Yuichi Kitasako

Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (72)113.85 Total impact

  • Y Kitasako · A Sadr · M F Burrow · J Tagami
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The aim of this randomized controlled study was to evaluate the clinical performance of a highly-filled flowable composite compared to a conventional paste-type composite in direct posterior restorations after 36 months. Methods: A total of 58 mid-size to extensive posterior composite restorations were randomly placed in 32 patients, mean age of 43.9 years (range 25-76), using either a conventional composite Estelite Sigma Quick (Conventional) or a highly-filled flowable composite G-aenial Universal Flo with a 2-step self-etch adhesive. The restorations were evaluated after placement (baseline) and at 6, 12, 24 and 36 months according to the FDI criteria. Results: At the 36-month follow-up, 42 restorations were evaluated in 21 patients. After 36 months, the difference between heavily-filled flowable and conventional restorations was not statistically significant with respect to all evaluation parameters (p<0.05). No secondary caries was observed. Conclusion: The highly filled flowable composite showed a comparable clinical effectiveness as the conventional paste composite in posterior restorations over 36-months. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Australian Dental Journal
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    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Dentistry
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To evaluate the influence of brushing using toothpastes marketed under different categories on abrasion of sound and eroded enamel in vitro at nanometer scale using a white light interferometer (WLI). Methods: Enamel surface of resin-embedded bovine incisors were fine polished with diamond slurry and divided into testing area (approximately 2 mm x 4 mm) and reference area using a nail varnish. The enamel specimens were randomly assigned to 10 groups (n=10 each); six of which were subjected to erosive challenge. The testing area in these eroded groups was exposed to 10 ml of Coca-Cola for 90 seconds and then rinsed for 10 seconds in deionized water (DW). Enamel specimens, except for those in one eroded group, were brushed by an automatic brushing machine with 120 linear motion strokes in 60 seconds under load of 250 g with/without toothpaste slurry. After the toothbrushing abrasion, each specimen was rinsed for 10 seconds with DW followed by immersion in artificial saliva for 2 hours. Toothpaste slurries were prepared containing one of the four toothpastes used and DW in a ratio of 1:2. The erosion-abrasion cycle was repeated three times. Then, the nail varnish was removed and enamel surface loss (SL) was measured by the WLI. Data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's correction at significance level of 0.05. Results: For eroded specimens, the mean SL values of groups not brushed and brushed with no toothpaste were not significantly different, but were significantly lower than those of whitening, anti-erosion and anti-caries toothpaste groups (P < 0.001). The whitening toothpaste group showed significantly higher SL than all other groups (P < 0.001). For sound enamel specimens, SL was not measured except for the whitening toothpaste group.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · American journal of dentistry
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to assess swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) for in vitro and in vivo detection of enamel white spot lesion (WSL). WSLs without surface breakdown on 33 extracted human posterior teeth were non-invasively scanned using SSOCT. The teeth were then cross-sectioned and imaged under confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and light microscopy (LM). SS-OCT cross-sectional images were compared with CLSM and LM. WSL shapes in SS-OCT images closely corresponded to those of LM. There were significant correlations (p<0.001) in WSLs depth between SS-OCT and LM (r=0.92), SS-OCT and CLSM (r=0.80) and CLSM and LM (r=0.85). Six WSLs were also evaluated clinically using SS-OCT; clear in-depth images of these natural WSLs were obtained in vivo. SS-OCT appears to be an effective tool for observation of the internal structure of WSLs, enabling quantitative assessment of WSL depth. Such data can be considered in the clinical management of WSLs.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Dental Materials Journal
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the age-specific prevalence of erosive tooth wear in Japanese adults. The study sample consisted of a total of 1,108 adults aged 15 to 89 yrs in Tokyo, Japan. The subjects were asked to complete a self-administered nutrition-related questionnaire. Two examiners evaluated tooth wear in a full-mouth recording, using a modified tooth wear index developed based on the Smith and Knight Tooth Wear index. Subjects who had frequent acid consumption or gastric reflux and at least one tooth with an initial enamel smooth surface wear were placed in an erosive wear positive group, and the rest of subjects were placed in the erosive wear negative group. The median (IQR) prevalence of erosion was 19.1 (1.8) at enamel level and 6.5 (3.7) with dentin exposure. There were statistical differences in prevalence of erosive wear among different age groups (p<0.05). Dietary habits found to be frequent in erosive wear positive group included acidic juices for younger subjects (15-39 yrs), and acidic fruits for older subjects (60-89 yrs). The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux and eating disorder was 3.5%. A severe loss of dental tissue was observed on labial and incisal surfaces of anterior teeth in the erosive wear positive group. In the studied sample of Japanese adults, 26.1% had signs of erosive wear. Clinical significance: Erosive wear, in combination with abrasion and attrition, results in severe loss of tooth tissue. Frequent consumption of acidic fruits and drinks was significantly associated with erosive tooth wear at different age groups. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Journal of Dentistry
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    Yuichi Kitasako

    Preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Annals of Japan Prosthodontic Society
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives The objectives of this study were to clarify the prevalence of dental erosion in the deciduous dentition of child patients, and to identify dietary habits and other factors related to dental erosion. Methods A total of 116 weaned child patients (67 boys, 49 girls) aged 2–6 years who attended the outpatient pediatric dental clinic of a university hospital for treatment or a periodic checkup were included in the study. A questionnaire survey of the patients' dietary habits and a clinical examination were performed. Dentition was divided into four areas, and responses to erosion-related questions were evaluated for each area using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results The prevalence of subjects with erosion, including pre-erosion lesions without tooth surface defects, was 86%; the prevalence of advanced erosion accompanied by tooth surface defects was 34%. Some food- and drink-related items were found to be significantly associated with erosion of the maxillary anterior teeth but not the mandibular teeth. Medication, use of fluoride, and past dental or medical history did not have any significant effect on erosion in any of the four areas. Conclusions The occurrence of dental erosion in deciduous dentition and factors related to its appearance were clarified for each area. An epidemiological survey is required to further reveal the state of deciduous dental erosion in Japanese children and to investigate the necessity of, and, if necessary, establish relevant guidelines for the prevention of dental erosion.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Pediatric Dental Journal
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate effectiveness of Phosphoryl-Oligosaccharides of Calcium (POs-Ca) added to apple juice on enamel erosion. Five juices were prepared by adding 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% or 2% POs-Ca to commercial apple juice, and subjected to Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) taste evaluation and pH and calcium/inorganic-phosphates analyses. To evaluate erosion, polished bovine enamel blocks were immersed in each juice for 5 or 60 min (n=20). Enamel surface loss (SL) and roughness (Ra) were also analyzed. VAS indicated acceptable taste for juices containing up to 1% POs-Ca. POs-Ca addition resulted in increased pH (3.61-3.88), calcium (0.95-25.10 mM), and inorganic-phosphate (1.77-20.44 mM). After 5 min, 0% juice resulted in significant erosion (p<0.05). However even after 60 min, no significant increase was found in Ra and SL compared to water (control) for 1.5-2% juices (p>0.05). Addition of 1-1.5% POs-Ca could significantly reduce enamel erosion by apple juice maintaining an acceptable taste.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Dental Materials Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a potential clinical tool for enamel lesion monitoring. Swept-source OCT findings were compared with cross-sectional nanohardness findings of enamel. Subsurface bovine enamel lesions in three groups were subjected to (1) deionized water (control), (2) phosphoryl oligosaccharide of calcium (POs-Ca) or (3) POs-Ca with 1 ppm fluoride for 14 days. B-scans images were obtained at 1310-nm center wavelength on sound, demineralized and remineralized areas after 4, 7, and 14 days. The specimens were processed for cross-sectional nanoindentation. Reflectivity from enamel that had increased with demineralization decreased with remineralization. An OCT attenuation coefficient parameter (μt), derived based on the Beer-Lambert law as a function of backscatter signal slope, showed a strong linear regression with integrated nanohardness of all regions (p<0.001, r=-0.97). Sound enamel showed the smallest, while demineralized enamel showed the highest μt. In group three, μt was significantly lower at four days than baseline, but remained constant afterwards. In group two, the changes were rather gradual. There was no significant difference between groups two and three at 14 days in nanohardness or μt POs-Ca with fluoride-enhanced nanohardness of the superficial zone. OCT signal attenuation demonstrated a capability for monitoring changes of enamel lesions during remineralization.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Journal of Biomedical Optics
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    ABSTRACT: Early detection, monitoring and remineralization repair of enamel lesions are top research priorities in the modern dentistry focusing on minimal intervention concept for caries management. We investigate the use of swept-source optical coherence tomography system (SS-OCT) without polarization-sensing at 1319 nm wavelength developed for clinical dentistry (Dental OCT System Prototype 2, Panasonic Healthcare Co., Ltd., Japan) in quantitative assessment of artificial enamel lesions and their remineralization. Bovine enamel blocks were subjected to demineralization to create subsurface lesions approximately 130 μm in depth over 2 weeks, and subjected to remineralization in solution containing bioavailable calcium and 1ppm fluoride at pH 6.5 for 2 weeks. Cross-sectional images of sound, demineralized and remineralized specimens were captured under hydrated conditions by the OCT. Finally, the specimens were cut into sections for nanoindentation to measure hardness through the lesion under 2mN load. Reflectivity had increased with demineralization. OCT images of lesions showed a boundary closely suggesting the lesion depth that gradually progressed with demineralization time. After remineralization, the boundary depth gradually decreased and nanoindentation showed over 60% average hardness recovery rate. A significant negative correlation was found between the slope power-law regression as a measure of attenuation and overall nanohardness for a range of data covering sound, demineralized and remineralized areas. In conclusion, OCT could provide clear images of early enamel lesion extent and signal attenuation could indicate its severity and recovery. Clinical data of natural lesions obtained using Dental OCT and analyzed by this approach will also be presented. Study supported by GCOE IRCMSTBD and NCGG.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Mar 2013
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    ABSTRACT: A low pH environment is created by cariogenic bacteria. This study was aimed to measure pH of carious lesions intraorally using a micro-pH sensor, and assess predominant acid-producing cariogens by qPCR to differentiate caries activities. 103 dentine lesions classified as active or arrested caries based on the clinical and radiological examinations were collected from patients after intraoral measurement of the lesion surface pH using a micro-pH sensor. Quantitative detection of genomic DNA copies of target cariogenic bacteria (mutans streptococci and Lactobacillus spp.) in each lesion was performed using real-time PCR. Correlation between the pH ranges and the number of bacterial species was examined by Spearman test. 50 samples were diagnosed as active and 53 as arrested lesions. Statistically significant difference was observed on average surface pH value between active and arrested lesions (p<0.05). Prevalence of Lactobacillus spp. was higher in active lesions than in arrested lesions (76% vs. 58% of samples, respectively). When the carious lesions were categorised into four different pH ranges (up to 5.5, from 5.6 to 5.8, from 5.9 to 6.1 and 6.2 or above), increased prevalence of Lactobacillus spp. was observed with decrease of pH levels. A significant negative relationship was found between pH value and number of Lactobacillus spp. (r=-0.209, p<0.05) but no such correlation was found for mutans streptococci. Intraoral pH measurement might be clinically useful to determine acidity of the local environment of carious lesions as one aspect of the caries activity assessment. The population of certain bacteria may indicate activity of carious lesions. Intraoral pH measurement of the carious lesions using a micro-pH sensor may be a clinically feasible method for assessment of lesion acidity.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Journal of dentistry
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    Y Kitasako · A Sadr · H Hamba · M Ikeda · J Tagami
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of chewing gum containing phosphoryl oligosaccharides of calcium (POs-Ca) and a low concentration of fluoride (F) on the hardness of enamel subsurface lesions, utilizing a double-blind, randomized, and controlled in situ model. Fifteen individuals wore removable lingual appliances with 3 bovine-enamel insets containing subsurface demineralized lesions. Three times a day for 14 days, they chewed one of the 3 chewing gums (placebo, POs-Ca, POs-Ca+F). After the treatment period, cross-sectional mineral content, nanoindentation hardness, and fluoride ion mapping by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) were evaluated. Although there were no statistical differences in overall mineral content and hardness recovery rates between POs-Ca and POs-Ca+F subsurface lesions (p > 0.05), nanoindentation at 1-μm distance increments from the surface showed statistical differences in hardness recovery rate between POs-Ca and POs-Ca+F in the superficial 20-μm region (p < 0.05). Fluoride mapping revealed distribution of the ion up to 20 μm from the surface in the POs-Ca+F group. Nanoindentation and TOF-SIMS results highlighted the benefits of bioavailability of fluoride ion on reinforcement of the superficial zone of subsurface lesions in situ (NCT01377493).
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Journal of dental research
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    ABSTRACT: Manufacturers are adding fluoride (F) to calcium-containing chewing gums to further promote enamel remineralization. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a chewing gum containing phosphoryl oligosaccharides of calcium (POs-Ca) and fluoride on remineralization of enamel subsurface lesions, in a double-blind, randomized controlled in situ trial. Thirty-six volunteer subjects wore removable buccal appliances with three different insets of bovine enamel with subsurface demineralized lesions. For 14 days the subjects chewed one of the three chewing gums (placebo, POs-Ca, POs-Ca+F), three times a day. After each treatment period, the insets were removed from the appliance, embedded, sectioned, polished and then subjected to laboratory tests; mineral level was determined by transverse microradiography (TMR; n=36), and hydroxyapatite (HAp) crystallites were assessed by synchrotron radiation wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXRD; n=13). Data were analysed by t-test or Wilcoxon rank-sum test with Bonferroni corrections at 0.05 significance level. Chewing POs-Ca and POs-Ca+F gums resulted in 21.9±10.6 and 26.3±9.4 (mean±SD) percentage mineral recovery, which was significantly higher than that of placebo gum (15.0±11.4) (p<0.05). Chewing POs-Ca+F gum resulted in 24.9±5.4 (mean±SD) percentage HAp crystallites recovery, which was significantly higher compared to POs-Ca (16.0±4.1%) or placebo (11.1±4.8%) gums (p<0.05). Addition of POs-Ca to the chewing gum resulted in significant remineralization of enamel subsurface lesions. Although POs-Ca+F gum was not superior in TMR recovery rate when compared with POs-Ca gum, WAXRD results highlighted the importance of fluoride ion bioavailability in the formation of HAp crystallites in enamel subsurface lesions in situ (NCT01377493).
    No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Journal of dentistry
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to assess dentin bond durability of 4-META/MMA-TBB resin cement over ten years, by evaluating the tensile bond strength, and SEM and TEM observations. Tensile bond strength of Super Bond C&B (SB) to bovine dentin was evaluated at 1 day and after 10 years. The mode of failure after debonding was observed by SEM. Interfacial ultrastructure and nanoleakage was observed by TEM at the baseline and after 10 y. The tensile bond strength significantly dropped after 10 y. The failure pattern shifted from cohesive failure in resin towards adhesive failure or cohesive failure in dentin. TEM observation revealed degradation of both resin and collagen networks within the hybrid layer and nanoleakage at the base of the hybrid layer after 10 y. The bond strength of SB to dentin significantly decreased, and the hybrid layer degraded, while the overlying hydrophobic resin layer showed little disintegration over 10 y.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2011 · Dental Materials Journal
  • Mie Fujii · Yuichi Kitasako · Alireza Sadr · Junji Tagami
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate enamel surface roughness (Ra) and pH before and after erosion by soft drinks. Enamel was exposed to a soft drink (cola, orange juice or green tea) for 1, 5 or 60 min; Ra was measured using contact-stylus surface profilometry (SSP) and non-contact focus variation 3D microscope (FVM). Surface pH was measured using a micro pH sensor. Data were analyzed at significance level of alpha=0.05. There was a significant correlation in Ra between SSP and FVM. FVM images showed no changes in the surface morphology after various periods of exposure to green tea. Unlike cola and orange juice, exposure to green tea did not significantly affect Ra or pH. A significant correlation was observed between surface pH and Ra change after exposure to the drinks. Optical surface analysis and micro pH sensor may be useful tools for non-damaging, quantitative assessment of soft drinks erosion on enamel.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Dental Materials Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The aims of this study were development and evaluation of a low erosive apple juice with Phosphoryl-Oligosaccharides of Calcium (POs-Ca). POs-Ca is produced by enzymatic digestion of potato starch and has been compounded into a chewing gum (POs-Ca, Ezaki Glico Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan). Methods: 5 juices were prepared by adding 0% (control), 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% or 2% POs-Ca to apple juice. Each juice was evaluated for taste, pH value, chemical composition with respect to calcium/inorganic-phosphates, and effectiveness against enamel erosion. Drink taste was rated using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) by a taste panel of 30 volunteers that provided informed consent. To evaluate erosion, polished bovine enamel blocks were immersed in each juice for 5min or 60min (n=5). Then, surface characteristics/morphological changes and surface roughness (Ra) of enamel were evaluated by focus variation 3D scanning microscopy (InfiniteFocus1 G4, Alicona Imaging, Grambach/Graz, Austria). Ra was analyzed by two-way ANOVA and t-test with Bonferroni correction. Results: VAS indicated acceptable taste for juices containing up to 1% POs-Ca. The drinks showed pH of 3.5-3.8, calcium concentration of 1.0-25.1mM, and inorganic-phosphate concentration of 1.8-20.4mM. Erosive challenges with 1%-2% POs-Ca juices for 5min, or with 1.5%-2% POs-Ca juices for 60min resulted in only slight changes in enamel surface, so that the prismatic appearance of enamel was visible with no damage. After 5min, there were statistical differences in Ra between 0% POs-Ca juice (35.53.6nm) and 1%, 1.5% and 2% POs-Ca juices (13.44.1nm, 9.12.0nm and 8.81.9nm, respectively) (p<0.05). Likewise, after 60min, statistical differences existed between 0% POs-Ca juice (78.717.9nm) and 1%, 1.5% and 2% POs-Ca juices (27.66.0nm, 19.83.1nm and 15.42.3nm, respectively) (p<0.05). Conclusions: Addition of 1% to 1.5% POs-Ca to apple juice could significantly reduce enamel erosion resulting from immersion in the drink, while maintaining an acceptable taste. Supported by GCOE, IRCMSTBD at TMDU.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Mar 2011
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    F Hayati · A Okada · Y Kitasako · J Tagami · K Matin
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to establish a new in vitro model for biofilm induced secondary caries studies using an oral biofilm reactor. An approximately 2 × 3 × 2 mm(3) sized dentino-enamel Class I cavity was prepared in the middle of a square-shaped specimen from the mid-labial portion of bovine incisors. The cavities were partially filled with either Clearfil AP-X with SE-Bond or Clearfil AP-X without any bond. Artificial biofilms were then formed on the resin composite filled surfaces using three species of oral bacteria in an oral biofilm reactor for 20 hours followed by 7- or 30-day incubation periods. The lesions were clearly visible on fluorescence microscopy and by scanning electron microscopy in the enamel at the interface of resin restorations in all samples. The data from image analysis showed that the lesion size was largest in the No-bond samples with statistically significant differences (p < 0.05). Demineralization along the cavity wall extended deeper in No-bond compared to SE-Bond samples and penetration was significantly deeper in No-bond 30-day samples. A primary artificial secondary caries model was established using biofilms for in vitro studies and the significance of using a bonding system could also be verified.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Australian Dental Journal
  • Yuichi Kitasako · Alireza Sadr · Toru Nikaido · Junji Tagami
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    ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were to clarify which steps in approximal restorative procedure were difficult for the final-year undergraduate students at Tokyo Medical and Dental University, and to examine the relationship between perception of difficulty and clinical experience. At mid-term of the clinical education experience, a self-questionnaire was performed by final-year undergraduate students to clarify the difficulty of restorative procedures at the time. There were statistically significant differences in the number of clinical cases experienced at the time between students who designated the matrix application, shade selection and finishing as the easy steps and those who considered them as the difficult ones (Fisher exact test with Bonferroni correction, p < 0.05). There was a significant difference in the total number of procedures designated as difficult between students who had treated above 15 cases and those who had fewer than 15 cases (Wilcoxon rank-sum test, p< 0.05). In the final-year clinical education for operative dentistry, students might need to treat over 15 cases to gain confidence in performing approximal composite restorations independently.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Journal of medical and dental sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Although 4-META/MMA-TBB resin cement (Super Bond C&B, Sun Medical Co., Moriyama, Japan) has not changed in composition and has widely used in clinical practice for more than 10 y, there is no report of the laboratory bond durability and morphological degradation of hybrid layer over a long period of time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate dentin bond durability of a Super Bond C&B (SB) to extracted bovine dentin over 10 y. After the tensile bond test, the degradation of the bonded interface between resin cement and dentin was also evaluated using SEM and TEM. Methods: Ten bovine dentin specimens were tested for tensile bond strengths with SB at 1 d and 10 y. The mean bond strengths were compared statistically with the students t-test (p<0.05). The mode of failure after debonding was observed by SEM. The debonded specimen having only cohesive failure within the resin cement and partial adhesive failure was also used for TEM observation of the interfacial ultrastructure of the bond durability after 10 y. Results: The specimen stored in water for 10 y was significantly lower than 1 d in bond strength (p<0.01). At 1 d, 56 % of failures exhibited that cohesive failure within the resin cement only and partial adhesive failure, while, 69 % of the 10 y results exhibited that adhesive failure or cohesive failure in dentin. TEM observation revealed fracture occurred between SB and the hybrid layer or within the hybrid layer at 10 y, while failure only occurred within SB at 1 d. Conclusions: The bond strength of SB to dentin significantly decreased after 10 y, and the failure patterns of SB showed a marked change over 10 y. This study was supported by the GCOE Program at TMDU.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Jul 2010
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    ABSTRACT: Means of objectively assessing white spot enamel lesions (WSEL) are critical for determining their potential activity and monitoring the success of preventive treatments. The aim of this study was to determine whether surface pH measurements of WSEL changed during a preventive course of care designed to remineralize the lesions. Eight healthy subjects (1 male and 7 females) with at least one WSEL were recruited (19-64 years). Each subject was placed on a preventive treatment program including the daily application of a CPP-ACP paste (MI paste, GC Corp., Japan) with custom fitted trays for more than 6 months. The surface pH values of sound enamel and WSEL were monitored for up to 2 years using a micro-pH sensor. The visual appearance of the WSEL was monitored via digital photography, and images were analyzed qualitatively on a 5-point scale to assess the success of the remineralization preventive program. The relationship between the qualitative assessment of WSEL appearance and the WSEL pH was investigated using a Spearman's rho non-parametric correlation. The surface pH of the WSEL was different to that of the sound enamel surrounding it in all patients at all times. All lesions showed visual improvement as the treatment period progressed. The pH of the WSEL increased towards that of sound enamel over the course of treatment significantly correlating with the visual improvement of the lesion (rho=0.63, p<0.0001). The clinical assessment of WSEL surface pH changes with time may have utility as an additional objective measure for the assessment of WSEL activity.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2010 · Journal of dentistry

Publication Stats

1k Citations
113.85 Total Impact Points


  • 1998-2015
    • Tokyo Medical and Dental University
      • • Department of Restorative Sciences
      • • Division of Oral Health Sciences
      • • Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences
      • • Department of Operative Dentistry
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2008-2009
    • University of Melbourne
      • Melbourne Dental School
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia