIF2α phosphorylation. In conclusion, a reduced ability to expand adipose tissues was found in OR, reflecting a lower lipid buffering capacity. Muscle mitochondrial activity was affected in OR conferring a reduced ability to oxidize fatty acids entering the muscle cell. Hence, OR were more prone to ectopic muscle lipid accumulation than YR, leading to decreased muscle protein anabolism. This metabolic change is a potential therapeutic target to counter sarcopenic obesity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metabolites of non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids notably omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids have become important biomarkers of lipid products. Especially the arachidonic acid-derived F2-isoprostanes are the classic in vivo biomarker for oxidative stress in biological systems. In recent years other isoprostanes from eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic, adrenic and α-linolenic acids have been evaluated namely F3-isoprostanes, F4-neuroprostanes, F2-dihomo-isoprostanes and F1-phytoprostanes, respectively. These have been gaining interest as complementary specific biomarkers in human diseases. Refined extraction methods, robust analysis and elucidation of chemical structures have improved the sensitivity of detection in biological tissues and fluids. Previously the main reliable instrumentation for measurement was gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), but now the use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and immunological techniques are gaining much attention. In this review, the types of prostanoids generated from non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation of some important omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and biological samples that have been determined by GC-MS and LC-MS/MS are discussed
Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Journal of Chromatography B
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Maternal environment during early developmental stages plays a seminal role in the establishment of adult phenotype. Using a rabbit model, we previously showed that feeding dams with a diet supplemented with 8% fat and 0.2% cholesterol (HH diet) from the prepubertal period and throughout gestation induced metabolic syndrome in adult offspring. Here, we examined the effects of the HH diet on feto-placental phenotype at 28 days post-coïtum (term = 31days) in relation to earlier effects in the blastocyst (Day 6). At 28 days, both male and female HH fetuses were intrauterine growth retarded and dyslipidemic, with males more affected than females. Lipid droplets accumulated in the HH placentas' trophoblast, consistent with the increased concentrations in cholesteryl esters (3.2-fold), triacylglycerol (2.5-fold) and stored FA (2.12-fold). Stored FA concentrations were significantly higher in female compared to male HH placentas (2.18-fold, p<0.01), whereas triacylglycerol was increased only in HH males. Trophoblastic lipid droplet accumulation was also observed at the blastocyst stage. The expression of numerous genes involved in lipid pathways differed significantly according to diet both in term placenta and at the blastocyst stage. Among them, the expression of LXR-α in HH placentas was reduced in HH males but not females. These data demonstrate that maternal HH diet affects the blastocyst and induces sex-dependent metabolic adaptations in the placenta, which appears to protect female fetuses from developing severe dyslipidemia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipoproteins are important biological components. However, they have few convenient fluorescent labelling probes currently reported, and their physiological reliability can be questioned. We compared the association of two fluorescent cholesterol derivatives, 22-nitrobenzoxadiazole-cholesterol (NBD-Chol) and 21-methylpyrenyl-cholesterol (Pyr-met-Chol), to serum lipoproteins and to purified HDL and LDL. Both lipoproteins could be stably labelled by Pyr-met-Chol, but virtually not by NBD-Chol. At variance with NBD-Chol, LCAT did not esterify Pyr-met-Chol. The labelling characteristics of lipoproteins by Pyr-met-Chol were well distinguishable between HDL and LDL, regarding dializability, associated probe amount and labelling kinetics. We took benefit of the pyrene labelling to approach the structural organization of LDL peripheral hemi-membrane, since Pyr-met-Chol-labelled LDL, but not HDL, presented a fluorescence emission of pyrene excimers, indicating that the probe was present in an ordered lipid micro-environment. Since the peripheral membrane of LDL contains more sphingomyelin (SM) than HDL, this excimer formation was consistent with the existence of cholesterol- and SM-enriched lipid microdomains in LDL, as already suggested in model membranes of similar composition and reminiscent to the well-described "lipid rafts" in bilayer membranes. Finally, we showed that Pyr-met-Chol could stain cultured PC-3 cells via lipoprotein-mediated delivery, with a staining pattern well different to that observed with NBD-Chol non-specifically delivered to the cells.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Maternal environment during early developmental stages has been largely demonstrated to play a role in the establishment of adult phenotype in humans and animals. Using a rabbit model, we previously showed that feeding dams with a diet supplemented with high unsaturated fat and cholesterol (HH diet) from the prepubertal period and throughout gestation induced a metabolic syndrome in adult offspring. Here, we examined the effects of the HH diet on feto-placental phenotype at D28 post-coïtum (near to term) in relation to earlier effects observed in the blastocyst (D6). At D28, HH fetuses were intrauterine growth retarded and dyslipidemic, with males more affected than females. Lipid droplets accumulated in the trophoblastic layer of the HH placentas, consistent with the significantly increased concentrations in cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerol and fatty acids observed in D28 placentas. Total membrane and stored fatty acids concentrations were significantly higher in female compared to male HH placentas, whereas triacylglycerol was increased only in HH males. Lipid droplets were also observed in the trophoblast at the blastocyst stage. The expression of numerous genes involved in lipid pathways differed significantly according to diet both in placenta and blastocyst. Among them, LXR-α in HH placentas and Adipophilin in HH blastocysts were expressed in a sexual dimorphic manner. These data demonstrate that the maternal HH diet induces sex-dependent metabolic adaptations of the trophoblastic layer from the blastocyst stage until term that appear to protect female conceptus from developing severe dyslipidemia compared to male conceptuses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipid autacoids derived from n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are some of the earliest signals triggered by an inflammatory reaction. They are acting also as essential regulators of numerous biological processes in physiological conditions. With regards to their importance, a robust and rapid procedure to quantify a large variety of PUFA metabolites, applicable to diverse biological components needed to be formulated. We have developed a simple methodology using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry allowing quantification of low-level of PUFA metabolites including bioactive mediators, inactive products and pathway biomarkers. Solid phase extraction was used for samples preparation with an extraction yield of 80% ranging from 65% to 98%. The method was optimized to obtain a rapid (8.5min) and accurate separation of 26 molecules, with a very high sensitivity of detection and analysis (0.6-155pg). When applied to biological samples, the method enabled characterization of eicosanoids and docosanoids production in epithelial cells or foam macrophages stimulated with LPS, in biological fluids and tissues from mouse models of peritonitis or infectious colitis. Our results demonstrate that this new method can be used in cultured cells, in fluids and in colonic tissues to quantify pro-inflammatory and pro-resolving PUFA metabolites mediators.
No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intestinal absorption of dietary fat is a complex process mediated by enterocytes leading to lipid assembly and secretion of circulating lipoproteins as chylomicrons, vLDL and intestinal HDL (iHDL). Understanding lipid digestion is of importance knowing the correlation between excessive fat absorption and atherosclerosis. By using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), we illustrated a spatio-temporal localization of fat in mice duodenum, at different times of digestion after a lipid gavage, for the first time. Fatty acids progressively increased in enterocytes as well as taurocholic acid, secreted by bile and engaged in the entero-hepatic re-absorption cycle. Cytosolic lipid droplets (CLD) from enterocytes were originally purified separating chylomicron-like, intermediate droplets and smaller HDL-like. A lipidomic quantification revealed their contents in triglycerides, free and esterified cholesterol, phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin and ceramides but also in free fatty acids, mono- and di-acylglycerols. An acyl-transferase activity was identified and the enzyme monoacylglycerol acyl transferase 2 (MGAT2) was immunodetected in all CLD. The largest droplets was also shown to contain the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP), the acyl-coenzyme A-cholesterol acyltransferases (ACAT) 1 and 2, hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). This highlights the fact that during the digestion of fats, enterocyte CLD contain some enzymes involved in the different stages of the metabolism of diet fatty acids and cholesterol, in anticipation of the crucial work of endoplasmic reticulum in the process. The data further underlines the dual role of chylomicrons and iHDL in fat digestion which should help to efficiently complement lipid-lowering therapy.