[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies of alcohol use have recognized several trends in consumption patterns among gender and age yet few have examined ethnic differences. This study examines the intra- and inter-ethnic differences in alcohol consumption among a population of patients seen in the emergency department.
This is a cross-sectional study conducted in the emergency department in a large urban setting. Information on drinking behavior and ethnicity was collected using the Computerized Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention (CASI) tool. We explored differences in drinking patterns using a multivariate multinomial logistic regression model.
We analyzed the drinking habits of 2,444 patients surveyed between November 2012 and May 2014. The results indicate that when compared to non-Hispanic whites, Asians have the lowest odds of drinking within normal limits or excessively, followed by other Latinos, and Mexicans. Age and gender consistently showed statistically significant associations with alcohol-use. The odds of drinking within normal limits or excessively are inversely associated with age and were lower among females. The predicted probabilities show a marked gender-specific difference in alcohol use both between and within ethnic/racial groups. They also highlight an age-related convergence in alcohol use between men and women within ethnic groups.
The results of this study show intra-racial/ethnic variability associated with sex and education. The highlighted differences within and between ethnic groups reinforce the need to use refined categories when examining alcohol use among minorities.
The results of this study confirm some alcohol consumption trends among ethnic minorities observed in literature. It provides empirical evidence of the marked gender differences and highlights an age-related convergence for gender-specific alcohol use. Health-care personnel should be aware of these differences when screening and counseling.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · BMC Emergency Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The implication of splenic contrast blush on computed tomography (CT) in blunt trauma patients and whether it is an indication for angioembolization (AE) remains controversial. Our objective was to determine whether CT blush and its subsequent treatment have any impact on outcomes in blunt trauma patients with low-grade splenic injuries. A retrospective review identified adult patients with splenic injury (American Association for the Surgery of Trauma grades 1 to 3) from blunt abdominal trauma who were evaluated with a CT scan over a 3.5-year period at a Level I trauma center. Patient groups analyzed included: observation patients with no CT blush (n = 110), observation patients with CT blush (n = 18), and AE patients with CT blush (n = 22). Patients with CT blush who were observed did not demonstrate significantly worse outcomes compared with the patients with no CT blush. Additionally, patients with CT blush who underwent AE did not show any significant improvement in outcomes compared with patients who were observed with CT blush. Our study suggests that CT blush does not predict worse outcomes for blunt trauma patients with low-grade splenic injury who underwent observation. Furthermore, AE does not seem to provide any advantage to this subset of patients.
No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · The American surgeon
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Computed tomography angiography (CTA) of the neck has become the most common modality for diagnosing blunt carotid artery injury (BCAI). The protocol at our institution includes CTA on trauma patients with a seatbelt sign. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether a solitary seatbelt sign is an indication for CTA of the neck to diagnose BCAI. We conducted a retrospective review of patients from 2000 to 2010 who received CTAs as a result of a seatbelt sign performed at our Level I trauma center. Four hundred eighteen patients received CTAs based on the presence of a seatbelt sign. Two hundred twenty-six had skeletal injuries, obvious soft tissue injuries, and/or positive findings on imaging, including 11 positive vascular findings with two BCAIs found. Patients with noncarotid vascular injuries on CTA had a higher Injury Severity Score than patients with solitary seatbelt signs (11.4 ± 7.6 vs 3.4 ± 4.2, P < 0.01). The correlation between seatbelt sign and positive finding on CTA was weak (r = 0.007). Patients with vascular findings on CTA also had obvious hard/soft tissue injuries and/or positive findings on standard trauma imaging. This suggests that a protocol for CTA of the neck for patients with a seatbelt sign can be reserved for those with associated injuries on physical examination and/or findings on standard trauma imaging.
No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · The American surgeon
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
We sought to identify independent predictors of venous thromboembolism in critically ill general surgery patients who cannot receive chemical prophylaxis in order to identify those who may benefit from aggressive screening and/or prophylactic inferior vena cava filter placement.
Nontrauma patients in the surgical intensive care unit were prospectively followed for 2 years. Patients who had contraindications to prophylactic anticoagulation and received routine screening duplex examinations were included. Data regarding lower-extremity deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism (PE) rates, past medical history (PMH), surgeries, and transfusions were collected. Logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of lower-extremity deep venous thrombosis or PE (venous thromboembolism) with a P < .05.
Data were complete for 204 patients. Twenty (9.8%) patients developed venous thromboembolism. Independent predictors of venous thromboembolism included postoperative blood product requirements (odds ratio = 1.04 per unit), a PMH of PE (OR = 10.1), and a PMH of renal insufficiency (odds ratio = 5.1).
Aggressive screening and/or prophylactic inferior vena cava filter may be considered when prophylactic anticoagulation is prohibited in patients with increased postoperative transfusion requirements or a PMH of either PE or renal insufficiency.
No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · American journal of surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Catheter-associated deep venous thromboses (CADVTs) are a common occurrence in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU), necessitating central venous catheter (CVC) removal and replacement. Previous studies evaluating risk factors for CADVT in SICU patients are limited, and most lack a true denominator of all CVC days. We sought to determine the true incidence of and risk factors for CADVT based on patient characteristics as well as CVC site, type, and duration of insertion.
The following data from all SICU patients in two urban Level I trauma centers were prospectively collected from 2009 to 2012: demographics, risk factors for DVT, CVC site/type/duration, and duplex results. Sites included the subclavian (SC), internal jugular (IJ), arm (for peripherally inserted central catheter [PICC] lines), and femoral. Types included multilumen (ML), introducer/hemodialysis (I/HD), and PICC. High-risk patients received weekly screening duplex examinations and a CADVT was defined as a DVT being detected on duplex with a CVC in place or within 7 days of removal. Rates of CADVT were normalized per 1,000 CVC days, and independent predictors of CADVT were determined using logistic regression.
Data were complete for 184 patients, 354 CVCs, and 2,128 CVC days. Fifty-nine CADVTs were diagnosed in 28% of patients. Rates of CADVT were 9 per 1,000 catheter days for SC, 61 for IJ (p < 0.01 vs. SC), 27 for arm (p < 0.01), 36 for femoral (p < 0.01), 22 for ML, 57 for I/HD (p < 0.01 vs. ML), and 27 for PICC (p = 0.24). After adjusting for patient risk factors, predictors of CADVT included the IJ and arm sites (odds ratio, 6.0 and 3.0 compared with SC) and the I/HD type (odds ratio, 2.6 compared with ML, all p < 0.05).
The IJ and arm sites and I/HD type are associated with increased CADVT. These data may be used to determine the optimal site and type of CVC for insertion.
Prognostic/epidemiologic study, level III.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In light of current trends to limit radiation exposure and costs, as well as increased traffic safety, computed tomography (CT) may have decreasing value for evaluating patients with blunt trauma. The authors examined the utility of chest x-ray and abdominal CT for identifying clinically significant thoracic blunt trauma.
In this prospective study, findings on thoracic CT, abdominal CT, and chest x-ray from trauma patients were compared to assess injury prevalence and relevance to treatment outcomes.
Four hundred forty-four patients were identified, of whom 76% had no findings. Occult findings had significantly lower Injury Severity Scores. All clinically relevant pneumothoraces and most other injuries could be identified without thoracic CT. Two of 3 aortic abnormalities were suspected from chest x-ray.
Clinically significant injuries can be identified with abdominal CT and chest x-ray, safely allowing reductions in radiation exposure, hospital stays, and costs by limiting the use of thoracic CT.
No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · American journal of surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Trauma patient readiness-to-change score and its relationship to the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) score were assessed in addition to the feasibility of computerized alcohol screening and brief intervention (CASI). A bilingual computerized tablet for trauma patients was utilized and the data were analyzed using Stata. Twenty-five percent of 1145 trauma patients drank more than recommended and 4% were dependent. As many Spanish-speaking as English-speaking males did not drink, but a higher percentage of Spanish-speaking males drank more than recommended and were dependent. Half of patients who drank more than recommended rated themselves 8 or higher on a 10-point readiness-to-change scale. CASI also provided personalized feedback. A high percentage of trauma patients (92%) found CASI easy and a comfort in use (87%). Bilingual computerized technology for trauma patients is feasible, acceptable, and an innovative approach to alcohol screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment in a tertiary care university.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine if elderly trauma patients are at risk for contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). A retrospective study was conducted identifying 362 patients 65 years and older in our Level I trauma center who received computerized tomography (CT) scans with intravenous contrast. CIN was defined as a 25 per cent increase in serum creatinine levels or a 0.5 mg/dL increase above baseline after CT. History of diabetes mellitus, hospital length of stay, intensive care unit length of stay, Injury Severity Score (ISS), and age were recorded. Eighteen per cent (21 of 118) of the patients had a peak in creatinine, 12 per cent (14 of 118) peaked and returned to baseline, and 6 per cent (7 of 118) peaked and stayed high. Pre-CT elevated creatinine, diabetes mellitus, increased hospital length of stay, ISS, and age show little association to CIN. The data suggest that CIN in elderly trauma patients is rare, regardless of history of diabetes mellitus, age, creatinine, high ISS, or result in higher length of stay. Therefore, there is little justification for the delay in diagnosis to assess a patient's renal susceptibility.
No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · The American surgeon
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clearance of cervical spine (CS) precautions in the neurologically altered blunt trauma patient can be difficult. Physical examination is not reliable, and although computed tomography (CT) may reveal no evidence of fracture, it is generally believed to be an inferior modality for assessing ligamentous and cord injuries. However, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is expensive and may be risky in critically ill patients. Conversely, prolonged rigid collar use is associated with pressure ulceration and other complications. Multidetector CT raises the possibility of clearing CS on the basis of CT alone. We performed a retrospective review at our Level I trauma center of all blunt trauma patients with Glasgow Coma Scale Score 14 or less who underwent both CT and MRI CS with negative CT. One hundred fourteen patients met inclusion criteria, of which 23 had MRI findings. Seven (6%) of these had neurologic deficits and/or a change in management on the basis of MRI findings. Although use of the single-slice scanner was significantly associated with MRI findings (odds ratio, 2.62; P = 0.023), no significant clinical risk factors were identified. Patients with MRI findings were heterogeneous in terms of age, mechanism, and Injury Severity Score. We conclude that CS MRI continues play a vital role in the workup of neurologically altered patients.
No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · The American surgeon
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alcohol screening and brief intervention (SBI) is used to decrease alcohol consumption, health care costs, and injury recidivism in trauma patients. Despite SBI being mandated for trauma centers, various concerns have led many centers to conduct SBI only on patients with a detectable blood alcohol concentration (BAC). We sought to determine the predictive nature of BAC on hazardous drinking behavior.
Adult trauma patients were included if they received an SBI before discharge. SBI was administered using a computerized alcohol screening and intervention (CASI) system with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT). Data regarding demographics, injuries, and BAC were prospectively collected. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify independent predictors of hazardous drinking behavior.
Data were complete for 1,340 patients, with a mean age of 43 years (SD 20 years). Sixty-eight percent were male, 33% had detectable BAC, and 19% had hazardous drinking behavior. Multivariate analysis identified age (odds ratio [OR] 0.97 per year), male sex (OR 3.1), BAC (OR 1.009 per mg/dL), detectable BAC (OR 3.9), and legal intoxication (OR 7.8) as independent predictors of hazardous drinking behavior. Asian/Pacific Islander ethnicity was a significant negative predictor (OR 0.53) compared with white. Thirty-eight percent of patients with hazardous drinking behavior had no detectable BAC.
Younger age, male sex, and higher BAC are early predictors of hazardous drinking behavior in adult trauma patients. Asian/Pacific Islander patients are half as likely to report hazardous drinking behavior compared with white patients. More than one-third of patients with hazardous drinking behavior do not have detectable BAC on admission and are not receiving interventions in centers that screen solely based on BAC.
No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Journal of the American College of Surgeons
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Standard venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention for critically ill trauma patients includes sequential compression devices and chemical prophylaxis. When contraindications to anticoagulation are present, prophylactic inferior vena cava filters (IVCF) may be used to prevent pulmonary emboli (PE) in high-risk patients, but specific indications are lacking. We sought to identify independent predictors of VTE in critically-ill trauma patients who cannot receive chemical prophylaxis in order to identify a subset of patients who may benefit from aggressive screening and/or prophylactic IVCF placement.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The natural history and optimal treatment of upper extremity (UE) deep venous thromboses (DVT's) remains uncertain as does the clinical significance of catheter-associated (CA) UE DVT's. We sought to analyze predictors of UE DVT resolution and hypothesized that anticoagulation will be associated with quicker UE DVT clot resolution and that CA UE DVT's whose catheters are removed will resolve more often than non-CA UE DVT's.
All patients on the surgical intensive care unit service were prospectively followed from January 2008 to May 2010. A standardized DVT prevention protocol was used and screening bilateral UE and lower extremity duplex examinations were obtained within 48 hours of admission and then weekly. Computed tomography angiography for pulmonary embolism was obtained if clinically indicated. Patients with UE DVT were treated according to attending discretion. Data regarding patient demographics and UE DVT characteristics were recorded: DVT location, catheter association, occlusive status, treatment, and resolution. The primary outcome measure was UE DVT resolution before hospital discharge. Interval decrease in size on the subsequent duplex after UE DVT detection was also noted. UE DVTs without a follow-up duplex were excluded from the final analysis. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify independent predictors of UE DVT resolution.
There were 201 UE DVT's in 129 patients; 123 DVTs had a follow-up duplex and were included. Fifty-four percent of UEDVTs improved on the next duplex, 60% resolved before discharge, and 2% embolized. The internal jugular was the most common site (52%) and 72% were nonocclusive. Sixty-four percent were CAUEDVT's and line removal was associated with more frequent improvement on the next duplex (55% vs. 17%, p = 0.047, mid-P exact). Sixty-eight percent of UEDVTs were treated with some form of anticoagulation, but this was not associated with improved UE DVT resolution (61% vs. 60%). Independent predictors of clot resolution were location in the arm (odds ratio = 4.1 compared with the internal jugular, p = 0.031) and time from clot detection until final duplex (odds ratio =1.052 per day, p = 0.032).
A majority of UE DVT's are CA, more than half resolve before discharge, and 2% embolize. Anticoagulation does not appear to affect outcomes, but line removal does result in a quicker decrease in clot size.
No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · The Journal of trauma
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to identify risk factors that might predict acute traumatic injury findings on thoracic computed tomography (TCT) among patients having a normal initial chest radiograph (CR).
In this retrospective analysis, Abbreviated Injury Score cutoffs were chosen to correspond with obvious physical examination findings. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors predicting acute traumatic injury findings.
Urban level I trauma center.
All patients with blunt trauma having both CR and TCT between July 1, 2005, and June 30, 2007. Patients with abnormalities on their CR were excluded.
Finding of any acute traumatic abnormality on TCT, despite a normal CR.
A total of 2435 patients with blunt trauma were identified; 1744 (71.6%) had a normal initial CR, and 394 (22.6%) of these had acute traumatic findings on TCT. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that an abdominal Abbreviated Injury Score of 3 or higher (P = .001; odds ratio, 2.6), a pelvic or extremity Abbreviated Injury Score of 2 or higher (P < .001; odds ratio, 2.0), age older than 30 years (P = .004; odds ratio, 1.4), and male sex (P = .04; odds ratio, 1.3) were significantly associated with traumatic findings on TCT. No aortic injuries were diagnosed in patients with a normal CR. Limiting TCT to patients with 1 or more risk factors predicting acute traumatic injury findings would have resulted in reduced radiation exposure and in a cost savings of almost $250,000 over the 2-year period. Limiting TCT to this degree would not have missed any clinically significant vertebral fractures or vascular injuries.
Among patients with a normal screening CR, reserving TCT for older male patients with abdominal or extremity blunt trauma seems safe and cost-effective.
No preview · Article · Apr 2011 · Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill.: 1960)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our objective was to show that a chest X-ray (CXR) and an abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan are sufficient to identify most clinically significant thoracic injuries in trauma patients, rendering the thoracic CT scan useful in only a subset of patients.
A retrospective study identified thoracic injuries in 374 trauma patients evaluated with a CXR, a thoracic CT scan, and an abdominal CT scan. Injuries seen on the initial CXR versus those seen on a CT scan only (occult) were identified and assessed for clinical relevance.
An abdominal CT scan identified 65% (15/23) of occult pneumothoraces, 100% (25/25) of occult hemothoraces, 64% (18/28) of occult pulmonary contusions, and 58% (18/31) of occult rib fractures. No occult pneumothoraces seen on the thoracic CT scan alone required tube thoracostomy.
Our pilot study suggests that a CXR and an abdominal CT scan will identify most occult intrathoracic injuries. Reserving a thoracic CT scan for patients with an abnormal CXR or high-risk mechanism could safely reduce cost and radiation exposure while still diagnosing significant thoracic injuries.
No preview · Article · Dec 2010 · American journal of surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The shortage of organs available for transplantation has become a national crisis. The Department of Health and Human Services established performance benchmarks for timely notification, donation after cardiac death (DCD), and conversion rates (total donors/eligible deaths) to guide organ procurement organizations and donor hospitals in their attempts to increase the number of transplantable organs. In January 2007, an organ donor council (ODC) with an ongoing performance improvement case review process was created at a Level I trauma center. A critical care devastating brain injury protocol and a DCD policy were instituted. Best performance benchmarks were evaluated before and after establishment of the ODC. At our center, the total number of referrals increased from 96 in 2006 to 139 in 2007 and 143 in 2008. Timely notification rate increased from 64 per cent in 2006 to 83 per cent in 2007 and 2008 (P < 0.01). DCD rate increased from 0 per cent in 2006 to 13 per cent in 2007 (P = 0.06) and 10 per cent in 2008 (P = 0.09). Conversion rate increased from 53 per cent in 2007 to 78 per cent in 2008 (P = 0.05) and 73 per cent in 2009 (P = 0.16). Organs transplanted per eligible death trended upward from 1.80 in 2007 to 2.54 in 2009 (P = 0.20). As a consequence, the establishment of a multidisciplinary ODC and performance improvement initiative demonstrated improved donation outcomes.
No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · The American surgeon
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased use of thoracic CT (TCT) in diagnosis of blunt traumatic injury has identified many injuries previously undetected on screening chest x-ray (CXR), termed "occult injury". The optimal management of occult rib fractures, pneumothoraces (PTX), hemothoraces (HTX), and pulmonary contusions is uncertain. Our objective was to determine the current management and clinical outcome of these occult blunt thoracic injuries. A retrospective review identified patients with blunt thoracic trauma who underwent both CXR and TCT over a 2-year period at a Level I urban trauma center. Patients with acute rib fractures, PTX, HTX, or pulmonary contusion on TCT were included. Patient groups analyzed included: (1) no injury (normal CXR, normal TCT, n=1337); (2) occult injury (normal CXR, abnormal TCT, n=205); and (3) overt injury (abnormal CXR, abnormal TCT, n=227). Patients with overt injury required significantly more mechanical ventilation and had greater mortality than either occult or no injury patients. Occult and no injury patients had similar ventilator needs and mortality, but occult injury patients remained hospitalized longer. No patient with isolated occult thoracic injury required intubation or tube thoracostomy. Occult injuries, diagnosed by TCT only, have minimal clinical consequences but attract increased hospital resources.
No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · The American surgeon
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deep venous thromboses (DVT) continue to cause significant morbidity in critically ill patients. Standard prophylaxis for high risk patients includes twice-daily dosing with 30 mg enoxaparin. Despite prophylaxis, DVT rates still exceed 10% to 15%. Anti-Xa levels are used to measure the activity of enoxaparin and 12-hour trough levels <or=0.1 IU/mL have been associated with higher rates of DVT in orthopedic patients. We hypothesized that low Anti-Xa levels would be found in critically ill trauma and surgical patients and that low levels would be associated with higher rates of DVT.
All patients on the surgical intensive care unit (ICU) service were prospectively followed. In the absence of contraindications, patients were given prophylactic enoxaparin and anti-Xa levels were drawn after the third dose. Trough levels <or=0.1 IU/mL were considered low. Screening duplex exams were obtained within 48 hours of admission and then weekly. Patients were excluded if they did not receive a duplex, if they had a prior DVT, or if they lacked correctly timed anti-Xa levels. DVT rates and demographic data were compared between patients with low and normal anti-Xa levels.
Data were complete for 54 patients. Eighty-five percent suffered trauma (Injury Severity Score of 25 +/- 12) and 74% were male. Overall, 27 patients (50%) had low anti-Xa levels. Patients with low anti-Xa levels had significantly more DVTs than those with normal levels (37% vs. 11%, p = 0.026), despite similar age, body mass index, Injury Severity Score, creatinine clearance, high risk injuries, and ICU/ventilator days.
Standard dosing of enoxaparin leads to low anti-Xa levels in half of surgical ICU patients. Low levels are associated with a significant increase in the risk of DVT. These data support future studies using adjusted-dose enoxaparin.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2010 · The Journal of trauma
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Twenty-five to 30 per cent of hypotensive trauma patients require an emergent surgery, however, we have no reliable means to quickly determine that need. Our goal was to determine, via retrospective review, parameters available within minutes of arrival that predict the need for emergent surgery to control hemorrhage in hypotensive trauma patients. Inclusion criterion was initial systolic blood pressure (SBP) < 90 mm Hg in the emergency department (ED). Patients who were dead on arrival or underwent ED thoracotomy were excluded. Emergent surgery was defined as sternotomy, thoracotomy, laparotomy, or major neck vascular repair on day of admission. Potential clinical predictors were analyzed in a binary logistic regression model. Six hundred and thirty-nine hypotensive patients were identified and 193 excluded, leaving 446 with a mean age of 33 +/- 19 years and Injury Severity Score of 22 +/- 17. Thirty-two per cent suffered penetrating trauma, 30 per cent needed emergent surgery, and 19 per cent died. Independent predictors were: prolonged extrication (odds ratio (OR) 2.3), no loss of consciousness (OR 2.8), intubation (OR 1.7), central line placement (OR 1.7), and blood transfusion (OR 2.1, all P < 0.05). We concluded that hypotensive trauma patients without head injuries who require prolonged extrication, intubation, central venous access, and blood transfusion in the ED are more likely to need emergent surgery.
No preview · Article · Oct 2009 · The American surgeon
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to identify the utility of thoracic computed tomography (TCT) in blunt trauma patients with a normal admission chest radiograph (CXR). A retrospective study was performed of 200 consecutive blunt trauma patients who received both CXR and TCT. One hundred and forty-three patients had a normal screening CXR; 36 of these patients (25%) had an abnormal TCT. TCT changed the management in only nine of these patients (6%): two required serial CXR for occult pneumothorax, four received additional imaging of the spine, and three were admitted to a monitored bed. Fifty-seven patients had an abnormal initial CXR. Of these, 41 (81%) had an abnormal TCT. TCT changed management in 21 (37%) of these patients: two aortic injuries identified, 12 aortic injuries excluded, two chest tubes placed, one patient taken to the Operating Room, and four patients required further diagnostic evaluation. TCT was significantly more likely to alter management in patients with an abnormal admission CXR (6% vs 37%, P < 0.001). TCT is of limited utility in patients with a normal admission CXR. A diagnostic strategy of obtaining TCT only in patients with abnormal CXR or high-risk mechanism of injury can result in significant cost savings without adversely affecting patient outcomes.
No preview · Article · Oct 2009 · The American surgeon