Peter G Bain

Imperial College London, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (138)566.81 Total impact

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    N. Yousif · H. Bhatt · P. G. Bain · D. Nandi · B. M. Seemungal
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    ABSTRACT: Background and purpose: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) reduces the number of falls in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). It was hypothesized that enhanced sensory processing contributes to this PPN-mediated gait improvement. Methods: Four PD patients (and eight matched controls) with implanted bilateral PPN and subthalamic nucleus DBS electrodes were assessed on postural (with/without vision) and vestibular perceptual threshold tasks. Results: Pedunculopontine nucleus ON stimulation (compared to OFF) lowered vestibular perceptual thresholds but there was a disproportionate increase in the normal sway increase on going from light to dark. Conclusions: The disproportionate increased sway with PPN stimulation in the dark may paradoxically improve balance function since mechanoreceptor signals rapidly adapt to continuous pressure stimulation from postural akinesia. Additionally, the PPN-mediated vestibular signal enhancement also improves the monitoring of postural sway. Overall, PPN stimulation may improve sensory feedback and hence balance performance.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · European Journal of Neurology
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    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · BMC Neuroscience

  • No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Movement Disorders
  • Peter G Bain

    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Movement Disorders
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    Full-text · Dataset · Jun 2015
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    ABSTRACT: This article proposes an International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society (MDS)-UPDRS tremor-based scale and describes its measurement properties, with a view to developing an improved scale for assessing tremor in Parkinson's disease (PD). This was a cross-sectional, multicenter study of 435 PD patients. Rasch analysis was performed on the 11 MDS-UPDRS tremor items. Construct validity, precision, and test-retest reliability were also analyzed. After some modifications, which included removal of an item owing to redundancy, the obtained MDS-UPDRS tremor scale showed moderate reliability, unidimensionality, absence of differential item functioning, satisfactory convergent validity with medication, and better precision than the raw sum score. However, the scale displayed a floor effect and a need for more items measuring lower levels of tremor. The MDS-UPDRS tremor scale provides linear scores that can be used to assess tremor in PD in a valid, reliable way. The scale might benefit from modifications and studies that analyze its responsiveness. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Movement Disorders

  • No preview · Conference Paper · May 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LIDs) are the most common and disabling adverse motor effect of therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. In this study, we investigated serotonergic mechanisms in LIDs development in PD patients using 11C-DASB PET to evaluate serotonin terminal function and 11C-raclopride PET to evaluate dopamine release. PD patients with LIDs showed relative preservation of serotonergic terminals throughout their disease. Identical levodopa doses induced markedly higher striatal synaptic dopamine concentrations in PD patients with LIDs compared with PD patients with stable responses to levodopa. Oral administration of the serotonin receptor type 1A agonist buspirone prior to levodopa reduced levodopa-evoked striatal synaptic dopamine increases and attenuated LIDs. PD patients with LIDs that exhibited greater decreases in synaptic dopamine after buspirone pretreatment had higher levels of serotonergic terminal functional integrity. Buspirone-associated modulation of dopamine levels was greater in PD patients with mild LIDs compared with those with more severe LIDs. These findings indicate that striatal serotonergic terminals contribute to LIDs pathophysiology via aberrant processing of exogenous levodopa and release of dopamine as false neurotransmitter in the denervated striatum of PD patients with LIDs. Our results also support the development of selective serotonin receptor type 1A agonists for use as antidyskinetic agents in PD.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2014 · The Journal of clinical investigation
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    ABSTRACT: The Movement Disorder Society established a task force to review rating scales for the assessment of tremor. Screening instruments used in identifying patients with tremor were also reviewed. Seven tremor severity scales, six activities of daily living (ADL)/disability scales, four quality-of-life scales, and five screening instruments were identified by searching The availability, use, acceptability, reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change were reviewed for each scale; and each scale was classified as recommended, suggested or listed based on whether 3, 2, or 1 of the following criteria were met: (1) used in the assessment of tremor (yes/no), (2) used in published studies by people other than the developers (yes/no), and (3) successful clinimetric testing (yes/no). Five tremor severity scales (the Fahn-Tolosa-Marin Tremor Rating Scale, the Bain and Findley Clinical Tremor Rating Scale, the Bain and Findley Spirography Scale, the Washington Heights-Inwood Genetic Study of Essential Tremor Rating Scale, and the Tremor Research Group Essential Tremor Rating Assessment Scale), one ADL/disability scale (the Bain and Findley Tremor ADL Scale), one quality-of-life scale (the Quality of Life in Essential Tremor Questionnaire), and one screening instrument (the Washington Heights-Inwood Genetic Study of Essential Tremor Rating Scale, version 1) are recommended using these criteria. However, all scales need a more comprehensive analysis of sensitivity to change in order to judge their utility in clinical trials and individual patient assessments. The task force recommends that further work with existing recommended scales be performed as opposed to the development of new tremor scales. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Movement Disorders
  • E. Sokolov · T. Aziz · D. Nandi · P. Bain

    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Journal of the Neurological Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: In Parkinson's disease the degree of motor impairment can be classified with respect to tremor dominant and akinetic rigid features. While tremor dominance and akinetic rigidity might represent two ends of a continuum rather than discrete entities, it would be important to have non-invasive markers of any biological differences between them in vivo, to assess disease trajectories and response to treatment, as well as providing insights into the underlying mechanisms contributing to heterogeneity within the Parkinson's disease population. Here, we used magnetic resonance imaging to examine whether Parkinson's disease patients exhibit structural changes within the basal ganglia that might relate to motor phenotype. Specifically, we examined volumes of basal ganglia regions, as well as transverse relaxation rate (a putative marker of iron load) and magnetization transfer saturation (considered to index structural integrity) within these regions in 40 individuals. We found decreased volume and reduced magnetization transfer within the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease patients compared to healthy controls. Importantly, there was a positive correlation between tremulous motor phenotype and transverse relaxation rate (reflecting iron load) within the putamen, caudate and thalamus. Our findings suggest that akinetic rigid and tremor dominant symptoms of Parkinson's disease might be differentiated on the basis of the transverse relaxation rate within specific basal ganglia structures. Moreover, they suggest that iron load within the basal ganglia makes an important contribution to motor phenotype, a key prognostic indicator of disease progression in Parkinson's disease.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Parkinsonism & Related Disorders
  • Barbara J Bain · Peter G Bain

    No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · American Journal of Hematology
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    ABSTRACT: The phenomenology of tremor is broad and its classification is complicated. Furthermore, the full range of tremor phenomenology with respect to specific neurological and neurodegenerative diseases has not been fully elaborated. This right-handed man had a chief complaint of jaw tremor, which began approximately 20 years prior to death at age 101 years. He had been diagnosed with essential tremor (ET) by a local doctor. His examination at age 100 years was notable for marked jaw tremor at rest in the absence of other clear features of parkinsonism, mild kinetic tremor of the hands and, in the last year of life, a score of 22/41 on a cognitive screen. A senior movement disorder neurologist raised doubt about the "ET" diagnosis. The history and videotaped examination were reviewed by three additional senior tremor experts, who raised a number of diagnostic possibilities. A complete postmortem examination was performed by a senior neuropathologist, and was notable for the presence of tufted astrocytes, AT8-labeled glial cytoplasmic inclusions, and globose neuronal tangles. These changes were widespread and definitive. A neuropathological diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy was assigned. This case presents with mixed and difficult to clinically classify tremor phenomenology and other neurological findings. The postmortem diagnosis was not predicted based on the clinical features, and it is possible that it does not account for all of the features. The case raises many interesting issues and provides a window into the complexity of the interpretation, nosology, and classification of tremor phenomenology.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013
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    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · BMC Neuroscience

  • No preview · Article · May 2013 · Practical Neurology
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The underlying pathophysiology of tremor in Parkinson disease (PD) is unclear; however, it is known that tremor does not appear to be as responsive to dopaminergic medication as bradykinesia or rigidity. It is suggested that serotonergic dysfunction could have a role in tremor development. Methods: Using (11)C-DASB PET, a marker of serotonin transporter binding, and clinical observations, we have investigated function of serotonergic terminals in 12 patients with tremor-predominant and 12 with akinetic-rigid PD. Findings were compared with those of 12 healthy controls. Results: Reductions of (11)C-DASB in caudate, putamen, and raphe nuclei significantly correlated with tremor severity on posture and action, but not with resting tremor. The tremor-predominant group also showed reductions of (11)C-DASB in other regions involved in motor circuitry, including the thalamus and Brodmann areas 4 and 10. Conclusions: Our findings support a role for serotonergic dysfunction in motor circuitries in the generation of postural tremor in PD.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Neurology
  • Hazel Lote · Geraint N Fuller · Peter G Bain
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    ABSTRACT: 48, XXYY syndrome is a form of sex chromosome aneuploidy that affects between 1 in 18 000 to 1 in 40 000 males. It is not inherited and is diagnosed by karyotyping. It has similarities to 47, XXY Klinefelter's syndrome, with tall stature, micro-orchidism, hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and infertility in males. However, patients with 48, XXYY syndrome also commonly have dental problems, tremor, attention deficit disorder, learning difficulties, allergies and asthma. The tremor is typically reported as an intention tremor (in 71% of patients XXYY aged >20 years with 48), which becomes more common with age and worsens over time.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Practical Neurology
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    ABSTRACT: Disordered copper metabolism may be important in the aetiology of Parkinsonism, as caeruloplasmin is a key enzyme in handling oxidative stress and is involved in the synthesis pathway of dopamine. The human Cu metabolism of ten Parkinsonism patients was compared to ten healthy controls with the aid of a stable (65)Cu isotope tracer. The analyses of blood serum (65)Cu/(63)Cu ratios yielded individual isotopic profiles, which indicate that the Cu metabolism is less controlled in patients with Parkinsonism. Modelling based on both isotope tracer and total Cu concentrations suggests that 30% of the subjects affected by Parkinsonism have abnormally large Cu stores in tissues. To detect the small differences in Cu metabolism between Parkinsonism and controls, the analysis of stable isotope composition must be performed using multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and the associated sample preparation techniques. This pilot investigation supports full-scale medical studies into the Cu metabolism of those with Parkinsonism.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Metallomics
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    ABSTRACT: Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurological diseases, which typically present with progressive lower extremity weakness and spasticity causing progressive walking difficulties. Complicating neurological or extraneurological features may be present. We describe a 19-year-old male who was referred because of an action tremor of the hands; he later developed walking difficulties. Callosal atrophy was present on his cerebral magnetic resonance imaging scan, prompting genetic testing for SPG11, which revealed homozygous mutations. The clinical features, differential diagnosis and management of SPG11, the most common form of autosomal recessive complicated HSP with a thin corpus callosum are discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012
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    ABSTRACT: The quadripolar electrodes used for deep brain stimulation are designed to give flexibility in contact configuration, optimize therapeutic effect, and minimize side-effects. A patient with essential tremor did not tolerate a bipolar setting due to the emergence of a pulling sensation in her face. However, when the polarity of the contacts was reversed, a 70% higher voltage was tolerated. Using an electric field model, we predicted that this effect was due to the proximity of the topmost contact to the internal capsule. Post-operative imaging supported this prediction. These results demonstrate how a multi-disciplinary approach allows us to optimize parameter settings.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Neurocase

Publication Stats

5k Citations
566.81 Total Impact Points


  • 1998-2015
    • Imperial College London
      • • Division of Brain Sciences
      • • Department of Earth Science and Engineering
      • • Faculty of Medicine
      • • Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2010-2011
    • Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2001-2005
    • University of Oxford
      • Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics
      Oxford, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2002
    • Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel
      • Unit of Neurobiology
      Kiel, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany
  • 1993
    • University of London
      • The School of Pharmacy
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • Territory neurology and research Institute
      Tucson, Arizona, United States