[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The preferred type of post-remission therapy (PRT) in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR1) is a subject of continued debate, especially in patients at higher risk of non-relapse mortality (NRM), including patients >40 years of age. We report results of a time-dependent multivariable analysis of alloHSCT (n=337) versus chemotherapy (n=271) or autologous HSCT (n=152) in 760 patients aged 40 and 60 years with AML in CR1. Patients receiving alloHSCT showed improved survival (OS) as compared to chemotherapy (respectively 57±3% vs 40±3% at 5 years, P<0.001). Comparable OS was observed following alloHSCT and autoHSCT in patients with intermediate risk AML (60±4% vs 54±5%). However, alloHSCT was associated with less relapse (HR 0.51, P<0.001) and better RFS (HR 0.74, P=0.029) as compared to autoHSCT in intermediate risk AMLs. AlloHSCT was applied following myeloablative conditioning (n=157) or reduced intensity conditioning (n=180), resulting in less NRM, but comparable outcome with respect to OS, RFS, and relapse. Collectively, these results show that alloHSCT is to be preferred over chemotherapy as PRT in patients with intermediate and poor risk AML aged 40-60 years, while autoHSCT remains a treatment option to be considered in patients with intermediate risk AML.Leukemia accepted article preview online, 27 November 2014. doi:10.1038/leu.2014.332.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
Malignancy relapse remains a major obstacle for successful allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is associated with fewer relapses. However, when studying effects of cGVHD on relapse, it is difficult to separate from acute GVHD effects as most cases of cGVHD occur within the first year after transplant at the time when acute GVHD is still active.
This study based on CIBMTR registry data investigated cGVHD and its association with the incidence of late relapse and survival in 7,489 patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), who were leukemia free at 12 months after myeloablative allogeneic HCT.
Forty-seven percent of the study population was diagnosed with cGVHD at 12 months after transplant. The protective effect of cGVHD on late relapse was present only in patients with CML [RR, 0.47; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.37-0.59; P < 0.0001). cGVHD was significantly associated with higher risk of treatment-related mortality (TRM; RR, 2.43; 95% CI, 2.09-2.82; P < 0.0001) and inferior overall survival (RR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.41-1.73; P < 0.0001) for all diseases. In patients with CML, all organ sites and presentation types of cGVHD were equally associated with lower risk of late relapse.
These results indicate that clinically relevant antileukemia effects of cGVHD on late relapses are present only in CML but not in AML, ALL, or MDS. Chronic GVHD in patients who are 1-year survivors after myeloablative allogeneic HCT is primarily associated with higher TRM and inferior survival.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Clinical Cancer Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Half the patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who achieve complete remission (CR), ultimately relapse. Residual treatment-surviving leukemia is considered responsible for the outgrowth of AML. In many retrospective studies, detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) has been shown to enable identification of these poor-outcome patients by showing its independent prognostic impact. Most studies focus on molecular markers or analyze data in retrospect. This study establishes the value of immunophenotypically assessed MRD in the context of a multicenter clinical trial in adult AML with sample collection and analysis performed in a few specialized centers.
In adults (younger than age 60 years) with AML enrolled onto the Dutch-Belgian Hemato-Oncology Cooperative Group/Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research Acute Myeloid Leukemia 42A study, MRD was evaluated in bone marrow samples in CR (164 after induction cycle 1, 183 after cycle 2, 124 after consolidation therapy).
After all courses of therapy, low MRD values distinguished patients with relatively favorable outcome from those with high relapse rate and adverse relapse-free and overall survival. In the whole patient group and in the subgroup with intermediate-risk cytogenetics, MRD was an independent prognostic factor. Multivariate analysis after cycle 2, when decisions about consolidation treatment have to be made, confirmed that high MRD values (> 0.1% of WBC) were associated with a higher risk of relapse after adjustment for consolidation treatment time-dependent covariate risk score and early or later CR.
In future treatment studies, risk stratification should be based not only on risk estimation assessed at diagnosis but also on MRD as a therapy-dependent prognostic factor.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlabelled:
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) driven post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is a heterogeneous and potentially life-threatening condition. Early identification of aberrant EBV activity may prevent progression to B-cell lymphoma. We measured EBV DNA load and RNA profiles in plasma and cellular blood compartments of stem cell transplant (SCT; n = 5), solid organ transplant recipients (SOT; n = 15), and SOT having chronic elevated EBV-DNA load (n = 12). In SCT, EBV DNA was heterogeneously distributed, either in plasma or leukocytes or both. In SOT, EBV DNA load was always cell associated, predominantly in B cells, but occasionally in T cells (CD4 and CD8) or monocytes. All SCT with cell-associated EBV DNA showed BARTs and EBNA1 expression, while LMP1 and LMP2 mRNA was found in 1 and 3 cases, respectively. In SOT, expression of BARTs was detected in all leukocyte samples. LMP2 and EBNA1 mRNA was found in 5/15 and 2/15, respectively, but LMP1 mRNA in only 1, coinciding with severe PTLD and high EBV DNA.
EBV DNA is differently distributed between white cells and plasma in SOT versus SCT. EBV RNA profiling in blood is feasible and may have added value for understanding pathogenic virus activity in patients with elevated EBV-DNA.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Clinical and Developmental Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine to what extent allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (alloHSCT) quantitatively reduces relapse in acute myeloid leukemia with monosomal karyotype (MK-AML) compared with alternative postremission therapy and how it compares with other cytogenetic subcategories.
Of 2,560 patients (younger than age 61 years) without core-binding factor abnormalities including 305 patients with MK-AML receiving first-line induction treatment, 1,975 patients (77%) achieved remission, and 1,588 received consolidation in the first complete remission (CR1) after two induction cycles. Consolidation treatment of 107 patients with MK-AML consisted of alloHSCT (n = 45), chemotherapy (n = 48), or autologous HSCT (n = 14).
The 5-year overall survival after start of consolidation was 19% for patients with MK-AML who received alloHSCT and 9% for those who received chemotherapy or autoHSCT (P = .02). Relapse-free survival (RFS) at 5 years was 17% versus 7% (P = .003). Cox regression analysis was performed with alloHSCT as a time-dependent covariate. Hazard ratios (HRs) associated with alloHSCT for relapse and RFS were 0.30 (95% CI, 0.24 to 0.37; P < .001), and 0.52 (95% CI, 0.43 to 0.62; P < .001), respectively. HRs were similar in MK-AML and the other cytogenetic subgroups.
AlloHSCT, applied as consolidation in CR1, is associated with a significant reduction of relapse and improvement of survival in MK-AML, with the same relative reduction of relapse or death as in other cytogenetic risk categories.
Preview · Article · May 2012 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinical value of chemotherapy sensitization of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with G-CSF priming has remained controversial. Cytarabine is a key constituent of remission induction chemotherapy. The effect of G-CSF priming has not been investigated in relationship with variable dose levels of cytarabine. We randomized 917 AML patients to receive G-CSF (456 patients) or no G-CSF (461 patients) at the days of chemotherapy. In the initial part of the study, 406 patients were also randomized between 2 cytarabine regimens comparing conventional-dose (199 patients) versus escalated-dose (207 patients) cytarabine in cycles 1 and 2. We found that patients after induction chemotherapy plus G-CSF had similar overall survival (43% vs 40%, P = .88), event-free survival (37% vs 31%, P = .29), and relapse rates (34% vs 36%, P = .77) at 5 years as those not receiving G-CSF. However, patients treated with the escalated-dose cytarabine regimen benefited from G-CSF priming, with improved event-free survival (P = .01) and overall survival (P = .003), compared with patients without G-CSF undergoing escalated-dose cytarabine treatment. A significant survival advantage of sensitizing AML for chemotherapy with G-CSF was not apparent in the entire study group, but it was seen in patients treated with escalated-dose cytarabine during remission induction. The HOVON-42 study is registered under The Netherlands Trial Registry (www.trialregister.nl) as #NTR230.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and FLT3/internal tandem duplication (FLT3/ITD) have poor prognosis if treated with chemotherapy only. Whether this alteration also affects outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) remains uncertain.
We analyzed 206 patients who underwent HLA-identical sibling and matched unrelated HSCTs reported to the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation with a diagnosis of AML with normal cytogenetics and data on FLT3/ITD (present: n = 120, 58%; absent: n = 86, 42%). Transplantations were performed in first complete remission (CR) after myeloablative conditioning.
Compared with FLT3/ITD-negative patients, FLT3/ITD-positive patients had higher median leukocyte count at diagnosis (59 v 21 × 10(9)/L; P < .001) and shorter interval from CR to transplantation (87 v 99 days; P = .04). Other characteristics were similar in the two groups. At 2 years, relapse incidence (RI; ± standard deviation) was higher (30% ± 5% v 16% ± 5%; P = .006) and leukemia-free survival (LFS) lower (58% ± 5% v 71% ± 6%; P = .04) in FLT3/ITD-positive compared with FLT3/ITD-negative patients. In multivariate analyses, FLT3/ITD led to increased RI (hazard ratio [HR], 3.4; 95% CI, 1.46 to 7.94; P = .005), as did older age, female sex, shorter interval between CR and transplantation, and higher number of chemotherapy courses before achieving CR. FLT3/ITD positivity was associated with decreased LFS (HR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.19 to 0.73; P = .002), along with older age and higher number of chemotherapy courses before achieving CR.
FLT3/ITD adversely affected the outcome of HSCT in the same direction it does after chemotherapy; despite this, more than half of the patients harboring this mutation who received transplants were alive and leukemia free at 2 years. To further improve the results, use of FLT3 inhibitors before or after HSCT deserves investigation.
Preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the results of a prospective, randomized phase 3 trial evaluating autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (ASCT) versus intensive consolidation chemotherapy in newly diagnosed AML patients in complete remission (CR1). Patients with AML (16-60 years) in CR1 after 2 cycles of intensive chemotherapy and not eligible for allogeneic SCT were randomized between intensive chemotherapy with etoposide and mitoxantrone or ASCT ater high-dose cyclophosphamide and busulfan. Of patients randomized (chemotherapy, n = 259; ASCT, n = 258), more than 90% received their assigned treatment. The 2 groups were comparable with regard to prognostic factors. The ASCT group showed a markedly reduced relapse rate (58% vs 70%, P = .02) and better relapse-free survival at 5 years (38% vs 29%, P = .065, hazard ratio = 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.66-1.1) with nonrelapse mortality of 4% versus 1% in the chemotherapy arm (P = .02). Overall survival was similar (44% vs 41% at 5 years, P = .86) because of more opportunities for salvage with second-line chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation in patients relapsing on the chemotherapy arm. This large study shows a relapse advantage for ASCT as postremission therapy but similar survival because more relapsing patients on the chemotherapy arm were salvaged with a late transplantation for relapse. This trial is registered at www.trialregister.nl as #NTR230 and #NTR291.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the innate immunity receptor NOD2/CARD15 have been demonstrated to modulate the outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT). The effect of NOD2/CARD15 polymorphism is reported to be associated with type of donor (sibling or matched unrelated donor) as well as type of conditioning regimen. We reviewed NOD2/CARD15 SNPs in all donor/recipient pairs of 192 consecutive patients who received nonmyeloablative allogeneic SCT at our institution between 2002 and 2006. All patients were treated with fludarabine 30 mg/m(2)/day for 3 days followed by 200 cGy total-body irradiation (TBI) (n = 154) or TBI alone (n = 38) and received grafts from HLA-matched related (n = 132) or unrelated (n = 61) donors. NOD2/CARD15 polymorphisms were observed in 36 of 192 (19%) patients and in 35 of 192 (18%) donors. The incidences of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD, cGVHD) were 39% and 49%, respectively, in patients with NOD2/CARD15 variants versus 51% and 61% in patients with wild type. The relapse rate at 3 years was 38% in patients with variants and 36% in patients with wild type. The incidence of transplant-related mortality was 22% for patients with variants and 21% for patients with wild type. Overall survival (OS) at 3 years was 56% in patients with variants and 64% in patients with wild-type NOD2/CARD15. There was no significant impact of NOD2/CARD15 mutations on clinical outcome (all P > .05, Kaplan-Meier and Fine and Gray's tests). These data indicate that mutations in the NOD2/CARD15 gene are not a risk factor for clinical outcome in nonmyeloablative allogeneic SCT. Therefore, screening for NOD2/CARD15 polymorphisms in patients or donors does not have additional value in patients undergoing nonmyeloablative SCT.
Preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Biology of blood and marrow transplantation: journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many parameters predict for outcome after unrelated donor (URD) allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT). High-resolution HLA-matching significantly impacts outcome and also the European Group of Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) risk score, based on patient age, disease stage, donor type, time from diagnosis to SCT and gender combination, may predict for non-relapse mortality and overall survival (OS). We evaluated the individual and combined effects of allele-matching and the EBMT risk score in 327 patients with poor-risk acute leukemia or myelodysplasia, who received a T-cell depleted URD alloSCT. Matching for HLA-A, -B, -C and -DRB1 alleles (8/8 match) was associated with a 5-year OS of 40% compared with 30% for mismatched (≤7/8) pairs (P=0.02). Patients with EBMT risk scores of 1-2, 3, 4 and 5-7 had 5-year OS estimates of 53, 43, 30 and 20%, respectively (P<0.001). The favorable prognostic impact of an 8/8 donor was most pronounced if the EBMT risk score was low (1-2). Five-year OS was 74±8% vs 39±11% for fully matched patients with a low-risk EBMT score as compared with EBMT low-risk patients with ≤7/8 donors. These data underscore the importance of incorporating both the EBMT risk score and the degree of high-resolution HLA-matching in the risk assessment prior to URD alloSCT.
No preview · Article · May 2011 · Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytarabine (ara-C) is an important drug in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). High-dose cytarabine (2000 to 3000 mg per square meter of body-surface area) is toxic but results in higher rates of relapse-free survival than does the conventional dose of 100 to 400 mg per square meter. Intermediate dose levels have not been thoroughly evaluated.
We compared two induction regimens in patients 18 to 60 years of age (median, 49) who had newly diagnosed AML. The intermediate-dose group, totaling 431 patients, received cytarabine at a dose of 200 mg per square meter given by continuous intravenous infusion for 24 hours during cycle 1 of induction therapy and 1000 mg per square meter by infusion for 3 hours twice daily during cycle 2 of induction therapy. The high-dose group, totaling 429 patients, received a dose-escalated regimen of 1000 mg of cytarabine per square meter every 12 hours in cycle 1 and 2000 mg per square meter twice daily in cycle 2. Patients with a complete response did not receive additional cytarabine but received consolidation therapy in a third cycle of chemotherapy (mitoxantrone-etoposide) or underwent autologous or allogeneic stem-cell transplantation. Complete remission rates, survival rates, and toxic effects were assessed for each treatment group.
At a median follow-up of 5 years, no significant differences were noted between the intermediate-dose group and the high-dose group with respect to complete remission rates (80% and 82%, respectively), probability of relapse, event-free survival at 5 years (34% and 35%), or overall survival (40% and 42%). High-dose cytarabine provided no clear advantage in any prognostic subgroup. The high-dose treatment resulted in higher incidences of grade 3 and grade 4 toxic effects (in cycle 1), prolonged hospitalization, and delayed neutrophil recovery (in cycle 2) and platelet recovery (in cycles 2 and 3).
Induction therapy with cytarabine at the lower dose already produced maximal antileukemic effects for all response end points, suggesting a plateau in the dose-response relationship above this dose level. High-dose cytarabine results in excessive toxic effects without therapeutic benefit. (Netherlands Trial Register number, NTR230.).
Preview · Article · Mar 2011 · New England Journal of Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Until now molecular biologic techniques have not been easily used in daily clinical practice to stratify patients for therapeutic purposes. Therefore, we have investigated the prognostic relevance of the immunohistochemical (IHC) germinal center B-cell (GCB) versus non-GCB diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) subtypes.
We have analyzed tumor samples from patients treated in 2 prospective multicenter phase III trials, ie HOVON 25 (patients≥65 years, n=153) and HOVON 26 (patients<65 years, n=144) using whole sections (WS) or tissue microarray (TMA). CD10, BCL6, and MUM1 were applied in a specific IHC algorithm. The effect on clinical outcome using WS or TMA and variations in cut-off levels of these markers was also investigated.
The GCB subtype was not associated with a better OS in either trial. Small differences were observed in the HOVON 25 trial between techniques, with TMA showing a better outcome for GCB than did WS. Variation of cut-off levels in the specific algorithm did not improve the prediction of clinical outcome.
We did not observe a consistent predictive power of the GCB and non-GCB classification by IHC in this large series of DLBCL patients treated with CHOP. This underscores the need to determine the biologic variation and the standardization of the protein expression levels and to further study the relevance of prognostic IHC classifications, preferably in phase III clinical trials.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To describe activities in the field of autologous stem cell transplantation in haematological disorders in the Netherlands in the periods before and after 1993 (at that time blood was introduced as source of stem cells). DESIGN: Descriptive, retrospective cohort study. METHOD: Data were collected from the Netherlands Stem Cell Transplantation Registry TYPHON. Details of all transplant patients were reported to TYPHON by the individual transplantation centres. In this overview we describe the changes in transplantation-related mortality, relapse rates and survival in the periods 1 January 1980-31 December 1992 and 1 January 1980-31 December 2002. RESULTS: The number of autologous stem cell transplantations increased almost five-fold in the period 1993-2002. Since 1993 the main indications for transplantation were multiple myeloma (MM) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), as well as acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), which was the main indication in the period before 1993. In the period before 1993 most relapses were observed in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and MM, which resulted in low survival rates. After 1993 no great differences in relapse or survival rates were observed between the different disorders. The survival rates for patients with ALL improved during the last research period, especially among younger patients (< 45 years). CONCLUSION: The number of autologous stem cell transplantations has increased considerably since 1993, especially in patients with MM and NHL.
No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analyzed 368 chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation reported to the EBMT registry between 1995 and 2007. There were 198 human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical siblings; among unrelated transplants, 31 were well matched in high resolution ('well matched' unrelated donor, WMUD), and 139 were mismatched (MM), including 30 matched in low resolution; 266 patients (72%) received reduced-intensity conditioning and 102 (28%) received standard. According to the EBMT risk score, 11% were in scores 1-3, 23% in score 4, 40% in score 5, 22% in score 6 and 4% in score 7. There was no difference in overall survival (OS) at 5 years between HLA-identical siblings (55% (48-64)) and WMUD (59% (41-84)), P=0.82. In contrast, OS was significantly worse for MM (37% (29-48) P=0.005) due to a significant excess of transplant-related mortality. Also OS worsened significantly when EBMT risk score increased. HLA matching had no significant impact on relapse (siblings: 24% (21-27); WMUD: 35% (26-44), P=0.11 and MM: 21% (18-24), P=0.81); alemtuzumab T-cell depletion and stem cell source (peripheral blood) were associated with an increased risk. Our findings support the use of WMUD as equivalent alternative to HLA-matched sibling donors for allogeneic HSCT in CLL, and justify the application of EBMT risk score in this disease.
No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K