[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
& Aims: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), characterized by accumulation of hepatic triglycerides (steatosis), is associated with abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, and inflammation. Although weight loss via calorie restriction reduces features of NAFLD, there is no pharmacologic therapy. Resveratrol is a polyphenol that prevents high-energy diet-induced steatosis and insulin resistance in animals by upregulating pathways that regulate energy metabolism. We performed a placebo-controlled trial to assess the effects of resveratrol in patients with NAFLD.
Overweight or obese men diagnosed with NAFLD were recruited from hepatology outpatient clinics in Brisbane, Australia from 2011 through 2012. They were randomly assigned to groups given 3000 mg resveratrol (n=10) or placebo (n=10) daily for 8 weeks. Outcomes included insulin resistance (assessed by the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp), hepatic steatosis, and abdominal fat distribution (assessed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging). Metabolic, hepatic, inflammatory, and antioxidant activities were measured using plasma samples; transcription of resveratrol target genes was measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Resveratrol pharmacokinetics and safety were assessed.
Eight weeks administration of resveratrol did not reduce insulin resistance, steatosis, or abdominal fat distribution, compared with baseline. No change was observed in plasma lipids or antioxidant activity. Levels of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases increased significantly among patients in the resveratrol group until week 6, compared with the placebo group. Resveratrol did not significantly alter transcription of NQO1, PTP1B, IL6, or HO1 in PBMC. Resveratrol was well tolerated.
Eight weeks administration of resveratrol did not significantly improve any features of NAFLD, compared with placebo, but increased hepatic stress, based on increased levels of liver enzymes. Further studies are needed to determine whether agents that are purported to mimic calorie restriction, such as resveratrol, are safe and effective for complications of obesity. Clinical trials registration no: ACTRN12612001135808.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology: the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Context:
Failure of aldosterone suppression by sodium loading during fludrocortisone suppression testing (FST) or saline suppression testing (SST) confirms primary aldosteronism (PA). We previously found recumbent SST (RSST) to lack sensitivity. Aldosterone levels can be higher upright (e.g. seated) than recumbent in patients with PA and upright levels are used during FST. We therefore hypothesized that seated SST (SSST) is more sensitive than RSST, especially for posture-responsive PA.
Setting and design:
Of 66 patients who underwent FST (upright plasma aldosterone levels measured at 10am basally and after 4 days fludrocortisone 0.1 mg 6-hourly and oral salt loading), 31 underwent SST (aldosterone levels measured basally at 8am and after infusion of 2 L normal saline over 4h) both recumbent and seated in randomized order and at least 2 weeks apart.
FST confirmed PA in 23 of 31 patients (day 4 upright aldosterone level >165 pmol/L), excluded PA in three and was originally "inconclusive" in five. However, one with "inconclusive" FST had PA confirmed by lateralizing AVS and was reclassified "unilateral PA". Of 24 with confirmed PA (eight unilateral, 11 bilateral, and five undetermined subtype), 23 (96%) tested positive by SSST (4-h aldosterone level >165 pmol/L) compared with 8 (33%) by RSST (4-h plasma aldosterone level >140 pmol/L) (P < .001). RSST missed one unilateral, all bilateral, and four with as-yet undetermined subtype. RSST was positive in 7 of 10 (70%) posture-unresponsive vs one of 14 (7.1%) posture-responsive patients (P < .005).
These preliminary results suggest that seated SST may be superior to recumbent SST in terms of sensitivity for detecting PA, especially posture-responsive forms, and may represent a reliable alternative to FST.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:: Melatonin is synthesized in the pineal gland and is an important circadian phase marker, especially in the determination of sleep patterns. Both temporary and permanent abnormal sleep patterns occur in children; therefore, it is desirable to have methods for monitoring melatonin in biological fluids in the diagnosis and treatment of such disorders. OBJECTIVE:: The objective of the study is to develop a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of melatonin in saliva and to apply it to monitoring salivary concentrations in children with sleep disorders. METHODS:: A deuterated internal standard (d7-melatonin) was added to a diluted saliva sample (20 µL) in an autosampler vial insert, and 50 µL were injected. Plasticware was strictly avoided, and all glassware was scrupulously cleaned and then baked at 120°C for at least 48 hours to obtain satisfactory performance. Reverse-phase chromatography was performed on a C8 column using a linear gradient elution profile comprising mobile phases A (0.1% aqueous formic acid) and B (15% methanol in acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid), pumped at a total flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The run time was 8 minutes. After atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, mass spectrometric detection was in positive ion mode. Mass detection was by selected reaction monitoring mode with the following mass transitions used for quantification: melatonin, m/z 233.0 → 173.8 and d7-melatonin, m/z 240.0 → 178.3. RESULTS:: Linearity (r > 0.999) was established from 3.9 to 1000 pg/mL. Imprecision (coefficient of variation percent) was less than 11%, and accuracy was 100-105% (7.0-900 pg/mL). The method was selective, and the mean (range) ratio of the slopes of calibrations in water to those in daytime saliva samples collected from 10 healthy adult subjects was 0.989 (0.982-0.997), indicating negligible matrix effects. The application of the assay was demonstrated in healthy adults and in children being clinically investigated for sleep disturbances. CONCLUSIONS:: A validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method suitable for monitoring salivary melatonin in children with circadian rhythm sleep disorders is reported. The method also has potential application to pediatric population pharmacokinetic studies using sparse sampling of saliva as the biological sample matrix.
Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Therapeutic drug monitoring
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: Accurate measurement of aldosterone and cortisol is crucial for diagnosis of primary aldosteronism (PA), but current assays lack specificity and precision. A semi-automated, simultaneous HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method for aldosterone and cortisol was applied to fludrocortisone suppression testing (FST) and adrenal venous sampling (AVS), and compared with results by immunoassay (IA). Methods: FSTs by IA established (n = 36) or excluded (n = 2) the presence of PA in untreated patients and assessed biochemical cure in post-surgery patients (n = 6). AVS by IA (n = 13) was used to determine whether autonomous production of aldosterone was unilateral (with contralateral suppression) or bilateral. Diagnoses based on HPLC-MS/MS were compared with clinical decisions based on IA. Results: HPLC-MS/MS diagnosed PA by FST in the same 36 patients, but also in two patients with negative FST by IA. Postoperative biochemical cure of PA (negative FST) was found by both IA and HPLC-MS/MS in each of 6 patients. Identical lateralisation results using IA and HPLC-MS/MS were found for AVS in 12 patients (bilateral 8, unilateral 2). However, a 13th patient with non-lateralising results by IA was hypokalemic with a 2.3 cm left adrenal nodule, was clearly unilateral by HPLC-MS/MS, and has recently undergone left adrenalectomy. Conclusions: Improved precision and specificity of HPLC-MS/MS in comparison with IA enhances diagnostic accuracy in both FST and AVS and has the potential to improve treatment decisions.
No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Journal of Hypertension
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serum hepcidin concentration is potentially affected by inflammation and iron stores in chronic liver disease (CLD), but little is known about the relationship between hepcidin and the degree of hepatic fibrosis. We investigated the potential role of serum hepcidin as a biomarker of advanced liver disease.
Serum hepcidin was measured in 332 adults with CLD of varying aetiologies, 45 healthy and 50 non-liver disease patient controls. Liver biopsy data were available for 228 CLD subjects.
Hepcidin was decreased in CLD patients compared with non-liver disease patient controls (P < 0.0001) but not healthy controls, and was lowest in those with cirrhosis (P < 0.0001). Serum hepcidin correlated with hepatic hepcidin mRNA expression in 91 biopsy samples available for genetic analysis (r = 0.68, P < 0.0001). Hepcidin also correlated positively with serum ferritin concentration, transferrin saturation, ALT, serum albumin and haemoglobin, but negatively with serum bilirubin. The hepcidin:ferritin ratio was significantly lower in CLD subjects compared with healthy and disease controls, and decreased with each increase in the stage of fibrosis and siderosis. The hepcidin:ferritin ratio was associated with progressive fibrosis on linear regression, and a value of less than 0.1 was independently associated with cirrhosis on logistic regression analyses (OR 5.54, P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed the hepcidin:ferritin ratio was able to distinguish between F0 and F4 stages of fibrosis (area under receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.86).
The hepcidin:ferritin ratio is reduced in relation to increasing fibrosis in CLD and the use of this ratio may have potential future diagnostic implications as a marker of cirrhosis.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Liver international: official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) and more recently target concentration intervention (TCI) have been widely used in clinical practice for the optimization of drug treatment. TDM and TCI have been applied most frequently in the cardiovascular, respiratory, neurology, and infectious disease areas because the medications used here have both narrow therapeutic indices and a clear relationship between concentration and effect. However, apart from drugs such as methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil, the clinical application of TDM/TCI in oncology is minimal. An important reason for this is that a therapeutic index for most anticancer agents has not been established. However, in the last 20 years, relationships between plasma drug concentrations and clinical outcome have been defined for various chemotherapeutic agents. Defining concentration-effect relationships is also complicated by the fact that cancer is almost always treated with multiple drugs given in combination making the precise definition of the pharmacodynamics of individual agents difficult. The increase in patients with obesity and also those underweight adds to the complexity of effective oncology treatment. This review describes some of the evidence that supports the use of TDM/TCI in oncology. It is proposed that as more patients previously ineligible for chemotherapy become eligible, TDM/TCI may play a critical role in optimizing chemotherapy outcomes. However, pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic research to investigate both therapeutic benefit and feasibility in daily clinical practice is required.
No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Therapeutic drug monitoring
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Therapeutic drug monitoring of tacrolimus by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry has become standard practice. We report on the long-term (4.5 years) use of one such method. Whole blood samples (25 μL) were treated with zinc sulphate (100 μL) and acetonitrile containing ascomycin (internal standard, 250 μL). A high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer operating in positive ion mode with an electrospray interface was used. Chromatography was performed on a TDM C(18) cartridge column (10 mm × 2.1 mm, 10 μm, Waters) using a switch gradient. A total of 4029 batches were analyzed for tacrolimus; this comprised of 81950 analyses of which 61027 were patient samples. Calibration curves (1.0-50 μg/L) were run on 1765 occasions (mean r(2)=0.999; range r(2)=0.988-0.999). Inter-batch accuracy and imprecision of the method (2.5, 12.5 and 30.0 μg/L), when in routine use, was 97.6-98.5% and <8.0%, respectively (n=4031). Evaluation of the method against other methods in an external quality control scheme revealed good agreement by linear regression analysis (y=0.924x+0.196, r(2)=0.985). The percentage difference between our results and that of all methods revealed a mean bias of -6.3% and a range of -33.3% to 11.1%. During the evaluation period, four batch failures occurred (0.1% failure rate) and greater than 1000 samples per analytical column was achieved. In conclusion, the described method is ideally suited as a routine test for tacrolimus in the clinical setting.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A method for the simultaneous quantification of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) in human plasma by HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was developed and validated. Free and esterified forms of fatty acids were hydrolysed from plasma samples in the presence of an internal standard and subjected to liquid-liquid extraction. The chromatographic run time was 3.5 min per sample. The assay was linear from 0.5 to 300 mg/L (r(2) > 0.997, n = 18). Based on matrix addition, accuracy deviation was <15%, except for AA at 10 mg/L (30-90%), whereas precision was <8% for all fatty acids studied. The method was applied to the measurement of these omega-3 fatty acids in a fish oil supplement study with healthy volunteers. Healthy males (n = 4) were administered a supplement containing 465 mg EPA and 375 mg DHA per capsule (Omacor®). A dose of two capsules was given daily over a 4 week period. Pre-treatment concentrations varied between subjects for EPA (17-68 mg/L), DHA (36-63 mg/L) and AA (121-248 mg/L). During the dosing period EPA increased 460-480% from the baseline concentration, while DHA increased 150-160%. The EPA-AA ratio increased from 0.07-0.56 to 0.3-3.1 after 4 weeks of dosing. In conclusion, the method described could be suitable for monitoring EPA, DHA and AA in clinical studies that may aid in achieving optimal concentrations of these fatty acids in patients who could be at risk of sudden cardiac death.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Biomedical Chromatography
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The most popular screening test for primary aldosteronism is plasma aldosterone/renin ratio (ARR). Because both estrogen and progesterone affect aldosterone and renin levels, we studied effects of two contraceptives commonly used in our population, one oral and one subdermal, on ARR, measuring renin as both direct renin concentration (DRC) and plasma renin activity (PRA).
Normotensive, healthy women underwent measurement (seated, midmorning) of plasma aldosterone, DRC, PRA, electrolytes, and creatinine and urinary aldosterone, cortisol, electrolytes, and creatinine at baseline (menses) and after either 1) 3 wk treatment with oral ethinylestradiol plus drospirenone (n = 17) or 2) 1 wk and 6 wk treatment with subdermal etonogestrel (n = 15), a third-generation progestin.
Treatment with oral ethinylestradiol plus drospirenone was associated with significant increases in aldosterone [median (range) at baseline = 131 (85-590) pmol/liter; at 1 wk, 200 (130-784) pmol/liter; and at 3 wk, 412 (199-1010) pmol/liter (P < 0.001, Friedman test)] and PRA [2.1 (1.2-4.7), 3.6 (1.5-7.1), and 4.9 (1.5-10.8) ng/ml · h, P < 0.001] but decreases in DRC [22 (11-36), 21 (8.7-41), and 14 (8.5-39) mU/liter, P < 0.01] leading to increases in ARR calculated by DRC [6.6 (3.3-31.3), 10.9 (5.2-58.9), and 29.8 (5.1-88.5), P < 0.001]. There were no significant changes in ARR calculated by PRA, plasma electrolytes and creatinine, and all urinary measurements. In contrast, treatment with subdermal etonogestrel was associated with no significant changes in PRA, DRC, aldosterone, or ARR at either 1 or 6 wk.
The combined oral contraceptive ethinylestradiol plus drospirenone is capable of significantly increasing ARR with risk of false-positive results during screening for primary aldosteronism, but only if DRC is used to calculate the ratio. Subdermal etonogestrel had no effect on ARR after 6 wk.
Preview · Article · Mar 2011 · The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plasma aldosterone to renin ratio (ARR) is the most popular screening test for primary aldosteronism (PAL). Certain medications are known to cause false-negative or -positive ARRs by affecting renin and aldosterone levels. There are no previously published data on the effects of antidepressants on ARR.
Normotensive, depressed male patients (n = 26) underwent measurement (seated, midmorning) of plasma aldosterone, direct renin concentration (DRC), renin activity (PRA), electrolytes and creatinine and urinary aldosterone, cortisol, electrolytes, and creatinine at baseline and after 2 and 6 wk treatment with sertraline (n = 14) or escitalopram (n = 12).
For both antidepressants, treatment was associated with rises in aldosterone [sertraline: baseline, mean ± sd, 243 ± 34; 2 wk, 256 ± 33; 6 wk, 267 ± 34 pmol/liter (P < 0.01 by ANOVA); escitalopram, 261 ± 36, 269 ± 38, 282 ± 40 pmol/liter (P < 0.05)], DRC [19.5 ± 2.2, 33.5 ± 2.0, 39.0 ± 2.4 mU/liter (P < 0.001); 24.5 ± 2.4, 34.0 ± 2.7, 42.8 ± 2.4 mU/liter (P < 0.001)], and PRA [2.24 ± 0.21, 2.58 ± 0.26, 4.68 ± 0.42 ng/ml · h (P < 0.001); 4.31 ± 0.22, 5.57 ± 0.36, 6.42 ± 0.53 ng/ml · h (P < 0.001)]. ARR fell significantly whether calculated using DRC [sertraline, 13.7 ± 2.2, 7.5 ± 0.7, 6.8 ± 0.7 (P < 0.001); escitalopram, 11.5 ± 1.9, 8.0 ± 1.1, 6.6 ± 1.0 (P < 0.001)], or PRA [116.6 ± 15.8, 108.4 ± 15.6, 60.4 ± 6.2 (P < 0.001); 61.2 ± 8.1, 50.0 ± 7.7, 45.6 ± 6.0 (P < 0.01)].
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants can significantly reduce ARR and therefore potentially increase the risk of false-negative results when screening for PAL. Further studies in hypertensive patients, including patients with confirmed PAL, are required.
No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the predictive performance of limited sampling methods for estimation of tacrolimus exposure in adult kidney transplant recipients.
Twenty full tacrolimus area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 h post-dose (AUC(0-12)) profiles (AUCf) were collected from 20 subjects. Predicted tacrolimus AUC(0-12) (AUCp) was calculated using the following: (i) 42 multiple regression-derived limited sampling strategies (LSSs); (ii) five population pharmacokinetic (PK) models in the Bayesian forecasting program TCIWorks; and (iii) a Web-based consultancy service. Correlations (r(2)) between C(0) and AUCf and between AUCp and AUCf were examined. Median percentage prediction error (MPPE) and median absolute percentage prediction error (MAPE) were calculated.
Correlation between C(0) and AUCf was 0.53. Using the 42 LSS equations, correlation between AUCp and AUCf ranged from 0.54 to 0.99. The MPPE and MAPE were <15% for 29 of 42 equations (62%), including five of eight equations based on sampling taken ≤2 h post-dose. Using the PK models in TCIWorks, AUCp derived from only C(0) values showed poor correlation with AUCf (r(2)=0.27-0.54) and unacceptable imprecision (MAPE 17.5-31.6%). In most cases, correlation, bias and imprecision estimates progressively improved with inclusion of a greater number of concentration time points. When concentration measurements at 0, 1, 2 and 4 h post-dose were applied, correlation between AUCp and AUCf ranged from 0.75 to 0.93, and MPPE and MAPE were <15% for all models examined. Using the Web-based consultancy service, correlation between AUCp and AUCf was 0.74, and MPPE and MAPE were 6.6 and 9.6%, respectively.
Limited sampling methods better predict tacrolimus exposure compared with C(0) measurement. Several LSSs based on sampling taken 2 h or less post-dose predicted exposure with acceptable bias and imprecision. Generally, Bayesian forecasting methods required inclusion of a concentration measurement from >2 h post-dose to adequately predict exposure.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Therapeutic drug monitoring of critical dose immunosuppressant drugs is established clinical practice and there are similar good reasons to monitor antiretrovirals. The aim of this article is to review the recent literature (last five years), with particular reference to the use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). LC-MS/MS offers many potential advantages. The superior selectivity of LC-MS/MS over immunoassays for immunosuppressant drugs has been widely reported. Simultaneous measurement of a number of drugs can be performed. It is currently routine practice for the four major immunosuppressants (cyclosporin, tacrolimus, sirolimus and everolimus) to be simultaneously measured in whole blood. While up to 17 antiretroviral drugs have been simultaneously measured in plasma. The exquisite sensitivity of LC-MS/MS also provides the opportunity to measure these drugs in alternative matrices, such as dried blood spots, saliva, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and tissue. However, the clinical utility of measuring these classes of drugs in alternative matrices is still to be determined.
No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Clinical biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple limited sampling strategies (LSSs) have been proposed for estimation of mycophenolic acid (MPA) area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 hours postdose (AUC 0-12) after mycophenolate mofetil intake. The aim of this study was to provide summary information on all published LSSs for MPA and to evaluate their predictive performance in an independent population of kidney transplant recipients. Seventy-eight LSSs for MPA were identified. Sixty-nine full AUC profiles were collected from 45 subjects (25 cotreated with cyclosporine and 20 with tacrolimus). Predicted MPA AUC 0-12, calculated by applying the relevant concentration measurements within the LSS equations, was compared with full AUC calculated by using all concentration measurements in the linear trapezoidal rule. Four error indices (median prediction error, median percentage prediction error [MPPE], root median squared prediction error, and median absolute percentage prediction error [MAPE]) were used to evaluate bias and imprecision. Twelve of the 25 LSSs for cyclosporine-cotreated recipients and one of the 53 LSSs for tacrolimus-cotreated recipients displayed acceptable (less than 15%) bias and imprecision. In the cyclosporine group, two equations demonstrated the highest predictive power, one that used four time points in the first 6 hours postdose (r2 = 0.84, MPPE 1.6%, MAPE 7.8%) and one that used four time points in the first 4 hours postdose (r2 = 0.76, MPPE -0.8%, MAPE 10.2%). In the tacrolimus group, an equation that used two time points in the first 4 hours postdose was superior (r2 = 0.80, MPPE -3.0%, MAPE 13.6%). Application of the LSSs most appropriate for cyclosporine-cotreated patients to the tacrolimus-cotreated group resulted in clinically unacceptable bias and imprecision and vice versa. High variability in performance of LSSs highlights the importance of validating any LSS before applying it to an alternative population. Attention to comedication use is of particular relevance when choosing a LSS.
No preview · Article · Dec 2010 · Therapeutic drug monitoring
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because primary aldosteronism is not uncommon, specifically treatable and in some cases curable, and carries higher risks for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than essential hypertension, screening hypertensive patients for its presence by measuring aldosterone to renin ratio (ARR) is increasingly common. A significantly higher false-positive ARR rate for women than men, resulting in unnecessary suppression tests has previously been reported.
Using a new, highly accurate aldosterone assay and both of the currently widely used renin assays, ARR was measured in 19 normal, ovulating women at three time points in the menstrual cycle and compared with single measurements in 21 normal males of similar age.
ARRs in males were possibly too well down in the current normal range. Although normotensive and normokalemic, two women had raised ARRs in the luteal phase but only when direct renin concentration (DRC) was used. Their DRC levels were low at all sampling times [despite midrange plasma renin activity levels], whereas their progesterone and aldosterone levels were highest for the group. Saline suppression testing, performed in one of them, showed normal aldosterone suppressibility.
False-positive ARRs in normal women during the luteal phase only when DRC is used may explain the higher incidence of false-positive ARRs in hypertensive women than men and suggest the following: 1) plasma renin activity is preferable to DRC in determination of ARR and 2) new reference ranges for ARR that take into account gender and sex hormone levels are required.
No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxypurinol is the active metabolite of allopurinol which is used to treat hyperuricaemia associated with gout. Both oxypurinol and allopurinol inhibit xanthine oxidase which forms uric acid from xanthine and hypoxanthine. Plasma oxypurinol concentrations vary substantially between individuals and the source of this variability remains unclear. The aim of this study was to develop an HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry method to measure oxypurinol in urine to facilitate the study of the renal elimination of oxypurinol in patients with gout. Urine samples (50 microL) were prepared by dilution with a solution of acetonitrile/methanol/water (95/2/3, v/v; 2 mL) that contained the internal standard (8-methylxanthine; 1.5 mg/L), followed by centrifugation. An aliquot (2 microL) was injected. Chromatography was performed on an Atlantis HILIC Silica column (3 microm, 100 mm x 2.1mm, Waters) at 30 degrees C, using a mobile phase comprised of acetonitrile/methanol/50 mM ammonium acetate in 0.2% formic acid (95/2/3, v/v). Using a flow rate of 0.35 mL/min, the analysis time was 6.0 min. Mass spectrometric detection was by selected reactant monitoring (oxypurinol: m/z 150.8-->108.0; internal standard: m/z 164.9-->121.8) in negative electrospray ionization mode. Calibration curves were prepared in drug-free urine across the range 10-200 mg/L and fitted using quadratic regression with a weighting factor of 1/x (r(2) > 0.997, n=7). Quality control samples (20, 80, 150 and 300 mg/L) were used to determine intra-day (n=5) and inter-day (n=7) accuracy and imprecision. The inter-day accuracy and imprecision was 96.1-104% and <11.2%, respectively. Urinary oxypurinol samples were stable when subjected to 3 freeze-thaw cycles and when stored at room temperature for up to 6h. Samples collected from 10 patients, not receiving allopurinol therapy, were screened and showed no significant interferences. The method was suitable for the quantification of oxypurinol in the urine of patients (n=34) participating in a clinical trial to optimize therapy of gout with allopurinol.
No preview · Article · Sep 2010 · Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycophenolic acid is now the second most widely used immunosuppressant in solid organ transplantation. Overestimation of mycophenolic acid concentration is a recognized problem of immunoassay, and high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection methods have long analysis times and a risk of analyte coelution which may compromise high sample throughput in a clinically meaningful time frame. A novel liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for mycophenolic acid was developed using very small (10 microL) sample volumes and evaluated in comparison with an established immunological assay. The enzyme mediated immunoassay showed a median positive bias compared with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry of 14.6%. Linear regression analysis showed a significant positive impact of bilirubin (r2 = 0.230) on bias with further increases of r2 to 0.261, 0.286, and 0.294 with the stepwise addition of creatinine, hematocrit, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, respectively. The impact of comedication and transplant type depended on the patient population: analysis of all samples showed opposing effects to analysis of those samples lacking data with biochemical variables above. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method described in this report is capable of measuring mycophenolic acid concentrations in very small sample volumes and in a timely fashion without the significant overestimates characterizing enzyme mediated immunoassay measurements in patients with serologic features characterizing liver or renal graft rejection.
No preview · Article · Aug 2010 · Therapeutic drug monitoring
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Availability and wider application of the plasma aldosterone/renin ratio (ARR) as a screening test for primary aldosteronism (PA) has led to the recognition that PA is the most common potentially curable and specifically treatable form of hypertension, possibly accounting for as many as 5-13% of patients. Aldosterone excess also has adverse cardiovascular consequences that go above and beyond hypertension development. These findings support the concept that PA plays an important role in cardiovascular disease states and should be systematically sought and specifically treated, and have led to the development of a US Endocrine Society clinical guideline for the detection, diagnosis and management of this condition. Reliable detection requires that interfering factors (including medications known to alter the ratio) are controlled before ARR measurement (or their effects taken into account), and reliable methods such as fludrocortisone suppression testing are used to confirm PA. Because computed tomography frequently misses aldosterone-producing adenomas yet demonstrates non-functioning nodules, adrenal venous sampling is the only dependable way to differentiate unilateral (surgically correctable) from bilateral (usually treated with aldosterone antagonist medications) forms of PA. For the glucocorticoid-remediable form of PA (familial hyperaldosteronism type I), genetic testing for the causative 'hybrid' 11beta-hydroxylase/aldosterone synthase gene has greatly facilitated detection. Laboratory assessment (including suppression testing post-operatively, and renin measurement during treatment with aldosterone antagonist medications) can assist in assessing therapeutic responses and in guiding ongoing management. Development of new, highly reliable high-throughput mass spectrometric methods for measuring aldosterone and renin should further enhance detection and reliability of diagnostic workup for PA.
Preview · Article · May 2010 · The Clinical biochemist. Reviews / Australian Association of Clinical Biochemists