[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SiRNA silencing approach has long been used as a method to regulate the expression of specific target gene in vitro and in vivo. However, the effectiveness of delivery and the nonspecific immune stimulatory function of siRNA are the limiting factors for therapeutic application of siRNAs. To overcome these limitations, we developed self-assembled micelle inhibitory RNA (SAMiRNA) nanoparticles made of individually bi-conjugated siRNAs with hydrophilic polymer and lipid on their ends and characterized their stability, immune stimulatory function and in vivo silencing efficacy. SAMiRNAs form very stable nanoparticles with no significant degradation in the size distribution and polydispersity index over 1 year. Overnight incubation of SAMiRNAs (3μM) on murine PBMCs did not cause any significant elaboration of innate immune cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-12 or IL-6, while unmodified siRNAs or liposome or liposome complex significantly stimulated the expression of these cytokines. Lastly, in vivo silencing efficacy of SAMiRNAs was evaluated by targeting amphiregulin (AR) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in bleomycin or TGF-β transgenic (Tg) animal models of pulmonary fibrosis. Only two or three times of intratracheal (i.t.) or intravenous (i.v.) delivery of AR or CTGF SAMiRNAs significantly reduced the bleomycin- or TGF-β -stimulated collagen accumulation in the lung and substantially restored the lung function of TGF-β Tg mice. These studies demonstrated that SAMiRNA nanoparticles as a less-toxic, stable siRNA silencing platform for efficient in vivo targeting of genes implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis.
Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to examine whether the intestine gastrointestinal (GI) digests of abalone [Haliotis discus hannai (H. discus hannai)] modulate inflammatory responses and to elucidate the mechanisms involved. The GI digests of the abalone intestines were fractionated into fractions I (>10 kDa), II (5-10 kDa) and III (<5 kDa). Of the abalone intestine GI digests (AIGIDs), fraction III inhibited the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction in mice. Subsequently, a bioactive peptide [abalone intestine GI digest peptide (AIGIDP)] isolated from fraction III was determined to be 1175.2 Da, and the amino acid sequence was found to be PFNQGTFAS. We noted that the purified nonameric peptide (AIGIDP) attenuated the phorbol 12 myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-induced histamine release and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in human mast cells (HMC-1 cells). In addition, we also noted that AIGIDP inhibited the PMACI induced activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) by suppressing IκBα phosphorylation and that it suppressed the production of cytokines by decreasing the phosphorylation of JNK. The findings of our study indicate that AIGIDP exerts a modulatory, anti-allergic effect on mast cell-mediated inflammatory diseases.
No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · International Journal of Molecular Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) comprises a group of inherited disorders caused by mutations that alter the function of lysosome-related organelles. Pulmonary fibrosis is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with subtypes HPS-1 and HPS-4, which both result from defects in biogenesis of lysosome-related organelle complex 3 (BLOC-3). The prototypic chitinase-like protein chitinase 3-like-1 (CHI3L1) plays a protective role in the lung by ameliorating cell death and stimulating fibroproliferative repair. Here, we demonstrated that circulating CHI3L1 levels are higher in HPS patients with pulmonary fibrosis compared with those who remain fibrosis free, and that these levels associate with disease severity. Using murine HPS models, we also determined that these animals have a defect in the ability of CHI3L1 to inhibit epithelial apoptosis but exhibit exaggerated CHI3L1-driven fibroproliferation, which together promote HPS fibrosis. These divergent responses resulted from differences in the trafficking and effector functions of two CHI3L1 receptors. Specifically, the enhanced sensitivity to apoptosis was due to abnormal localization of IL-13Rα2 as a consequence of dysfunctional BLOC-3-dependent membrane trafficking. In contrast, the fibrosis was due to interactions between CHI3L1 and the receptor CRTH2, which trafficked normally in BLOC-3 mutant HPS. These data demonstrate that CHI3L1-dependent pathways exacerbate pulmonary fibrosis and suggest CHI3L1 as a potential biomarker for pulmonary fibrosis progression and severity in HPS.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · The Journal of clinical investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) can lead to the pathological causes of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Hypoxia induces oxidative damage in retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE cells). In this study, we investigated the capacity of 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) to reduce the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) under hypoxic conditions, as well as the molecular mechanisms involved. Human RPE cells (ARPE-19 cells) were treated with cobalt chloride (CoCl2, 200 µM) and/or DIM (10 and 20 µM). The production of VEGF was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The translocation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) was determined by western blot analysis. The binding activity of HIF-1α and NF-κB was analyzed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The phosphorylation levels of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were measured by western blot analysis. The levels of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected by fluorescence microplate assay. The results revealed that DIM significantly attenuated the CoCl2-induced expression of VEGF in the ARPE-19 cells. The CoCl2-induced translocation and activation of HIF-1α and NF-κB were also attenuated by treatment with DIM. In addition, DIM inhibited the CoCl2-induced activation of p38 MAPK in the ARPE-19 cells. Pre-treatment with YCG063, a mitochondrial ROS inhibitor, led to the downregulation of the CoCl2-induced production of VEGF by suppressing HIF-1α and NF-κB activity. Taken together, the findings of our study demonstrate that DIM inhibits the CoCl2-induced production of VEGF by suppressing mitochondrial ROS production, thus attenuating the activation of HIF-1α and p38 MAPK/NF-κB.
No preview · Article · May 2015 · International Journal of Molecular Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cigarette smoke (CS) and viruses promote the inflammation and remodeling associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The MAVS/RIG-I-like helicase (MAVS/RLH) pathway and inflammasome-dependent innate immune pathways are important mediators of these responses. At baseline, the MAVS/RLH pathway is suppressed, and this inhibition must be reversed to engender tissue effects; however, the mechanisms that mediate activation and repression of the pathway have not been defined. In addition, the regulation and contribution of MAVS/RLH signaling in CS-induced inflammation and remodeling responses and in the development of human COPD remain unaddressed. Here, we demonstrate that expression of NLRX1, which inhibits the MAVS/RLH pathway and regulates other innate immune responses, was markedly decreased in 3 independent cohorts of COPD patients. NLRX1 suppression correlated directly with disease severity and inversely with pulmonary function, quality of life, and prognosis. In murine models, CS inhibited NLRX1, and CS-induced inflammation, alveolar destruction, protease induction, structural cell apoptosis, and inflammasome activation were augmented in NLRX1-deficient animals. Conversely, MAVS deficiency abrogated this CS-induced inflammation and remodeling. Restoration of NLRX1 in CS-exposed animals ameliorated alveolar destruction. These data support a model in which CS-dependent NLRX1 inhibition facilitates MAVS/RHL activation and subsequent inflammation, remodeling, protease, cell death, and inflammasome responses.
Full-text · Article · May 2015 · The Journal of clinical investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microglia are main immune cells to exacerbate neural disorders in persistent overactivating. Therefore, it is a good strategy to regulate microglia for the treatment of neural disorders. In the present study, we isolated and characterized a novel compound, 5-O-isoferuloyl-2-deoxy-D-ribono-γ-lacton (5-DRL) from Clematis mandshurica, and evaluated its anti-inflammatory effect in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated BV2 microglial cells. 5-DRL inhibited the expression of LPS-stimulated proinflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), as well as their regulatory genes inducible NO syntheses (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). 5-DRL also downregulated the LPS-induced DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) through suppression of the nuclear translocation of the NF-κB subunits, p65 and p50. Consistent with the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 via NF-κB activity with 5-DRL, an inhibitor of NF-κB, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), also led to the suppression of LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression. Additionally, 5-DRL corresponding with antioxidants, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and glutathione (GSH), remarkably inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Both NAC and GSH, thus attenuated the expression of iNOS and COX-2 by suppressing NF-κB activation, indicating that 5-DRL suppresses LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression through downregulation of the ROS-dependent NF-κB signaling pathway. The present study also indicated that 5-DRL suppresses NO and PGE2 production by inducing heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) via nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Taken together, the present data indicate that 5-DRL attenuates the production of proinflammatory mediators such as NO and PGE2 as well as their regulatory genes in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells by inhibiting ROS-dependent NF-κB activation and stimulating the Nrf2/HO-1 signal pathway. These data may be implicated in the application of 5-DRL in LPS-stimulated inflammatory disease.
No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · International Immunopharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Expression of various inflammatory mediators in corneal fibroblasts contributes to corneal inflammation. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the possible effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on the expression of inflammatory mediators during an inflammatory response in human corneal fibroblasts. Materials and methods: The levels of interleukin (IL)-6, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) from IL-1β-exposed human corneal fibroblasts were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The regulatory mechanisms of CAPE on cellular signaling pathways were examined using Western blot and electrophoretic mobility shift assays. A functional validation was carried out by evaluating the inhibitory effects of CAPE on neutrophil and monocyte migration in vitro. Results: CAPE inhibited the expression of IL-6, MCP-1 and ICAM-1 induced by the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β in corneal fibroblasts. The activation of AKT and NF-κB by IL-1β was markedly inhibited by CAPE, whereas the activity of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) was not affected. CAPE significantly suppressed the IL-1β-induced migration of differentiated (d)HL-60 and THP-1 cells. Discussion: These anti-inflammatory effects of CAPE may be expected to inhibit the infiltration of leukocytes into the corneal stroma in vivo.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: α-Viniferin is an oligostilbene of trimeric resveratrol and has anticancer activity; however, the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of α-viniferin has not been completely elucidated thus far. Therefore, we determined the mechanism by which α-viniferin regulates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of proinflammatory mediators in BV2 microglial cells. Treatment with α-viniferin isolated from Clematis mandshurica decreased LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). α-Viniferin also downregulated the LPS-induced expression of proinflammatory genes such as iNOS and COX-2 by suppressing the activity of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) via dephosphorylation of Akt/PI3K. Treatment with a specific NF-κB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), indirectly showed that NF-κB is a crucial transcription factor for expression of these genes in the early stage of inflammation. Additionally, our results indicated that α-viniferin suppresses NO and PGE2 production in the late stage of inflammation through induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) regulated by nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2). Taken together, our data indicate that α-viniferin suppresses the expression of proinflammatory genes iNOS and COX-2 in the early stage of inflammation by inhibiting the Akt/PI3K-dependent NF-κB activation and inhibits the production of proinflammatory mediators NO and PGE2 in the late stage by stimulating Nrf2-mediated HO-1 signaling pathway in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. These results suggest that α-viniferin may be a potential candidate to regulate LPS-induced inflammation.
No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Cellular Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epithelial injury, alternative macrophage accumulation, and fibroproliferation coexist in the lungs of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) is a prototypic chitinase-like protein that has been retained over species and evolutionary time. However, the regulation of CHI3L1 in IPF and its ability to regulate injury and/or fibroproliferative repair have not been fully defined. We demonstrated that CHI3L1 levels were elevated in patients with IPF. High levels of CHI3L1 are associated with progression-as defined by lung transplantation or death-and with scavenger receptor-expressing circulating monocytes in an ambulatory IPF population. In preterminal acute exacerbations of IPF, CHI3L1 levels were reduced and associated with increased levels of apoptosis. We also demonstrated that in bleomycin-treated mice, CHI3L1 expression was acutely and transiently decreased during the injury phase and returned toward and eventually exceeded baseline levels during the fibrotic phase. In this model, CHI3L1 played a protective role in injury by ameliorating inflammation and cell death, and a profibrotic role in the repair phase by augmenting alternative macrophage activation, fibroblast proliferation, and matrix deposition. Using three-dimensional culture system of a human fibroblast cell line, we found that CHI3L1 is sufficient to induce low grade myofibroblast transformation. In combination, these studies demonstrate that CHI3L1 is stimulated in IPF, where it represents an attempt to diminish injury and induce repair. They also demonstrate that high levels of CHI3L1 are associated with disease progression in ambulatory patients and that a failure of the CHI3L1 antiapoptotic response might contribute to preterminal disease exacerbations.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Science translational medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pulmonary fibrosis is a fatal progressive disease with no effective therapy. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 has long been regarded as a central mediator of tissue fibrosis that involves multiple organs including skin, liver, kidney, and lung. Thus, TGF-β1 and its signaling pathways have been attractive therapeutic targets for the development of antifibrotic drugs. However, the essential biological functions of TGF-β1 in maintaining normal immune and cellular homeostasis significantly limit the effectiveness of TGF-β1-directed therapeutic approaches. Thus, targeting downstream mediators or signaling molecules of TGF-β1 could be an alternative approach that selectively inhibits TGF-β1-stimulated fibrotic tissue response while preserving major physiological function of TGF-β1. Recent studies from our laboratory revealed that TGF-β1 crosstalk with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling by induction of amphiregulin, a ligand of EGFR, plays a critical role in the development or progression of pulmonary fibrosis. In addition, chitotriosidase, a true chitinase in humans, has been identified to have modulating capacity of TGF-β1 signaling as a new biomarker and therapeutic target of scleroderma-associated pulmonary fibrosis. These newly identified modifiers of TGF-β1 effector function significantly enhance the effectiveness and flexibility in targeting pulmonary fibrosis in which TGF-β1 plays a significant role.
Full-text · Article · May 2014 · The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
Platelet-activating factor (PAF) has been found in various ocular tissues; the activity of PAF depends on the binding to its specific receptor, PAF-receptor. We investigated the therapeutic effects of PAF-receptor antagonists (CV-3988 and Ginkgolide B) on alkali burn-induced corneal neovascularization (CNV).
CNV was induced by applying a 0.2 N sodium hydroxide (3 µl, NaOH) solution directly on mice corneas. CV-3988 (1 mM/10 µl) and Ginkgolide B (1 mM/10 µl) were administered topically on the corneas three times daily for three consecutive days. CNV was evaluated under a slit-lamp microscope. Corneas were processed for histological, immunohistochemical and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were used for the migration and tube formation assay.
Application of CV-3988 and Ginkgolide B inhibited CNV caused by alkali burn. CV-3988 and Ginkgolide B attenuated the expression of PAF-receptor mRNA. Alkali injury induced a massively increased intraocular mRNA expression of an angiogenic factor in cornea tissues, whereas these increments were attenuated by the application of CV-3988 and Ginkgolide B.
CV-3988 and Ginkgolide B reversed opacity and neovascularization in alkali burn-induced corneas. Our findings suggest that CV-3988 and Ginkgolide B may be therapeutically useful in the treatment of CNV and inflammation.
No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A well-recognized natural ligand of PPARγ, 15-deoxy-δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) possesses immunomodulatory properties. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether 15d-PGJ2 was able to attenuate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, which are involved in ocular immune responses. In addition, we examined whether the platelet activating factor (PAF) is associated with the anti-inflammatory activity of 15d-PGJ2. ARPE19 cells treated with varying concentrations of 15d-PGJ2 and a PAF antagonist (CV3988) were used in this study. The activity of PAF-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) was assayed by treatment with 15d-PGJ2 and CV3988 in the presence of LPS. 15d-PGJ2 and CV3988 inhibited the LPS-induced mRNA expression and protein production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in ARPE19 cells. These effects resulting from 15d-PGJ2 were not abrogated by the PPARγ antagonist, indicating that the actions were PPARγ-independent. Furthermore, 15d-PGJ2 and CV3988 enhanced the PAF-AH activity. Additionally, 15d-PGJ2 inhibited the phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and the activation of nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB). These results demonstrated that 15d-PGJ2 reduced LPS-stimulated inflammatory responses in ARPE19 cells by enhancing the PAH-AH activity. These results suggest that 15d-PGJ2 may have potent anti-inflammatory activity against ocular inflammation.
Preview · Article · Dec 2013 · International Journal of Molecular Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Members of the 18 glycosyl hydrolase (GH 18) gene family have been conserved over species and time and are dysregulated in inflammatory, infectious, remodeling, and neoplastic disorders. This is particularly striking for the prototypic chitinase-like protein chitinase 3-like 1 (Chi3l1), which plays a critical role in antipathogen responses where it augments bacterial killing while stimulating disease tolerance by controlling cell death, inflammation, and remodeling. However, receptors that mediate the effects of GH 18 moieties have not been defined. Here, we demonstrate that Chi3l1 binds to interleukin-13 receptor α2 (IL-13Rα2) and that Chi3l1, IL-13Rα2, and IL-13 are in a multimeric complex. We also demonstrate that Chi3l1 activates macrophage mitogen-activated protein kinase, protein kinase B/AKT, and Wnt/β-catenin signaling and regulates oxidant injury, apoptosis, pyroptosis, inflammasome activation, antibacterial responses, melanoma metastasis, and TGF-β1 production via IL-13Rα2-dependent mechanisms. Thus, IL-13Rα2 is a GH 18 receptor that plays a critical role in Chi3l1 effector responses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rationale: Although previous literature suggests that IL-13, a T helper type 2 cell effector cytokine, might be involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension (PH), direct proof is lacking. Further, a potential mechanism underlying IL-13-induced PH has never been explored. Objective: This study's goal was to investigate the role and mechanism of IL-13 in the pathogenesis of PH. Methods and Results: Lung-specific IL-13 overexpressing transgenic (Tg) mice were examined for hemodynamic changes and pulmonary vascular remodeling. IL-13 Tg mice spontaneously developed PH phenotype by the age of 2 months with increased the expression and activity of arginase 2 (Arg2). The role of Arg2 in the development of IL-13-stimulated PH was further investigated using Arg2 and IL-13Rα2 null mutant mice and siRNA silencing approach in vivo and in vitro, respectively. IL-13-stimulated medial thickening of pulmonary arteries and RV systolic pressure were significantly decreased in the IL-13 Tg mice with Arg2 null mutation. On the other hand, the production of NO was further increased in the lungs of these mice. In our in vitro evaluations, the recombinant IL-13 treatment significantly enhanced the proliferation of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (hpaSMC) in an Arg2 and dependent manner. The IL-13-stimulated cellular proliferation and the expression of Arg2 in hpaSMC were markedly decreased with IL-13Rα2 siRNA silencing. Conclusions: Our studies demonstrate that IL-13 contributes to the development of PH via an IL-13Rα2-Arg2 dependent pathway. The intervention of this pathway could be a potential therapeutic target in pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dysregulated amphiregulin (AR) expression and EGFR activation have been described in animal models of pulmonary fibrosis and in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, the exact role of AR in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis has not been clearly defined. Here, we show that a potent pro-fibrogenic cytokine TGF-β1 significantly induced the expression of AR in lung fibroblasts in vitro and in murine lungs in vivo. AR stimulated NIH3T3 fibroblast cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Silencing of AR expression by siRNA or chemical inhibition of EGFR signaling, utilizing AG1478 and Gefitinib, significantly reduced the ability of TGF-β1 to stimulate fibroblast proliferation and expression of α-smooth muscle actin, collagen, and other extracellular matrix (ECM)-associated genes. TGF-β1-stimulated activation of Akt, Erk, and Smad signaling was also significantly inhibited by these interventions. Consistent with these in vitro findings, AR expression was impressively increased in the lungs of TGF-β1 transgenic mice, and either siRNA silencing of AR or chemical inhibition of EGFR signaling significantly reduced TGF-β1-stimulated collagen accumulation in the lung. These studies showed a novel regulatory role for AR in the pathogenesis of TGF-β1-induced pulmonary fibrosis. In addition, these studies suggest that AR, or AR-activated EGFR signaling, is a potential therapeutic target for IPF associated with TGF-β1 activation.
Preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) with pulmonary fibrosis is an important manifestation in systemic sclerosis (SSc, scleroderma) where it portends a poor prognosis. However, biomarkers that predict the development and or severity of SSc-ILD have not been validated, and the pathogenetic mechanisms that engender this pulmonary response are poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate in two different patient cohorts that the levels of chitotriosidase (Chit1) bioactivity and protein are significantly increased in the circulation and lungs of SSc patients compared with demographically matched controls. We also demonstrate that, compared with patients without lung involvement, patients with ILD show high levels of circulating Chit1 activity that correlate with disease severity. Murine modeling shows that in comparison with wild-type mice, bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis was significantly reduced in Chit1⁻/⁻ mice and significantly enhanced in lungs from Chit1 overexpressing transgenic animals. In vitro studies also demonstrated that Chit1 interacts with TGF-β1 to augment fibroblast TGF-β receptors 1 and 2 expression and TGF-β-induced Smad and MAPK/ERK activation. These studies indicate that Chit1 is potential biomarker for ILD in SSc and a therapeutic target in SSc-associated lung fibrosis and demonstrate that Chit1 augments TGF-β1 effects by increasing receptor expression and canonical and noncanonical TGF-β1 signaling.
Preview · Article · Jul 2012 · The Journal of Immunology