[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Shark fin, used as a food, is a rich source of glycosaminoglyans (GAGs), acidic polysaccharides having important biological activities, suggesting their nutraceutical and pharmaceutical application. A comprehensive survey of GAGs derived from the fin was performed on 11 elasmobranchs, including several deep sea sharks. Chondroitin sulfate (CS) and hyaluronic acid (HA) were found in Isurus oxyrinchus, Prionace glauca, Scyliorhinus torazame, Deania calcea, Chlamydoselachus anguineus, Mitsukurina owatoni, Mustelus griseus and Dasyatis akajei, respectively. CS was only found from Chimaera phantasma, Dalatias licha, and Odontaspis ferox, respectively. Characteristic disaccharide units of most of the CS were comprised of C- and D-type units. Interestingly, substantial amount of CS/dermatan sulfate (DS) was found in the dried fin (without skin and cartilage) of Isurus oxyrinchus and Prionace glauca. 1H-NMR analysis showed that the composition of glucuronic acid (GlcA) and iduronic acid (IdoA) in shark CS/DS was 41.2% and 58.8% (Isurus oxyrinchus), 36.1% and 63.9% (Prionace glauca), respectively. Furthermore, a substantial proportion of this CS/DS consisted of E-, B- and D-type units. Shark CS/DS stimulated neurite outgrowth of hippocampal neurons at a similar level as DS derived from invertebrate species. Midkine and pleiotrophin interact strongly with CS/DS from Isurus oxyrinchus and Prionace glauca, affording Kd values of 1.07 nM, 6.25 nM and 1.70 nM, 1.88 nM, respectively. These results strongly suggest that the IdoA-rich domain of CS/DS is required for neurite outgrowth activity. A detailed examination of oligosaccharide residues, produced by chondroitinase ACII digestion, suggested that the IdoA and B-type units as well as A- and C-type units were found in clusters in shark CS/DS. In addition, it was discovered that the contents of B-type units in these IdoA-rich domain increased in a length dependent manner, while C- and D-type units were located particularly in the immediate vicinity of the IdoA-rich domain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is thought that Shine-Dalgarno-like sequences, which exhibit complementarity to the nucleotide sequences at the 3'-end of 18S rRNA, are not present in eukaryotic mRNAs. However, complementary sequences consisting of more than 5 nucleotides to the 3'-end of 18S rRNA, i.e., a CR sequence, are present at -17 to -32 upstream from the initiation codon AUG in 18 mRNAs involved in protein synthesis except eEF1A mRNA. Thus, effects of the CR sequence in mRNAs and polyamines on protein synthesis were examined using control and polyamine-reduced FM3A and NIH3T3 cells. Polyamines did not stimulate protein synthesis encoded by 18 mRNAs possessing a normal CR sequence. When the CR sequence was deleted, protein synthetic activities decreased to less than 70 % of intact mRNAs. In eEF1A mRNA, the CR sequence was located at -33 to -39 upstream from the initiation codon AUG, and polyamines stimulated eEF1A synthesis about threefold. When the CR sequence was shifted to -22 to -28 upstream from the AUG, eEF1A synthesis increased in polyamine-reduced cells and the degree of polyamine stimulation decreased greatly. The results indicate that the CR sequence exists in many eukaryotic mRNAs, and the location of a CR sequence in mRNAs influences polyamine stimulation of protein synthesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A membrane-associated ATPase, PotA, is a component of the spermidine-preferential uptake system in prokaryotes that plays an important role in normal cell growth by regulating the cellular polyamine concentration. No three-dimensional structures of membrane-associated ATPases in polyamine-uptake systems have been determined to date. Here, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of PotA from Thermotoga maritima are reported. Diffraction data were collected and processed to 2.7 Å resolution from both native and selenomethionine-labelled crystals. Preliminary crystallographic analysis revealed that the crystals belonged to the hexagonal space group P3112 (or P3212), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 88.9, c = 221.2 Å, α = 90, β = 90, γ = 120°, indicating that a dimer was present in the asymmetric unit.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Acta Crystallographica Section F Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pyrrole polyamide-2'-deoxyguanosine 5'-phosphate hybrid (Hybrid 4) was synthesized and evaluated in terms of the inhibition of mouse mammary carcinoma FM3A cell growth. Hybrid 4 was found to exhibit dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The spermidine acetyltransferase (SAT) from Escherichia coli catalyses the transfer of acetyl groups from acetyl-CoA to spermidine. SAT has been expressed and purified from E. coli. SAT was crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method to obtain a more detailed insight into the molecular mechanism. Preliminary X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the crystals diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution and belonged to the cubic space group P23, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 148.7 Å. They contained four molecules per asymmetric unit.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Acta Crystallographica Section F Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have recently reported that acrolein is more toxic than reactive oxygen species. Thus, the mechanism of cell toxicity by acrolein was studied using mouse mammary carcinoma FM3A cells. Acrolein-conjugated proteins were separated by gel electrophoresis with subsequent determination of their amino acid sequence, and it was found that glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was one of the major acrolein-conjugated proteins in cells. Acrolein interacted with cysteine-150 at the active site of GAPDH, and also with cysteine-282. When cells were treated with 8 μM acrolein, the activity of acrolein-conjugated GAPDH was greatly reduced, and the ATP content in cells was thus significantly reduced. In addition, it was shown that acrolein-conjugated GAPDH translocated to the nucleus, and the level of acetylated GAPDH and the number of TUNEL positive cells was increased, indicating that cell death is enhanced by acrolein-conjugated GAPDH. Inhibition of cell growth by acrolein was partially reversed when the cDNA encoding GAPDH was transformed into cells. These results indicate that inactivation of GAPDH is one mechanism that underlies cell toxicity caused by acrolein.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have reported that polyamines increase cell viability at the stationary phase of cell growth through translational stimulation of ribosome modulation factor, and SpoT and RpoZ proteins involved in the synthesis and function of ppGpp in Escherichia coli. Since biofilm formation is also involved in cell viability, we looked for proteins involved in biofilm formation and cell viability whose synthesis is stimulated by polyamines at the level of translation. It was found that the synthesis of response regulators UvrY and CpxR in the two-component signal transducing systems and ribosome recycling factor (RRF) was increased by polyamines at the level of translation. Polyamine stimulation of the synthesis of UvrY and RRF was dependent on the existence of the inefficient initiation codons UUG and GUG in uvrY and frr mRNA, respectively; and polyamine stimulation of CpxR synthesis was dependent on the existence of an unusual location of a Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence in cpxR mRNA. Biofilm formation and cell viability in the absence of polyamines was increased by transformation of modified uvrY and cpxR genes, and cell viability by modified frr gene whose translation occurs effectively without polyamines. The results indicate that polyamines are necessary for both biofilm formation and cell viability.
No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Modeling the binding sites for spermine and ifenprodil on the regulatory (R) domains of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor GluN1 and GluN2B subunits was carried out after measuring spermine stimulation and ifenprodil inhibition at receptors containing GluN1 and GluN2B R domain mutants. Models were constructed based on the published crystal structure of the GluN1 and GluN2B R domains, which form a heterodimer (Nature 475:249-253, 2011). The experimental results and modeling suggest that a binding site for spermine was formed by the residues near the cleft between the R1 and R2 lobes of the GluN1 R domain (GluN1R) together with residues on the surface of the R2 (C-terminal side) lobe of the GluN2B R domain (GluN2BR). The ifenprodil binding site included residues on the surface of the R1 lobe (N-terminal side) of GluN1R together with residues near the cleft between the R1 and R2 lobes of GluN2BR. It was confirmed using a Western blot analysis that GluN1R and GluN2BR formed a heterodimer. Models of spermine and ifenprodil binding to the heterodimer were constructed. The modeling suggests that an open space between the two R1 lobes of GluN1R and GluN2BR is promoted through spermine binding and that the R1 lobes of GluN1R and GluN2BR approach each other through ifenprodil binding-an effect opposite to that seen with the binding of spermine.
No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We found previously that increases in plasma levels of protein-conjugated acrolein and polyamine oxidases, enzymes that produce acrolein, are good biomarkers for stroke. The aim of this study was to test whether 3-hydroxypropyl mercapturic acid (3-HPMA), an acrolein-glutathione metabolite, was increased in the urine of stroke patients.
The level of 3-HPMA in urine was measured by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Stroke (78 subjects) was divided into 52 cerebral infarction (CI) and 26 cerebral hemorrhage (CH) on the basis of clinical information including brain imaging.
A major acrolein derivative in urine is 3-HPMA. Being different from the results of PC-Acro in plasma, 3-HPMA in urine decreased following stroke. The median value of μmol 3-HPMA/g creatinine (Cre) for 90 control subjects was 2.83, while that for 78 stroke patients was 1.56. The degree of the decrease in 3-HPMA was similar in both CI and CH patients. Furthermore, the median value of μmol 3-HPMA/g Cre in 56 patients with lesions ≥ 1cm in diameter (1.39) was significantly lower than that in 20 patients with lesion <1cm in diameter (2.16).
Inverse correlation between stroke and urinary 3-HPMA was observed. The results suggest that stroke is aggravated when nervous system tissues have a reduced level of glutathione.
No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have shown recently that acrolein is more strongly involved in cell damage than reactive oxygen species during brain infarction. Thus, we tried to isolate cells with reduced susceptibility to acrolein toxicity to clarify how acrolein is detoxified under cell culture conditions. The IC(50) of acrolein in mouse mammary carcinoma FM3A cells and in neuroblastoma Neuro2a cells was 2.6 and 4.2μM, respectively, but in acrolein toxicity-decreasing FM3A (FM3A-ATD) cells and Neuro2a (Neuro2a-ATD) cells, it was 7.6 and 8.4μM, respectively. In both FM3A-ATD and Neuro2a-ATD cells, the concentration of glutathione (GSH) was increased, so that detoxification occurred through acrolein conjugation with GSH. In FM3A-ATD cells, the level of a rate-limiting enzyme of GSH synthesis, γ-glutamylcysteine ligase catalytic unit (GCLC), was increased through the reactivation of one inactive allele of GCLC genes in FM3A cells. In Neuro2a-ATD cells, phosphorylation of transcription factors (c-Jun and NF-κB) necessary for expression of genes for GCLC and glutathione synthetase (GSHS) involved in GSH synthesis was stimulated, so that transcription of two genes increased in Neuro2a-ATD cells. Phosphorylation of JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase), which catalyzes phosphorylation of c-Jun and NF-κB p65, was also increased in Neuro2a-ATD cells, suggesting that activation of JNK kinase is responsible for the increase in GSH. These results support the idea that GSH plays important roles in detoxification of acrolein, because GSH is increased in both FM3A-ATD and Neuro2a-ATD cells.
No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is known that polyamines increase cell growth through stimulation of the synthesis of several kinds of proteins encoded by the so-called "polyamine modulon". We recently reported that polyamines also increase cell viability at the stationary phase of cell growth through stimulation of the synthesis of ribosome modulation factor, a component of the polyamine modulon. Accordingly, we looked for other proteins involved in cell viability whose synthesis is stimulated by polyamines. It was found that the synthesis of ppGpp regulatory protein (SpoT) and ω protein of RNA polymerase (RpoZ) was stimulated by polyamines at the level of translation. Stimulation of the synthesis of SpoT and RpoZ by polyamines was due to an inefficient initiation codon UUG in spoT mRNA and an unusual location of a Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence in rpoZ mRNA. Accordingly, the spoT and rpoZ genes are components of the polyamine modulon involved in cell viability. Reduced cell viability caused by polyamine deficiency was prevented by modified spoT and rpoZ genes whose synthesis was not influenced by polyamines. Under these conditions, the level of ppGpp increased in parallel with increase of SpoT protein. The results indicate that polyamine stimulation of synthesis of SpoT and RpoZ plays important roles for cell viability through stimulation of ppGpp synthesis by SpoT and modulation of RNA synthesis by ppGpp-RpoZ complex.
No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An amphiphilic low-molecular-weight hydrogelator 1 was synthesized. A tris-glycine-SDS solution gel of 1 was applied for electrophoresis to separate proteins. Centrifugation of a mixture of protein and a hydrogel of 1 enabled the recovery of protein. Various combinations of proteins were applied for supramolecular gel electrophoresis (SUGE), and remarkably poor mobility for small proteins (<45 kDa) was found.
Preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Chemical Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The structure and function of a cadaverine-lysine antiporter CadB and a putrescine-ornithine antiporter PotE in Escherichia coli were evaluated using model structures based on the crystal structure of AdiC, an agmatine-arginine antiporter, and the activities of various CadB and PotE mutants. The central cavity of CadB, containing the substrate binding site, was wider than that of PotE, mirroring the different sizes of cadaverine and putrescine. The size of the central cavity of CadB and PotE was dependent on the angle of transmembrane helix 6 (TM6) against the periplasm. Tyr(73), Tyr(89), Tyr(90), Glu(204), Tyr(235), Asp(303), and Tyr(423) of CadB, and Cys(62), Trp(201), Glu(207), Trp(292), and Tyr(425) of PotE were strongly involved in the antiport activities. In addition, Trp(43), Tyr(57), Tyr(107), Tyr(366), and Tyr(368) of CadB were involved preferentially in cadaverine uptake at neutral pH, while only Tyr(90) of PotE was involved preferentially in putrescine uptake. The results indicate that the central cavity of CadB consists of TMs 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, and 10, and that of PotE consists of TMs 2, 3, 6, and 8. These results also suggest that several amino acid residues are necessary for recognition of cadaverine in the periplasm because the level of cadaverine is much lower than that of putrescine in the periplasm at neutral pH. All the amino acid residues identified as being strongly involved in both the antiport and uptake activities were located on the surface of the transport path consisting of the central cavity and TM12.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little is known about the genetics of nonsyndromic intellectual disability (NSID). We hypothesized that de novo mutations (DNMs) in synaptic genes explain an important fraction of sporadic NSID cases. In order to investigate this possibility, we sequenced 197 genes encoding glutamate receptors and a large subset of their known interacting proteins in 95 sporadic cases of NSID. We found 11 DNMs, including ten potentially deleterious mutations (three nonsense, two splicing, one frameshift, four missense) and one neutral mutation (silent) in eight different genes. Calculation of point-substitution DNM rates per functional and neutral site showed significant excess of functional DNMs compared to neutral ones. De novo truncating and/or splicing mutations in SYNGAP1, STXBP1, and SHANK3 were found in six patients and are likely to be pathogenic. De novo missense mutations were found in KIF1A, GRIN1, CACNG2, and EPB41L1. Functional studies showed that all these missense mutations affect protein function in cell culture systems, suggesting that they may be pathogenic. Sequencing these four genes in 50 additional sporadic cases of NSID identified a second DNM in GRIN1 (c.1679_1681dup/p.Ser560dup). This mutation also affects protein function, consistent with structural predictions. None of these mutations or any other DNMs were identified in these genes in 285 healthy controls. This study highlights the importance of the glutamate receptor complexes in NSID and further supports the role of DNMs in this disorder.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · The American Journal of Human Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Syntaxin 1A is a membrane protein playing an integral role in exocytosis and membrane trafficking. The superficial dorsal horn (SDH) of the spinal cord, where nociceptive synaptic transmission is modulated, is rich in this protein. We recently reported that peripheral nerve ligation-induced nociceptive responses are considerably enhanced in syntaxin 1A-knockout mice [Takasusuki T, Fujiwara T, Yamaguchi S, Fukushima T, Akagawa K, Hori Y (2007) Eur J Neurosci 26:2179-2187]. On the basis of this earlier finding, we hypothesized that syntaxin 1A is involved in peripheral nerve injury-induced nociceptive plasticity. In this study, we examined this hypothesis by using nociceptive behavioral studies and tight-seal whole-cell recordings from neurons in the SDH of adult mouse spinal cord slices. Partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL) in adult male Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice increased the frequency of spontaneous miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs). The amplitude of the mEPSCs did not exhibit any changes, suggesting that peripheral nerve injury is associated with increased synaptic release of excitatory neurotransmitters. Western blot and real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that PSNL gradually decreased the expression level of syntaxin 1A in the spinal SDH. This downregulation of syntaxin 1A took several days to develop, whereas behavioral allodynia developed within one day after PSNL. Syntaxin 1A knockdown by intrathecal injection of an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide against the syntaxin 1A gene led to the gradual development of allodynia. These results indicate a possible involvement of syntaxin 1A downregulation in the late maintenance phase of peripheral nerve injury-induced allodynia. In addition, syntaxin 1A knockdown by ribonucleic acid interference enhanced the axonal elongation and sprouting of spinal dorsal horn neurons in culture, suggesting that PSNL-induced syntaxin 1A downregulation may result in the rearrangement of the synaptic connections between neurons in the spinal dorsal horn. Taken together, it is possible to conclude that syntaxin 1A might be involved in spinal nociceptive plasticity induced by peripheral nerve injury.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have recently found that the median relative risk value (RRV) (0-1) of brain infarction estimated by protein-conjugated acrolein (PC-Acro), IL-6 and CRP together with age was in the order silent brain infarction (SBI) (0.80)>carotid atherosclerosis (CA) (0.76)>white matter hyperintensity (WMH) (0.46)>control (0.14). We clarified how metabolic disorders [hypertension (HT), hyperlipidemia (HL) and hyperglycemia (HG)] are correlated with RRV.
The levels of PC-Acro, IL-6 and CRP in plasma were measured by ELISA. SBI and WMH were evaluated by MRI, and CA was evaluated by duplex carotid ultrasonography.
The median RRV of metabolic disorders was in the order HT+HG (0.84)>HT+HL (0.73)>HT (0.65)≈HG (0.65)>HL (0.61)>HL+HG (0.48)>no metabolic disorder (0.24)>normal (0.11). Correlation with SBI was in the order HT+HG (52%)>HT+HL (42%)>HT (40%)>HG (34%)≈HL(33%)>HL+HG (14%)≈no metabolic disorder (14%).
The results indicate that HT is the most strongly associated factor with SBI among metabolic disorders and that the seriousness of metabolic disorder estimated by RRV was well correlated with SBI.
No preview · Article · Nov 2010 · Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We searched for proteins whose synthesis is enhanced by polyamines at the stationary phase of cell growth using an Escherichia coli polyamine-requiring mutant in which cell viability is greatly decreased by polyamine deficiency. The synthesis of ribosome modulation factor (RMF) was strongly enhanced by polyamines at the level of translation at the stationary phase of cell growth. In rmf mRNA, a Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence is located 11 nucleotides upstream of the initiation codon AUG. When the SD sequence was moved to the more common position 8 nucleotides upstream of the initiation codon, the degree of polyamine stimulation was reduced, although the level of RMF synthesis was markedly increased. Polyamine stimulation of RMF synthesis was found to be caused by a selective structural change of the bulged-out region of the initiation site of rmf mRNA. The decrease in cell viability caused by polyamine deficiency was prevented by the addition of a modified rmf gene whose synthesis is not influenced by polyamines. The results indicate that polyamines enhance cell viability of E. coli at least in part by enhancing RMF synthesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We found previously that the measurement of plasma levels of protein-conjugated acrolein (PC-Acro) together with IL-6 and CRP can be used to identify silent brain infarction (SBI) with high sensitivity and specificity. The aim of this study was to clarify how three biochemical markers are correlated to SBI, carotid atherosclerosis (CA) and white matter hyperintensity (WMH).
The levels of PC-Acro, IL-6 and CRP in plasma were measured by ELISA. SBI and WMH were evaluated by MRI, and CA was evaluated by duplex carotid ultrasonography.
A total of 790 apparently healthy volunteers were classified into 260 control, 214 SBI, 263 CA and 245 WMH subjects, which included 187 subjects with two or three pathologies. When the combined measurements of PC-Acro, IL-6 and CRP were evaluated together with age, using a receiver operating characteristic curve and artificial neural networks, the relative risk value (RRV), an indicator of tissue damage, was in the order SBI with CA (0.90)>SBI (0.80)>CA (0.76)>WMH with CA (0.65)>WMH (0.46)>control (0.14). RRV was also correlated with severity in each group of SBI, CA and WMH.
The RRV supports the idea that the degree of risk to develop a stroke is in the order SBI>CA>WMH.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is known that the level of protein-conjugated acrolein in plasma is a good marker of chronic renal failure and brain infarction. Thus, studies were carried out to determine which kinds of plasma proteins are conjugated with acrolein. It was found that acrolein was mainly conjugated with albumin. Tandem mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that Lys-557 and Lys-560, located at the surface of domain III of albumin, were the major sites conjugated with acrolein. This is the first report to identify the amino acid residues in a protein modified by acrolein in vivo. It was found that conjugation of acrolein with albumin contributed to a decrease in the toxicity of acrolein.
No preview · Article · Dec 2009 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications