[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is a clonal myeloproliferative neoplasm whose severity and treatment complexity are attributed to the presence of bone marrow (BM) fibrosis and alterations of stroma impairing the production of normal blood cells. Despite the recently discovered mutations including the JAK2V617F mutation in about half of patients, the primitive event responsible for the clonal proliferation is still unknown. In the highly inflammatory context of PMF, the presence of fibrosis associated with a neoangiogenesis and an osteosclerosis concomitant to the myeloproliferation and to the increase number of circulating hematopoietic progenitors suggests that the crosstalk between hematopoietic and stromal cells is deregulated in the PMF BM microenvironmental niches. Within these niches, mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSC) play a hematopoietic supportive role in the production of growth factors and extracellular matrix which regulate the proliferation, differentiation, adhesion and migration of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. A transcriptome analysis of BM-MSC in PMF patients will help to characterize their molecular alterations and to understand their involvement in the hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell deregulation that features PMF.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Perinatal sources of MSCs have raised growing interest because they are readily and widely available with minimal ethical/legal issues and can easily be stored for allogeneic settings. In addition, perinatal tissues are known to be important in mediating the feto-maternal tolerance of pregnancy, which confer upon perinatal MSCs a particular interest in immunomodulation. It has been recently shown that it is possible to deeply modify the secreted factor profiles of MSCs with different cytokine stimuli such as Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) or Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) to license MSCs for a better immunosuppresive potential. Therefore, we aimed to compare adult BM-MSCs with MSCs from perinatal tissues (cord blood, umbilical cord, amnion and chorion) on their in vitro immunological and stromacytic efficiencies under different priming conditions. Our results showed that perinatal-MSCs had a potential to modulate the in vitro immune response as well as be useful to Hematopoietic Progenitor Cell ex vivo expansion. However, we showed contrasted effects of cytokine priming embedded in an important between-donor variability. In conclusion, our study highlights the importance to elaborate predicitive in vitro tests to screen between-donor variability of perinatal tissues for banking allogeneic standardized MSCs.
No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Stem Cells and Development
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Besides its well-known effect on migration and homing of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), CXCL12 chemokine also exhibits a cell cycle and survival promoting factor for human CD34(+) HSPCs. CXCR4 was suggested to be responsible for CXCL12-induced biological effects until the recent discovery of its second receptor, CXCR7. Until now, the participation of CXCR7 in CXCL12-induced HSPC cycling and survival is unknown. We show here that CXCL12 was capable of binding CXCR7 despite its scarce expression at CD34(+) cell surface. Blocking CXCR7 inhibited CXCL12-induced Akt activation as well as the percentage of CD34(+) cells in cycle, colony formation and survival, demonstrating its participation in CXCL12-induced functional effects in HSPCs. At steady state, CXCR7 and β-arrestin2 co-localized near the plasma membrane of CD34(+) cells. After CXCL12 treatment, β-arrestin2 translocated to the nucleus and this required both CXCR7 and CXCR4. Silencing β-arrestin expression decreased CXCL12-induced Akt activation in CD34(+) cells. Our results demonstrate for the first time the role of CXCR7, complementary to that played by CXCR4, in the control of HSPC cycling, survival and colony formation induced by CXCL12. We also provide evidence for the involvement of β-arrestins as signaling hubs downstream of both receptors CXCL12 receptors in primary human HSPCs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hematopoiesis is orchestrated by interactions between hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) and stromal cells within bone marrow (BM) niches. Side Population (SP) functionality is a major characteristic of HSPCs related to quiescence and resistance to drugs and environmental stresses. At steady state, SP cells are mainly present in the BM and are mostly absent from the circulation except in stress conditions, raising the hypothesis of the versatility of the SP functionality. However, the mechanism of SP phenotype regulation is unclear. Here we show for the first time that the SP functionality can be induced in lin(-) cells from un-mobilized peripheral blood after nesting on mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC). This MSC-induced SP fraction contains HSPCs as demonstrated by their (i) CD34(+) cell percentage, (ii) quiescent status, (iii) in vitro proliferative and clonogenic potential, (iv) engraftment in NSG mice and (v) stemness gene expression profile. We demonstrate that SP phenotype acquisition/reactivation by circulating lin(-) cells is dependent on interactions with MSCs through VLA-4/α4ß1-integrin and CD44. A similar integrin-dependent mechanism of SP phenotype acquisition in acute myeloid leukemia circulating blasts suggests an extrinsic regulation of ABC transporter activity that could be of importance for a better understanding of adhesion-mediated chemo-resistance mechanisms.Leukemia accepted article preview online, 3 September 2013. doi:10.1038/leu.2013.256.
No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The therapeutic management of severe radiation burns remains a challenging issue today. Conventional surgical treatment including excision, skin autograft, or flap often fails to prevent unpredictable and uncontrolled extension of the radiation-induced necrotic process. In a recent very severe accidental radiation burn, we demonstrated the efficiency of a new therapeutic approach combining surgery and local cellular therapy using autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), and we confirmed the crucial place of the dose assessment in this medical management. The patient presented a very significant radiation lesion located on the arm, which was first treated by several surgical procedures: iterative excisions, skin graft, latissimus muscle dorsi flap, and forearm radial flap. This conventional surgical therapy was unfortunately inefficient, leading to the use of an innovative cell therapy strategy. Autologous MSC were obtained from three bone marrow collections and were expanded according to a clinical-grade protocol using platelet-derived growth factors. A total of five local MSC administrations were performed in combination with skin autograft. After iterative local MSC administrations, the clinical evolution was favorable and no recurrence of radiation inflammatory waves occurred during the patient's 8-month follow-up. The benefit of this local cell therapy could be linked to the "drug cell" activity of MSC by modulating the radiation inflammatory processes, as suggested by the decrease in the C-reactive protein level observed after each MSC administration. The success of this combined treatment leads to new prospects in the medical management of severe radiation burns and more widely in the improvement of wound repair.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · Wound Repair and Regeneration
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell cycle regulation plays a fundamental role in stem cell biology. A balance between quiescence and proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells in interaction with the microenvironment is critical for sustaining long-term hematopoiesis and for protection against stress. We analyzed the molecular mechanisms by which stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) exhibited a cell cycle-promoting effect and interacted with transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), which has negative effects on cell cycle orchestration of human hematopoietic CD34(+) progenitor cells. We demonstrated that a low concentration of SDF-1 modulated the expression of key cell cycle regulators such as cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, and TGF-beta target genes, confirming its cell cycle-promoting effect. We showed that a cross-talk between SDF-1- and TGF-beta-related signaling pathways involving phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt phosphorylation participated in the control of CD34(+) cell cycling. We demonstrated a pivotal role of two downstream effectors of the PI3K/Akt pathway, FoxO3a and mammalian target of rapamycin, as connectors in the SDF-1-/TGF-beta-induced control of the cycling/quiescence switch and proposed a model integrating a dialogue between the two molecules in cell cycle progression. Our data shed new light on the signaling pathways involved in SDF-1 cell cycle-promoting activity and suggest that the balance between SDF-1- and TGF-beta-activated pathways is critical for the regulation of hematopoietic progenitor cell cycle status.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteolytic bone lesions are common in patients with multiple myeloma (MM), a clonal plasma cell disorder, and result from increased osteoclastic bone resorption and decreased osteoblastic bone formation. Because mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are committed towards cells of the osteoblast lineage, we compared the in vitro characteristics of MSCs from the bone marrow of 18 MM patients (MM-MSCs) and eight normal donors (ND-MSCs). MM-MSCs displayed deficient growth that could be explained in part by the reduced expression of several growth factor receptors on the surface of MM-MSCs compared with ND-MSCs. Receptor downregulation was observed on RT-PCR analysis. A major finding was an approximately fivefold higher expression of osteoblast inhibitor DKK1 at transcript and protein levels in MM-MSCs than ND-MSCs. These data suggest that defective osteoblast function in patients with advanced MM may be related not only to factors released by tumor myeloma cells but also to MSC abnormalities.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2007 · Leukemia and Lymphoma
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The therapeutic management of severe radiation burns remains a challenging issue. Conventional surgical treatment (excision and skin autograft or rotation flap) often fails to prevent unpredictable and uncontrolled extension of the radiation necrotic process. We report here an innovative therapeutic strategy applied to the victim of a radiation accident (December 15, 2005) with an iridium gammagraphy radioactive source (192Ir, 3.3 TBq). The approach combined numerical dosimetry-guided surgery with cellular therapy using mesenchymal stem cells. A very severe buttock radiation burn (2000 Gy at the center of the skin surface lesion) of a 27-year-old Chilean victim was widely excised (10 cm in diameter) using a physical and anatomical dose reconstruction in order to better define the limit of the surgical excision in apparently healthy tissues. A secondary extension of the radiation necrosis led to a new excision of fibronecrotic tissues associated with a local cellular therapy using autologous expanded mesenchymal stem cells as a source of trophic factors to promote tissue regeneration. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells were expanded according to a clinical-grade technique using closed culture devices and serum-free medium enriched in human platelet lysate. The clinical evolution (radiation pain and healing progression) was favorable and no recurrence of radiation inflammatory waves was observed during the 11 month patient's follow-up. This novel multidisciplinary therapeutic approach combining physical techniques, surgical procedures and cellular therapy with adult stem cells may be of clinical relevance for improving the medical management of severe localized irradiations. It may open new prospects in the field of radiotherapy complications.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2007 · Regenerative Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors (HP) are mainly resident in adult bone marrow (BM). However, their recent revelation in nonhematopoietic tissues implies their circulation through peripheral blood (PB). The intimate mechanisms of this physiological process are not yet understood. Our results showed that steady-state CD34+ HP exhibit a differential phenotypic profile according to their BM versus PB localization. We demonstrated that this phenotype could be modulated by incubation in the presence of their counterpart mononuclear cells (MNC) through cell interactions and cytokine production. Such a modulation mainly concerns migration-mediated cytokine and chemokine receptors as well as some adhesion molecules and partly results from MNC specificity. These phenotypic profiles are associated with distinct cell-cycle position, cloning efficiency, and migration capacity of CD34+ cells from the different anatomical sources. We therefore propose a definition for a circulating versus resident CD34+ cell profile, which mostly depends on their cellular environment. We suggest that blood would represent a supply of cells for which phenotypic and functional characteristics would be a prerequisite for their bio-availability.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2005 · Journal of Leukocyte Biology