- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. A 78 kDa protein (p78) has been partially purified from washed membranes isolated from the corpus of porcine gastric mucosa. The purification was monitored by covalent cross-linking of iodinated [Nle15]-gastrin. 2. A single N-terminal sequence extending for 33 amino acids was obtained from the p78 preparation. Partial sequences totalling 192 amino acids were also obtained from 14 tryptic and 3 Staphylococcal V8 peptides. 3. 10 peptides plus the N-terminal sequence were derived from a previously unsequenced protein which was distantly related to the product of the E. coli fadB gene (Baldwin G. S. (1993) Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 104B, 55-61). The remaining 7 peptides were derived from the beta-subunit of the gastric H+/K(+)-ATPase. 4. The gastrin-binding activity remained in association with p78, and could be separated from the beta-subunit of the gastric H+/K(+)-ATPase, during chromatography on tomato lectin-Sepharose. 5. We conclude that p78 binds gastrin, and is a novel member of the enoyl-CoA hydratase/3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase family of enzymes.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A method has been developed for the rapid separation of the medium-molecular-weight apolipoproteins A-IV, A-I and E by high-performance liquid chromatography. Separations were achieved using a commercially available column of very low hydrophobicity (TSK Phenyl-5PW) in the reversed-phase mode rather than the conventional mode of hydrophobic interaction. Delipidated apolipoproteins were dissolved in 20 mM orthophosphoric acid (pH 2.3), applied to the column which was pre-equilibrated with the same buffer, and eluted with an increasing gradient of acetonitrile. Purified apolipoproteins were identified by a combination of sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, amino acid analysis and N-terminal sequence analysis. In one step the method can be used to separate the major human chylomicron apolipoproteins A-IV, A-I and E, following preliminary removal of apolipoprotein A-II and the C apolipoproteins by size-exclusion chromatography.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have sought to obtain conditions for cyanogen bromide (CNBr) cleavage of apolipoprotein AI which would preserve, as far as possible, the biological activity of the resulting fragments. We found that the choice of solvent is an important consideration since modification of amino acids in different proteins varies with cleavage conditions. Initially, an analytical technique employing reversed-phase (RP)-HPLC which separates the four CNBr fragments in a single chromatographic step was established to monitor the products and extent of cleavage. In developing this technique, spectral data indicated damage to tyrosine and tryptophan residues during CNBr digestion. This problem was resolved by using 70% trifluoroacetic acid instead of 70% formic acid as the solvent, which had the added benefit of increasing the extent of cleavage of the Met86-Ser87 bond by 50%. We applied the information derived from the analytical RP-HPLC method to achieve the preparative isolation of CNBr fragments. This procedure included a gel permeation chromatography step using a citrate/urea buffer before RP-HPLC to isolate pure fragments in volatile buffers. Finally, we discuss aspects of structural integrity with an emphasis on modification of aromatic amino acids and deamidation of asparagine and glutamine residues.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. An iron-binding glycoprotein has been purified to homogeneity from porcine gastric mucosa. 2. The molecular weight (80,000), amino acid composition, carbohydrate content, N-terminal amino acid sequence, tryptic map, stoichiometry of iron binding (2 mol/mol), visible absorption spectrum of the ferric complex and chromatographic behaviour of the gastric protein are all strikingly similar to the corresponding properties of porcine serum transferrin. 3. The quantity of the gastric protein (1.3 mg/g wet weight) present in the gastric mucosa suggests that it is not serum transferrin (plasma concentration 1.8 mg/ml) contaminating the tissue. 4. A role for transferrin in the uptake of dietary iron by the gastrointestinal tract is proposed.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The progesterone receptor form B has been isolated to apparent homogeneity from large scale preparations of laying hen oviduct cytosol. The quantities obtained were sufficient to monitor the separation of tryptic peptides on HPLC columns. Using a multi-dimensional microbore HPLC peptide purification protocol, several peptides were isolated in homogeneous form and sequenced up to 34 steps at the sub-40 pmol level using a gas phase sequenator. One of the peptides showed a striking homology with sequences of the putative steroid binding domain of the human glucocorticoid receptor; this region is also conserved in the human and chick estrogen receptor.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure for recovering subnanomole amounts of protein from SDS/polyacrylamide gel electroeluates in a form suitable for gas-phase sequence analysis has been developed. By a judicious choice of reversed-phase column packing, proteins can be retained at high concentrations of n-propanol (90-100%) where sodium dodecylsulfate and acrylamide gel-related contaminants are washed through the column. Retained proteins can be recovered from the column in high yield (greater than 90%) by the simultaneous adding of an ion-pairing reagent into the mobile phase and elution with a gradient of decreasing n-propanol concentration (i.e. an 'inverse or negative gradient'). Furthermore, by using a steep gradient (e.g. 50%/min) at a low flow rate (20-200 microliters/min) the proteins can be recovered in less than 100 microliters and can be used for gas-phase sequence analysis without further manipulation. This procedure is independent of sodium dodecylsulfate concentration (up to 1.2% w/v) in sample loading volumes of up to 1.5 ml. Microbore columns (2.1 mm internal diameter) have been employed for recovering small amounts of protein (1-100 micrograms from electroeluates of protein-containing gel spots while conventional columns (4.6 mm internal diameter) were used for isolating larger amounts of protein (greater than 500 micrograms) from electroeluates of preparative gel bands. The general utility of this inverse-gradient high-performance liquid chromatography procedure has been demonstrated by its successful application in recovering a wide variety of proteins from sodium dodecylsulfate gel electroeluates in a form suitable for N-terminal sequence analysis in the 10-500 pmol range.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The first six N-terminal amino acid residues of the 85-90K non-estrogen binding component of the calf uterine, molybdate-stabilized estradiol receptor have been determined by Edman degradation. After affinity chromatography of the stabilized receptor oligomer, the 85-90K unit was purified to homogeneity by preparative gel electrophoresis using electroelution for protein recovery. Inverse-gradient high performance liquid chromatography provided the 85-90K protein suitable for amino-terminal sequence analysis.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 75-kDa glycoprotein (P75) has been purified to homogeneity from washed membranes isolated from the corpus of porcine gastric mucosa. The purification procedure employed chromatography on concanavalin A-Sepharose and DEAE-Sepharose, and preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Reversed-phase microbore high-performance liquid chromatography was employed to fractionate and purify a number of tryptic peptides generated from approximately 1100 pmol purified P75. The use of reversed-phase microbore (2.1 mm internal diameter) columns facilitated the purification of subnanomole amounts of polypeptides in small volumes (40-60 microliter) suitable for loading onto the gas-phase sequencer without further concentration. N-Terminal amino acid sequence analyses were performed on the intact polypeptide and on 13 tryptic peptides and one Staphylococcus protease V8 peptide, yielding 170 unique assignments; this corresponds to approximately 26% of the molecule. A comparison of this amino acid sequence information with the cDNA-deduced primary structure of a 70-kDa heat-shock-related protein (P72), which is expressed in normal rat liver reveals that these protein sequences are almost identical, differing in only 1 of the 170 positions positively assigned thus far. The probable correspondence of P72 with the 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) isolated from hamster fibroblasts has been reported.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent advances in protein sequencing technology which have led to the development of the gas phase sequenator (1) now permit protein sequence information to be obtained from as little as 10–50 picomoles of material(2–4). Although a number of high resolution techniques permit the isolation of subnanomole amounts of protein or polypeptide in a pure form (e.g. HPLC(5,6), affinity chromatography(7,8) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis(8–10)), there are serious problems in recovering the sample in a form suitable for gas phase sequence analysis, i.e. in a small volume and free of interfering compounds. The ability to purify and to manipulate minute quantities of protein (e.g. concentrate, reduce and alkylate, desalt, generate fragments, etc.) is crucial to the success in obtaining accurate sequence at subnanomole levels.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidermal growth factor (EGF), first isolated by Cohen(l) in 1962 from adult mouse submaxillary glands, is a single-chain polypeptide of 53 residues with three disulfide bonds(2,3). It is a potent stimulator of cellular proliferation (4,5) and inhibitor of gastric acid secretion(6). Although the chemical and biological properties of EGF have been studied extensively over the past 20 years (for reviews see 7–9) a detailed understanding of its three-dimensional structure is still not known. The lack of success with tertiary structure studies (e.g. X-ray crystallography NMR) may, in part, be attributable to the N-terminal heterogeneity encountered with many EGF preparations; this heterogeneity has been studied in detail for two forms of mouse EGF which differ by a lack of one N-terminal residue(10,11).
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The identification, isolation and aminoterminal sequencing of two S-genotype-associated proteins from style extracts of Lycopersicon peruvianum Mill. is reported. There is a high level of homology between these two sequences and with the amino-terminal sequences of other S-allele-associated glycoproteins isolated from Nicotiana alata Link et Otto. These sequences were obtained by a new high-sensitivity method of selected twodimensional gel analysis followed by electroelution and purification of proteins by inverse-gradient high-performance liquid chromatography before sequencing.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The complete amino acid sequence of the plastocyanin from the green alga Enteromorpha prolifera has been determined by Edman degradation of the intact molecule and fragments produced by enzymatic cleavage of the polypeptide chain with chymotrypsin, Staphylococcus aureus protease, proline-specific endopeptidase, Lys-C endopeptidase and trypsin. The molecule consists of 98 amino acid residues with a calculated relative molecular mass of 10103. The amino acid sequence of E. prolifera plastocyanin shows a high degree of homology with those plastocyanins from other algae and higher plants. In particular, the four residues which are copper ligands in other plastocyanins and in the bacterial electron transport protein azurin (two histidines, one cysteine and one methionine) are conserved. Five out of the six acidic amino acid side-chains which create an 'acidic patch' on the surface of plastocyanin from Populus nigra var. italica [Colman, P. M. et al. (1978) Nature (Lond.) 272, 319-324] are conserved in the amino acid sequence of E. prolifera plastocyanin.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The complete amino acid sequence of the plastocyanin from the green alga Enteromorpha prolifera has been determined by Edman degradation of the intact molecule and fragments produced by enzymatic cleavage of the polypeptide chain with chymotrypsin, Staphylococcus aureus protease, proline-specific endopeptidase, Lys-C endopeptidase and trypsin. The molecule consists of 98 amino acid residues with a calculated relative molecular mass of 10103. The amino acid sequence of E. prolifera plastocyanin shows a high degree of homology with those plastocyanins from other algae and higher plants. In particular, the four residues which are copper ligands in other plastocyanins and in the bacterial electron transport protein azurin (two histidines, one cysteine and one methionine) are conserved. Five out of the six acidic amino acid side-chains which create an ‘acidic patch’ on the surface of plastocyanin from Populus nigra var. italica [Colman, P. M. et al. (1978) Nature (Lond.) 272, 319–324] are conserved in the amino acid sequence of E. prolifera plastocyanin.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Self-incompatibility in flowering plants is controlled by the S gene. A complementary DNA clone encoding a style protein of Nicotiana alata which segregates with the S2 allele has now been sequenced. The S-allele-associated style components in different genotypes of N. alata and in Lycopersicon peruvianum, another self-incompatible species in the family Solanaceae, are homologous.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A procedure for the purification of subnanomole levels of polypeptides has been developed. Reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography on short (10 cm or less) microbore (1-2 mm internal diameter) columns has been used to fractionate and purify a number of tryptic peptides generated from approximately 600 pmol of purified murine plasma cell antigen PC-1, a major membrane glycoprotein on all cells secreting immunoglobulins. The use of reversed-phase microbore columns permits the recovery of subnanomole amounts of polypeptides from large volumes in high yield (greater than 90%) and in small eluent volumes (40-60 microL) which can be loaded directly onto the gas-phase sequencer without further concentration. This procedure avoids the severe sample loss which frequently occurs with other concentration procedures such as lyophilization and evaporation. The use of a photodiode-array detector for identifying tryptophan-containing peptides from on-the-fly, ultraviolet spectra is described. This procedure permits the selection of tryptophan-containing peptides from complex tryptic digests for use as candidate peptides for oligonucleotide probe construction. Automated Edman degradation was performed on seven tryptic peptides, yielding 110 unique assignments; this corresponds to approximately 11% of the molecule.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The characteristic zero- and second-order derivative spectra of phenylalanine, tyrosine and trytophan are described and used to identify aromatic residues contained in sub-microgram amounts of polypeptides and proteins during their elution from reversed-phase short microbore columns under gradient conditions. Spectral data were acquired with a commercially available scanning diode array detector. The method allows the non-destructive identification of tryptophan residues in complex polypeptide mixtures such as tryptic maps and enables the selection and isolation of such peptides for amino acid sequence analysis. The sub-microgram level of sensitivity is due to the small peak volumes and cosequent elevated solute concentrations obtained on short (< 10 cm), microbore (2 mm I.D.) reversed-phase columns.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidermal growth factor (EGF) isolated from the submaxillary gland of the rat (rEGF) is missing the COOH-terminal five residues present in both mouse and human EGF. rEGF competes for the binding of 125I-labelled mEGF to human carcinoma cells with the same affinity as mEGF. rEGF and mEGF have identical mitogenic activities on mouse 3T3 fibroblasts, thus the C-terminal region of the sequence is not necessary for the in vitro activity of EGF. Using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, four molecular forms of EGF have been extracted from rat submaxillary glands. These forms represent rEGF, rEGF(2-48), rEGF(3-48) and rEGF(4-48); all forms appear to be equipotent in both the receptor binding and mitogenic assays. The isoelectric points of these rEGFs are in the range of pH 5.1 to 5.2. The primary structure of rEGF was determined from approximately 10 micrograms protein by sequence analysis of the intact molecule and fragments obtained from the reduced and alkylated protein by chemical cleavage with CNBr and enzymic cleavage with chymotrypsin and a proline-specific endopeptidase. Subnanomole amounts of generated peptides were purified to homogeneity by reversed-phase microbore high-performance liquid chromatography and analysed by automated Edman degradation in a gas-phase sequencer. There are 48 amino acid residues in the complete polypeptide chain which lacks alanine, phenylalanine, lysine and tryptophan. The amino acid sequence of rat epidermal growth factor is: Asn-Ser-Asn-Thr-Gly-Cys-Pro-Pro-Ser-Tyr-Asp-Gly-Tyr-Cys-Leu-Asn- Gly-Gly-Val-Cys-Met-Tyr-Val-Glu-Ser-Val-Asp-Arg-Tyr-Val-Cys-Asn-Cys -Val-Ile-Gly-Tyr-Ile-Gly-Glu-Arg-Cys-Gln-His-Arg-Asp-Leu-Arg. The calculated relative molecular mass from the sequence analysis is 5377.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe herein the use of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with the novel application of short (10 cm or less) microbore columns (2 mm internal diameter) to fractionate and purify a number of tryptic peptides generated from approximately 200 pmol purified murine transferrin receptor. The use of reversed-phase microbore columns permits the recovery of submicrogram amounts of purified polypeptides in high yield (greater than 90%) in small eluent volumes (20-60 microliter). In this manner, purified polypeptides can be loaded directly onto the gas-phase sequencer without further manipulation. This procedure avoids sample loss, which frequently occurs with other forms of concentration (e.g. lyophilization, evaporation). The application of second-order-derivative ultraviolet spectroscopy, using a diode array detector, for the analysis of aromatic aminoacid-containing peptides in complex tryptic digests is described. N-terminal amino acid sequence analyses were performed on six tryptic peptides, yielding 105 unique assignments; this corresponds to approximately 14% of the molecule. A comparison of this amino acid sequence information with the primary structure of human transferrin receptor deduced from the mRNA sequence [Nature (Lond.) 311, 675-678 (1984); Cell 39, 267-274 (1984)] reveals, with the exception of one tryptic peptide, a very close sequence homology between the murine and human transferrin receptors.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The murine plasma cell alloantigen PC-1 is selectively expressed on B lymphocytes in their terminal phase of differentiation into antibody-secreting cells. Previous work on an analytical scale has shown that PC-1 consists of two apparently identical disulfide-bonded polypeptides, each of Mr 115,000. In this paper, we describe the generation of a monoclonal antibody to PC-1 and its use in the preparative isolation of PC-1 by affinity chromatography. Final purification to apparent homogeneity was achieved by preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. It was estimated that NS-1 myeloma cells possess 1 to 4 X 10(5) PC-1 monomers per cell on their surface. The yield of PC-1 after purification was approximately 10(5) monomers per cell. Purified PC-1 was digested with trypsin, and the resulting peptides were separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Purified peptides were sequenced with a gas-phase sequencer.
Royal Melbourne Hospital
Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
- Department of Radiology
The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research
Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
- Division of Infection and Immunity
St. Vincent's Hospital MelbourneMelbourne, Victoria, Australia
University of Otago
Taieri, Otago Region, New Zealand
- Department of Biochemistry