[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It was shown that the rate of reconstruction of muscle glycogen phosphorylase b (Phb) from apoenzyme and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate decreased under crowding conditions. The effect of crowding was counteracted by chaperones (α-crystallin and proline). Sedimentation analysis shows that crowding stimulates the formation of high-molecular-weight associates at 25°C, whereas chaperones stabilize small oligomers. The study of the kinetics of apoPhb aggregation at 37°C showed that the anti-aggregation activity of chaperones decreased under crowding conditions. When studying the sedimentation behaviour of the mixture of apoPhb and α-crystallin, the complexes between unfolded apoPhb and dissociated forms of α-crystallin were observed. It is assumed that these complexes are responsible for realization of the chaperone-like activity of α-crystallin under crowding conditions.
Full-text · Article · May 2013 · International journal of biological macromolecules
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of crowding on the chaperone-like activity of α-crystallin has been studied using aggregation of UV-irradiated glycogen phosphorylase b (Phb) from rabbit skeletal muscle as an aggregation test system. The merit of this test system is the possibility of testing agents that directly affect the stage of aggregation of the protein molecules. It was shown that the solution of Phb denatured by UV contained aggregates with a hydrodynamic radius of 10.4 nm. These aggregates are relatively stable at 20 °C; however, they reveal a tendency to stick further in the presence of crowding agents. The study of the effect of α-crystallin on the aggregation of UV-irradiated Phb in the presence of the crowding agents by dynamic light scattering at 37 °C showed that under crowding conditions the antiaggregation ability of α-crystallin was weakened. On the basis of the analytical ultracentrifugation, size-exclusion chromatography, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis data, the scheme of interaction of UV-irradiated Phb and α-crystallin has been proposed. It is assumed that chaperone-target protein complexes of two types are formed, namely, the complexes of dissociated forms of α-crystallin with a protein substrate and high-mass α-crystallin-denatured protein complexes. The complexes of the first type reveal a weak propensity to aggregate even under crowding conditions. The complexes of the second type are characterized by the lower rate of aggregation in comparison with that of original UV-irradiated Phb. However, crowding stimulates the rate of aggregation of these complexes, resulting in the above-mentioned decrease in the chaperone-like activity of α-crystallin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To search for agents affecting thermal stability of proteins, a test based on the registration of protein aggregation in the regime of heating with a constant rate was used. The initial parts of the dependences of the light scattering intensity (I) on temperature (T) were analyzed using the following empiric equation: I = K(agg)(T-T(0))(2), where K(agg) is the parameter characterizing the initial rate of aggregation and T(0) is a temperature at which the initial increase in the light scattering intensity is registered. The aggregation data are interpreted in the frame of the model assuming the formation of the start aggregates at the initial stages of the aggregation process. Parameter T(0) corresponds to the moment of the origination of the start aggregates. The applicability of the proposed approach was demonstrated on the examples of thermal aggregation of glycogen phosphorylase b from rabbit skeletal muscles and bovine liver glutamate dehydrogenase studied in the presence of agents of different chemical nature. The elaborated approach to the study of protein aggregation may be used for rapid identification of small molecules that interact with protein targets.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The suppression of the thermal aggregation of glycogen phosphorylase b (Phb) from rabbit skeletal muscle by the chaperonin GroEL is studied using dynamic light scattering. It is shown that the decrease in the rate of Phb aggregation under the action of GroEL is due to the transition of the aggregation process from the kinetic regime, wherein the rate of aggregation is limited by diffusion of the interacting particles, to a regime where the sticking probability for the colliding particles becomes lower than one (reaction-limited cluster-cluster aggregation). The analytical-ultracentrifugation data show that elevated temperatures induce dissociation of the dimeric Phb. The formation of a complex between the denatured monomeric form of Phb and the dissociated forms of GroEL is detected during heating at 46 degrees C.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interaction of the wild type (wt) heat shock protein Hsp27 and its three-dimensional (3D) mutant (mimicking phosphorylation at Ser15, 78, and 82) with rabbit skeletal muscle phosphorylase kinase (PhK) has been studied under crowding conditions modeled by addition of 1 M trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO). According to the data of sedimentation velocity and dynamic light scattering, crowding provokes the formation of large-sized associates of both PhK and Hsp27. Under crowding conditions, small associates of PhK and Hsp27 interact with each other thus leading to dissociation of large homooligomers of each protein. Taking into account high concentrations of PhK in the cell, we speculate that native PhK might modulate the oligomeric state and chaperone-like activity of Hsp27.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dynamic light scattering was used to study the interaction of phosphorylase kinase (PhK) and glycogen phosphorylase b (Phb) from rabbit skeletal muscle with glycogen under molecular crowding conditions arising from the presence of 1 M trimethylamine N-oxide and at physiological ionic strength. The mean value of hydrodynamic radius of the initial glycogen particles was 52 nm. Crowding stimulated Phb and PhK combined binding on glycogen particles. Two-stage character of PhK binding to glycogen particles containing adsorbed Phb was found in the presence of the crowding agent. At the initial stage, limited size particles with hydrodynamic radius of approximately 220 nm are formed, whereas the second stage is accompanied by linear growth of hydrodynamic radius. Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) selectively inhibited PhK binding at the second stage. The data indicate that in the first stage Phb is involved in PhK binding by glycogen particles containing adsorbed Phb, whereas PhK binding in the second stage does not involve Phb.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2009 · Biochemistry (Moscow)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been shown that the relatively low concentrations of proline (0.1 M) have a slight accelerating effect on thermal aggregation of glycogen phosphorylase b (Phb) from rabbit skeletal muscle registered by the accumulaton of the aggregated protein. The suppression of Phb aggregation at high proline concentrations is mainly due to the protective action of proline on the stage of unfolding of the Phb molecule. The enhancement of Phb stability in the presence of the high concentrations of proline was demonstrated by the data on differential scanning calorimetry, analytical ultracentrifugation and thermoinactivation kinetics. The construction of the protein aggregate size versus time plots allowed the acceleration of the stage of Phb aggregation in the presence of high concentrations of proline to be demonstrated. The obtained results are consistent with the predictions of the crowding theory.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The kinetics of thermal aggregation of glycogen phosphorylase b and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase from rabbit skeletal muscles were studied using dynamic light scattering. Use of high concentrations of the enzymes (1-3 mg/ml) provided a simultaneous registration of the native enzyme forms and protein aggregates. It was shown that initially registered aggregates (start aggregates) were large-sized particles. The hydrodynamic radius of the start aggregates was about 100 nm. The intermediate states between the native enzyme forms and start aggregates were not detected. The initial increase in the light scattering intensity is connected with accumulation of the start aggregates, the size of the latter remaining unchanged. From a certain moment in time aggregates of higher order, formed as a result of sticking of the start aggregates, make a major contribution to the enhancement of the light scattering intensity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thermal aggregation of rabbit skeletal muscle glycogen phosphorylase b (Phb) has been investigated using dynamic light scattering under conditions of a constant rate of temperature increase (1 K/min). The linear behavior of the dependence of the hydrodynamic radius on temperature for Phb aggregation is consistent with the idea that thermal aggregation of proteins proceeds in the kinetic regime wherein the rate of aggregation is limited by diffusion of the interacting particles (the regime of "diffusion-limited cluster-cluster aggregation"). In the presence of alpha-crystallin, a protein exhibiting chaperone-like activity, the dependence of the hydrodynamic radius on temperature follows the exponential law; this suggests that the aggregation process proceeds in the kinetic regime where the sticking probability for colliding particles becomes lower than unity (the regime of "reaction-limited cluster-cluster aggregation"). Based on analysis of the ratio between the light scattering intensity and the hydrodynamic radius of Phb aggregates, it has been concluded that the addition of alpha-crystallin results in formation of smaller size starting aggregates. The data on differential scanning calorimetry indicate that alpha-crystallin interacts with the intermediates of the unfolding process of the Phb molecule. The proposed scheme of thermal denaturation and aggregation of Phb includes the stage of reversible dissociation of dimers of Phb into monomers, the stage of the formation of the starting aggregates from the denatured monomers of Phb, and the stage of the sticking of the starting aggregates and higher order aggregates. Dissociation of Phb dimer into monomers at elevated temperatures has been confirmed by analytical ultracentrifugation.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2007 · Biochemistry (Moscow)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kinetics of thermal aggregation of model protein substrates (glycogen phosphorylase b from rabbit skeletal muscle and yeast alcohol dehydrogenase) were investigated under heat stress conditions (41-48 degrees C) in the presence of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a heat-stable hydrophobic protein (12.5 kD). Anti-chaperone MIF activity found by turbidimetry manifests itself in significantly accelerated protein aggregation and increased limiting value of apparent optical absorption at 360 nm and t --> infinity in the sub-stoichiometric range of MIF concentrations. The aggregation kinetics is shown to have cooperative character. Possible reversibility of aggregation after removal of denaturing conditions was demonstrated using alcohol dehydrogenase aggregation at a temperature close to the physiological level (41.5 degrees C). This reversibility is caused by solubility of aggregates and stabilization of oligomeric structure of the substrate as a result of MIF binding to the partially denatured protein. The data suggest that in spite of distinct anti-chaperone effect, the chaperone-like activity of MIF can be observed in the case of heat stress removal and restoration of the system to normal conditions.
No preview · Article · Feb 2006 · Biochemistry (Moscow)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor is a ubiquitous multifunctional cytokine having diverse immunological and neuroendocrine properties. Although this protein is known to be released into the circulation from the secretory granules of anterior pituitary or directly from immune cells as a consequence of stress, its participation in heat stress-induced aggregation of proteins has not yet been reported. We provide here the first evidence that the macrophage migration inhibitory factor possesses chaperone-like properties. It was shown to exist in the form of a mixture of low and high molecular weight oligomers. At heat stress temperatures the large oligomers dissociate into monomers that bind and stabilize thermally denatured malate dehydrogenase and glycogen phosphorylase b and thus prevent aggregation of the model proteins. Similar chaperone-like effects were also observed in the presence of partially purified brain extract containing besides the macrophage migration inhibitory factor a number of ubiquitous hydrophobic low molecular weight proteins identified by N-terminal microsequence analysis. Being highly stable and hydrophobic, the macrophage migration inhibitory factor in combination with other proteins of similar properties may comprise a family of constitutively expressed "small chaperones" that counteract the early onset of stress, around physiological conditions, when heat shock proteins are not abundant.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2006 · The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of the osmolytes trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), betaine, proline, and glycine on the kinetics of inactivation and aggregation of rabbit skeletal muscle glycogen phosphorylase b by guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) have been studied. It is shown that the osmolytes TMAO and betaine exhibit the highest protective efficacy against phosphorylase b inactivation. A test system for studying the effects of macromolecular crowding induced by osmolytes on aggregation of proteins is proposed. TMAO and glycine increase the rate of phosphorylase b aggregation induced by GuHCl.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2005 · Biochemistry (Moscow)