- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) is an important gas mediator in the signal transduction cascade regulating osmotic function in the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system. We previously found that increased nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in the supraoptic nuclei (SON) and neural lobe following osmotic stimulation and NO could regulate the expression of Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel (BK channels) protein in the magnocellular system during dehydration. The aim of the current study is to examine the role of NO in the regulation of nitrosocysteine and BK channel protein in the magnocellular system in dehydrated animals. Using Western blot analysis and quantitative immunofluorescent staining study, we found that water deprivation in rats significantly enhanced the expression of nitrosocysteine protein in SON and neural lobes. Immunohistochemistry study indicated that dehydration significantly increased the profiles of SON neurons co-expressing nitrosocysteine with BK-channel protein. Intracerebroventricular administration of L-NAME (an inhibitor of NO synthase) significantly reduced the neuronal profiles of nitrosocysteine, as well as their co-expression with BK-channel in SON of dehydrated rats. However, treatment of sodium nitroprusside (a donor of NO) increased this co-expression. Our results indicate that NO signaling cascade may control the expression of BK channels through the regulation of nitrosocysteine in SON and neural lobe of rats during osmotic regulation.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) is a gas molecule to signal neurotransmission in the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system during osmotic regulation. We previously reported that osmotic stimulation increased nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in the supraoptic nuclei (SON) and neural lobe. The aim of this study is to define the role of NO in the regulation of Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (BK channels) expression in the magnocellular system following dehydration. We used Western blot analysis and quantitative immunocytochemistry to conduct the experiment in rats. In the immunoblot study, we found that water deprivation significantly increased the expression of BK channels in the SON and neural lobes. Dehydration also enhanced the profiles of neurons expressing vasopressin and oxytocin significantly. In about 70% of these neurons, BK channels were co-localized in the same neuron, and their expression increased significantly during dehydration. We further examined the effects of intracerebroventricular administration of sodium nitroprusside (a donor of NO) and L-NAME (an inhibitor of NO synthase) on expression of BK channels in the SON. We found that compared to animals treated with the donor of NO, there were significant decreases in the expression of BK proteins in animals receiving L-NAME. These results suggest that NO may enhance the expression of BK channels in the supraoptic nuclei and neural lobe of rats following dehydration.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO), a free radical gas produced endogenously from the amino acid L-arginine by NO synthase (NOS), has important functions in modulating vasopressin and oxytocin secretion from the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system. NO production is stimulated during increased functional activity of magnocellular neurons, in parallel with plastic changes of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and paraventricular nucleus. Electrophysiological data recorded from the SON of hypothalamic slices indicate that NO inhibits firing of phasic and non-phasic neurons, while L-NAME, an NOS inhibitor, increases their activity. Results from measurement of neurohypophyseal hormones are more variable. Overall, however, it appears that NO, tonically produced in the forebrain, inhibits vasopressin and oxytocin secretion during normovolemic, isosmotic conditions. During osmotic stimulation, dehydration, hypovolemia and hemorrhage, as well as high plasma levels of angiotensin II, NO inhibition of vasopressin neurons is removed, while that of oxytocin neurons is enhanced. This produces a preferential release of vasopressin over oxytocin important for correction of fluid imbalance. During late pregnancy and throughout lactation, fluid homeostasis is altered and expression of NOS in the SON is down- and up-regulated, respectively, in parallel with plastic changes of the magnocellular system. NO inhibition of magnocellular neurons involves GABA and prostaglandin synthesis and the signal-transduction mechanism is independent of the cGMP-pathway. Plasma hormone levels are unaffected by icv 1H-[1, 2, 4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (a soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor) or 8Br-cGMP administered to conscious rats. Moreover, cGMP does not increase in homogenates of the neural lobe and in microdialysates of the SON when NO synthesis is enhanced during osmotic stimulation. Among alternative signal-transduction pathways, nitrosylation of target proteins affecting activity of ion channels is considered.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our objective was to test the hypothesis that the cGMP signal-transduction mechanism mediates nitric oxide's (NO) modulation of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) secretion from the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system. Three studies were conducted in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats: (1a) Euhydrated rats received an intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion (1 microl/min for 30 min) of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF), vehicle (2.6% dimethyl sulfoxide [DMSO]) or 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo-[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) (0.05 microg/microl), an inhibitor of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC). ODQ did not affect basal levels of plasma VP or OT; (1b) Rats dehydrated for 24 h received aCSF or 8-Br-cGMP (icv), a membrane-permeable analog of cGMP, and plasma hormones were measured 2 min later. 8-Br-cGMP did not significantly change VP or OT levels; (2) Rats ingested water or 2% NaCl for 4 days, and NO synthase (NOS) and sGC activities were measured in posterior pituitaries, the anatomical site of hormone secretion. Salt loading enhanced (P < 0.001) production of [(14)C]citrulline, the coproduct of NO synthesis, without altering cGMP; (3) One SON was microdialyzed with [(14)C]arginine and NOS and sGC activities were quantified in microdialysates during intravenous (iv) infusion of isotonic or hypertonic saline in awake and anesthetized rats. In awake rats, [(14)C]citrulline recovery, but not cGMP, increased (P < 0.05) during intravenous infusion of both isotonic and hypertonic solutions, and after insertion of microdialysis probe itself. In anesthetized rats, however, where basal NOS activity is low, intravenous infusion of hypertonic, but not isotonic solution, increased [(14)C]citrulline recovery without affecting cGMP. Thus, in the forebrain, neither NO produced basally nor during osmotic stimulation depends on cGMP to modulate plasma vasopressin and oxytocin secretion.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We tested the hypothesis that in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) NO produced centrally influences the resting arterial blood pressure by attenuating mechanisms involving prostaglandins, angiotensin II, endothelin and sympathetic nervous system. L-NAME (200 micro g/5 micro l), an inhibitor of NO synthase, administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) to awake and freely moving rats increased mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) in a biphasic pattern: an early transient increase within 1 min and a late prolonged response starting at 45 min and persisting for the duration of experiment (180 min). The two pressor responses involve different neurochemical mechanisms and, based on their latencies, they appear to reflect different anatomical sites of action of L-NAME. The late, but not the early pressor response, was prevented by pretreatment with chlorisondamine (2.5 mg/kg, i.v.), a ganglionic blocker, indicating its dependence on the sympathetic nervous system. Both pressor responses were abolished by i.c.v. pretreatment with indomethacin (200 micro g/5 micro l, i.c.v.), an inhibitor of cyclo-oxygenase, showing that they are mediated by prostaglandin(s). In contrast, losartan (25 micro g/5 micro l), an angiotensin II AT(1) receptor antagonist, had no effect. The initial pressor response was also attenuated by pretreatment with the endothelin ET(A)/ET(B) receptor antagonist, PD 145065 (48 micro g/2 micro l, i.c.v.). Intravenous pretreatment with another ET(A)/ET(B) receptor antagonist, L-754,142 (15 mg/kg as a bolus+15 mg/kg/h for 180 min), however, attenuated both responses to L-NAME. It is possible that L-754,142 crossed the blood-brain barrier and blocked, in addition, central ET(A)/ET(B) receptors. These studies show that NO synthesized in the brain attenuates pressor mechanisms involving prostaglandin, endothelin and sympathetic nervous system, but not angiotensin II, to modulate resting arterial blood pressure.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magnocellular neurons are innervated by an excitatory histaminergic pathway. They also express neuronal NO synthase, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and cyclo-oxygenase (COX). In normally hydrated rats when NO synthase activity is inhibited with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.), OT concentration in plasma increases. In the present study, the increase in hormone after L-NAME is attenuated by indomethacin, an inhibitor of COX, as well as by antagonists of histamine receptors at H1 (pyrilamine) and H2 (cimetidine) subtypes injected i.c.v. Moreover, enhanced OT secretion induced by centrally administered IL-1beta, but not naloxone (opiate receptor antagonist), is prevented by indomethacin. PGE2 and PGD2 (i.c.v.) stimulate OT release, but only PGD2 affects circulating vasopressin levels. Thus, NO inhibits release of OT stimulated by: (1) a COX-dependent mechanism, i.e. NO-->-(COX-->+PG-->+OT release); (2) histamine, i.e. NO-->-(histamine-->H1 and H2 receptors-->+OT release); and possibly (3) IL-1beta, i.e. NO-->-(IL-1beta-->+COX-->+PG-->+OT release). These interactions of NO, cytokine and histamine may be important for management of stress-induced activation of neuroendocrine systems.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. Magnocellular neurons, which release oxytocin (OT) or vasopressin (VP) into the circulation in response to hyperosmolality, hypovolaemia and cholecystokinin (CCK), undergo a resetting during pregnancy and lactation that involves circumventricular organs. 2. During gestation, there is a similar lowering of the osmotic thresholds for stimulation of OT and VP release, whereas the responsiveness of both neuroendocrine systems to hyperosmolality is attenuated by lactation. These osmotic changes in the magnocellular system are mediated by depletion of hormone (OT) stores in the neurohypophysis (lactation), as well as by alterations in afferent stimulation via pathways involving the subfornical organ, organum vasculosum lamina terminalis and median preoptic nucleus. 3. During gestation, both the VP and OT systems are reset such that the expanded blood volume is maintained and defended as ‘normal’ in response to hypovlaemia. Thus, in virgin animals, only a 0–5% reduction in blood volume is needed to activate VP release, whereas 23–25% is required for stimulation of the oxytocinergic system. Thereafter, incremental changes in plasma levels of both hormones with increasing loss in blood volume are similar in virgin and pregnant animals. However, during lactation, the apparent hypovolaemic threshold for both hormones becomes significantly elevated to 20.4% (VP) and > 25% (OT) blood volume depletion, resulting in a decreased responsiveness of the magnocellular system to hypovolaemia. 4. The OT response to CCK is attenuated in lactating animals and circulating VP is unaffected in pregnant rats given the peptide.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brain-derived angiotensin II (ANG II) and prostaglandins have important roles in the regulation of body fluid and blood pressure homeostasis. In the present studies we investigated the central interactions between these two neurochemical products in regulating the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system during dehydration. Intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2); 20 microg/5 microl) to conscious adult male Sprague-Dawley rats deprived of water for 24 h did not alter significantly the already elevated plasma levels of vasopressin or oxytocin. When PGD(2) was administered in combination with losartan, an antagonist of ANG II AT(1)-receptor subtype, however, concentrations of both hormones in plasma became further elevated. Icv administration of ANG II (50 ng/5 microl) increased further the enhanced plasma levels of vasopressin and oxytocin, as expected. Pretreatment with indomethacin (200 microg/5 microl; icv), an inhibitor of cyclo-oxygenase, significantly attenuated the ANG II-induced increase in oxytocin secretion only. Independent of the presence of ANG II, however, indomethacin decreased plasma levels of vasopressin, but not oxytocin. These results indicate that a prostaglandin is required for the stimulated release of vasopressin during dehydration and that the elevation of oxytocin secretion in response to ANG II depends largely on activation of cyclo-oxygenase and production of prostaglandins. The oxytocin response to exogenously administered PGD(2), however, can be negatively modulated by a mechanism dependent upon ANG II AT(1) receptors.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inhibiting NO synthase (NOS) with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 250 microg/5 microl of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF)) injected intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) increased already enhanced levels of oxytocin, but not vasopressin, in conscious adult male Sprague-Dawley rats dehydrated for 24 h. Intracerebroventricular pretreatment with indomethacin (200 microg/5 microl aCSF), an inhibitor of cyclo-oxygenase, but not with losartan (25 microg/5 microl aCSF), an antagonist of angiotensin II (ANG II) AT(1)-receptor subtype, nearly prevented the elevation in oxytocin levels after L-NAME. Thus, NO inhibits prostaglandin (but not ANG II) mediated the modulatory actions of NO on oxytocin secretion from the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system (HNS) during water deprivation.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of the present studies was to examine the interaction between brain-derived angiotensin II (Ang II) and prostaglandins in order to identify the mechanisms mediating the pressor response produced by these neuroregulators. Inhibiting synthesis of prostaglandins with indomethacin [indocin, 200 microg/ 5 microl artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF)], administered intracerebroventricularly (icv) to conscious adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, reduced blood pressure to values below basal levels. When injected prior to Ang II (50 ng/5 microl aCSF; icv), indomethacin completely abolished the pressor response induced by the octapeptide. The increase in blood pressure produced by prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2), 20 microg/5 microl; icv), the most prominent prostaglandin in the rat brain, however, was not prevented by losartan (25 microg/5 microl; icv), an Ang II AT(1)-receptor antagonist. Collectively, these results indicate that prostaglandins produced tonically in the brain maintain resting arterial blood pressure and that the pressor action of Ang II is dependent on de novo synthesis of a prostaglandin.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. Nitric oxide (NO) tonically inhibits the basal release of vasopressin and oxytocin into plasma. 2. Nitric oxide inhibition on vasopressin secretion is removed, while that on oxytocin is enhanced, during water deprivation, hypovolaemia, moderate osmotic stimulation and angiotensin (Ang)II. This results in a preferential release of vasopressin over oxytocin that promotes conservation of water. 3. Nitric oxide facilitates drinking behaviour stimulated by water deprivation, osmotic stimulation, haemorrhage and AngII. Together with the hormonal response, NO produces a positive water balance during reductions in intracellular and intravascular volumes. 4. Nitric oxide produced within the central nervous system maintains resting arterial blood pressure partially by attenuating the pressor actions of AngII and prostaglandins. 5. Central production of NO is enhanced during osmotic stimulation to counterbalance the salt-induced pressor response. 6. Paradoxically, central production of NO is also enhanced during haemorrhage, presumably to maintain peripheral vasodilation and blood flow to vital organs.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 250 micrograms/5 microliters), an inhibitor of NO synthase, or the vehicle artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF; 5 microliters) was administered intracerebroventricularly to conscious rats hemorrhaged (0.7 ml/min) to a 20% volume depletion. Hypotension was maximal 5 min after hemorrhage ended, with compensatory recovery to basal levels 20 min later, regardless of drug treatment. L-NAME, however, elevated (P < 0.05) blood pressure (vs. aCSF controls) 40-45 min after intracerebroventricular administration. In normovolemic rats, L-NAME produced a significant pressor response and increased plasma levels of vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT). After hemorrhage, both hormone levels increased, but only OT was further enhanced by L-NAME. Thus centrally produced NO tonically inhibits OT and VP secretion under basal normovolemic conditions and selectively inhibits OT release during hypovolemia. Hemorrhage increased the rates of glucose utilization in the neural lobe, indicative of enhanced efferent neural functional activity. L-NAME further enhanced the metabolic activity in the entire hypothalamoneurohypophysial system of hemorrhaged animals. Several other brain structures involved in the regulation of blood pressure and the stress response were also metabolically affected by the hemorrhage and L-NAME.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Central inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 150 microg/5 microl) to conscious rats produced a biphasic pressor response characterized by an initial transient increase within 5 min, and a delayed response starting between 60-90 min. The effect was stereospecific, as D-NAME (250 microg/5 microl) did not modify the resting arterial blood pressure, nor did L-arginine (323 microg/5 microl, i.c.v.), indicating the substrate for NOS is not rate-limiting. Intracerebroventricular pretreatment with losartan (25 microg/5 microl), a non-peptide antagonist of the angiotensin II AT1 receptor subtype, or indomethacin (100 microg/5 microl), a blocker of cyclooxygenase, however, prevented the initial increase in blood pressure without affecting the delayed pressor response. In contrast, neither intravenous losartan (10 mg/kg b.wt) nor prazosin, an alpha1 adrenergic receptor antagonist, at doses of 5 microg/5 microl (i.c.v.) or 0.3 mg/kg b.wt (i.v.) were effective in altering the pressor responses. These results indicate that centrally produced NO maintains the resting arterial blood pressure at least partially through modulation of the brain angiotensin system and prostaglandins.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of the inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS), N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (250 microg/5 microL) attenuated the drinking response in rats deprived of water for 24 h. Moreover, oxytocin (OT) levels in plasma increased after 2 min, whereas both oxytocin and vasopressin levels were elevated at 120 min after intracerebroventricular injection. The delayed effect of L-NAME on both hormones was not observed in dehydrated animals allowed to drink water. Blood pressure remained stable after injection of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) in dehydrated rats not allowed to drink. In rats having access to water, however, there was an immediate but transient pressor response (0-5 min) with a delayed hypotension from 45 to 120 min. L-NAME consistently increased blood pressure in a biphasic mode, whether the animals drank or not, with an early peak at 5 min that decayed after 15-30 min and a second pressor response beginning at 30-45 min and remaining elevated at 120 min when the experiment ended. These pressor responses were independent of the adrenal glands. Thus, centrally produced nitric oxide facilitates drinking, inhibits release of vasopressin and oxytocin from the magnocellular system, and maintains resting arterial blood pressure in normally hydrated and dehydrated rats.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intracerebroventricular (I.C.V.) administration of an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) increases oxytocin but not vasopressin secretion, in dehydrated rats . Surprisingly, central injection of L-arginine, the substrate for NOS, caused a similar effect. Kyotorphin (L-tyrosyl-L-arginine), a dipeptide formed from L-arginine by kyotorphin synthetase in the brain may mediate this magnocellular response. Therefore, the dose and time responses of hormone release were compared following I.C.V. injection of kyotorphin and L-arginine to conscious rats that were normally hydrated or deprived of water for 24 h. In water-sated rats, both L-arginine and kyotorphin increased blood pressure and plasma glucose levels coincident with elevating circulating levels of oxytocin, but not vasopressin. In dehydrated animals, both L-arginine and kyotorphin increased plasma oxytocin levels with a similar time course but only kyotorphin decreased vasopressin release. D-arginine, like L-arginine, stimulated secretion of oxytocin, indicating a nonstereospecific effect. A kyotorphin receptor antagonist (L-leucyl-L-arginine) given I.C.V. to dehydrated animals elevated plasma oxytocin and prevented the decrease in vasopressin levels after kyotorphin. Thus, kyotorphin, but not L-arginine, appears to attenuate release of vasopressin either directly from magnocellular neurons or indirectly via modulating compensatory reflexes activated by the pressor response. On the other hand, an excess of L-arginine and kyotorphin within the CNS may mimic the stress response by augmenting release of oxytocin and activating the sympathetic nervous system to increase blood pressure and plasma glucose levels.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 250 micrograms/5 microliters), an inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthase, or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (5 microliters) was administered intracerebroventricularly to conscious naive rats or to rats treated subcutaneously (15 microliters/kg) with NaCl (0.15, 0.45, or 1.0 M) or given a needle prick only. Intracerebroventricular injection of L-NAME increased plasma concentration of vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT) in control naive rats, indicating that NO tonically inhibits basal secretion of both hormones during isosmotic isovolemic conditions. Osmotic stimulation with hypertonic saline (0.45 and 1.0 M NaCl) elevated plasma levels of both hormones as expected. Central blockade of NO synthase further enhanced secretion of OT during mild, but not strong, osmotic stimulation, whereas the high levels of VP remained unaffected by L-NAME. In animals treated with the needle prick or 0.15 M NaCl, only OT levels were increased after L-NAME. Therefore, NO selectively inhibits OT release in response to a painful stimulus (needle prick) and moderate osmotic stimulation to promote a preferential release of VP. A transient pressor response was observed after subcutaneous injection of 0.15 and 0.45 M NaCl, but a sustained response was obtained after 1.0 M NaCl. Regardless of whether the animals received NaCl solutions, however, treatment with L-NAME elevated blood pressure in all animals. Thus NO-induced vasodilation maintains basal arterial blood pressure and limits the pressor response to osmotic stimulation.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiotensin II (50 ng/5 microl) and L-NAME (250 microg/5 microl), an inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS), were administered intracerebroventricularly alone or in combination to conscious rats. Mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) increased reaching a peak within 5 min in all groups compared to controls treated with the vehicle, artificial CSF (5 microl). MABP returned to basal levels at 30 min after angiotensin II and remained stable for the following 90 min. In animals treated with L-NAME alone, after the initial pressor response, MABP declined but began to increase progressively from 30 min until the end of the experiment at 120 min. When administered with angiotensin II, however, the initial pressor response was prolonged. Angiotensin II-induced drinking was significantly attenuated by L-NAME. In control rats, inhibiting NOS elevated plasma levels of oxytocin and vasopressin but in angiotensin II-stimulated animals, only oxytocin was further elevated after L-NAME. Thus, NO formed centrally inhibits basal secretion of oxytocin and vasopressin as well as the resting blood pressure. During stimulation with angiotensin II, NO facilitates drinking, limits the pressor response and selectively inhibits oxytocin release.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiotensin II (50 ng/5 μl) and L-NAME (250 μg/5 μl), an inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS), were administered intracerebroventricularly alone or in combination to conscious rats. Mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) increased reaching a peak within 5 min in all groups compared to controls treated with the vehicle, artificial CSF (5 μl). MABP returned to basal levels at 30 min after angiotensin II and remained stable for the following 90 min. In animals treated with L-NAME alone, after the initial pressor response, MABP declined but began to increase progressively from 30 min until the end of the experiment at 120 min. When administered with angiotensin II, however, the initial pressor response was prolonged. Angiotensin II-induced drinking was significantly attenuated by L-NAME. In control rats, inhibiting NOS elevated plasma levels of oxytocin and vasopressin but in angiotensin II-stimulated animals, only oxytocin was further elevated after L-NAME. Thus, NO formed centrally inhibits basal secretion of oxytocin and vasopressin as well as the resting blood pressure. During stimulation with angiotensin II, NO facilitates drinking, limits the pressor response and selectively inhibits oxytocin release.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glucose utilization and Fos expression were used to compare responses of cerebral structures involved in osmoregulation in virgin and lactating rats given 0.15, 0.85, or 1.5 M NaCl subcutaneously. In virgin animals, glucose utilization increased (P < 0.05) in the supraoptic nuclei (SON), paraventricular nuclei (PVN), and neural lobe (NL) proportionally to the osmotic stimulus (0.15 M NaCl < 0.85 M NaCl < 1.5 M NaCl), whereas metabolism in the median preoptic nucleus (MPO) and median eminence (ME) increased only after 1.5 M NaCl. In lactating rats, enhanced utilization of glucose in response to osmotic stimulation was absent in the PVN (0.85 M NaCl), MPO, and ME or significantly (P < 0.01) reduced (SON, PVN, NL) compared with virgin animals. Glucose utilization in each structure correlated linearly with plasma osmolality but with a lower slope (P < 0.05) in lactating animals. Magnocellular neurons expressing Fos in the SON increased linearly with plasma osmolality and were more numerous (P < 0.05) in control lactating animals but increased less (P < 0.05) than in virgin rats after 0.85 M NaCl. The attenuated magnocellular response during lactation results from reduced afferent activation from osmosensitive forebrain sites.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The drinking behavior and blood pressure responses to i.c.v. administration of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) or NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 10, 250, or 500 micrograms), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, were examined in conscious rats following either osmotic stimulation (1.0 M NaCl, 15 ml/kg, s.c.) or induction of hemorrhage (0.7 ml/min to a 20% blood volume loss). Water intake increased in all animals. L-NAME at doses of 250 and 500 micrograms, but not 10 micrograms, significantly attenuated water consumption induced by both stimuli. The mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), which increased after osmotic stimulation, was maintained at pressor levels by 250 and 500 micrograms of L-NAME, but decreased progressively and reached basal levels after treatment with aCSF and the lowest dose of L-NAME (i.e., 10 micrograms). Hemorrhage significantly decreased MABP in all rats. The fall in blood pressure associated with hemorrhage returned to control levels in animals treated with 250 and 500 micrograms of L-NAME but not in those treated with aCSF or 10 micrograms of L-NAME. These results indicate that nitric oxide is involved in the regulation of drinking behavior and may play an important role in the central control of blood pressure during osmotic stimulation and hypotensive hemorrhage.
University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston
Galveston, TX, United States
- Division of Neurosurgery