Gloria Benítez-King

Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría, Ciudad de México, The Federal District, Mexico

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Publications (66)218.05 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia (SZ) and Bipolar Disorder (BD) are highly inheritable chronic mental disorders with a worldwide prevalence of around 1%. Despite that many efforts had been made to characterize biomarkers in order to allow for biological testing for their diagnoses, these disorders are currently detected and classified only by clinical appraisal based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Olfactory neuroepithelium-derived neuronal precursors have been recently proposed as a model for biomarker characterization. Because of their peripheral localization, they are amenable to collection and suitable for being cultured and propagated in vitro. Olfactory neuroepithelial cells can be obtained by a non-invasive brush-exfoliation technique from neuropsychiatric patients and healthy subjects. Neuronal precursors isolated from these samples undergo in vitro the cytoskeletal reorganization inherent to the neurodevelopment process which has been described as one important feature in the etiology of both diseases. In this paper, we will review the current knowledge on microtubular organization in olfactory neurons of patients with SZ and with BD that may constitute specific cytoskeletal endophenotypes and their relation with alterations in L-type voltage-activated Ca(2+) currents. Finally, the potential usefulness of neuronal precursors for pharmacological screening will be discussed.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience
  • Jesús Muñoz-Estrada · Gloria Benítez-King · Carlos Berlanga · Isaura Meza
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    ABSTRACT: DISC1 (Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia-1) is considered a genetic risk factor for schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD). DISC1 regulates microtubule stability, migration, and cAMP signaling in mammalian cell lines and mouse brain tissue. cAMP is a regulator of microtubule organization and migration in neurons. Aberrant microtubule organization has been observed in olfactory neuronal precursors (ONP) derived from patients with SZ and BD, which suggests involvement of DISC1 and cAMP. However, the biology of DISC1 in the physiopathology of psychiatric conditions remains elusive. Herein, utilizing ONP obtained from SZ, BD patients and healthy subjects, we have studied DISC1 expression, protein levels, and subcellular distribution by qRT-PCR, immunoblotting, subcellular fractionation, and confocal microscopy. Cell migration and cAMP accumulation were assessed by Transwell and PKA competition assays. We found increased levels of the 75-kDa DISC1 isoform in total cell extracts of ONP from patients with SZ and BD compared with controls. Subcellular distribution showed a significant decrease of cytoplasmic DISC1 concomitant with its augmented levels in transcription sites. Moreover, significant cAMP accumulation and diminished migration were also observed in patients' cells. Alterations of DISC1 levels and its cellular distribution, which negatively modify cAMP homeostasis, microtubule organization, and cell migration, in ONP from patients with SZ and BD, suggest that their presence in early stages of brain development may impact brain maturation and function. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
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    ABSTRACT: Melatonin (MEL), the main product synthesized by the pineal gland, stimulates early and late stages of neurodevelopment in the adult brain. MEL increases dendrite length, thickness and complexity in the hilar and mossy neurons of hippocampus. Dendrite formation involves activation of Ca2+/Calmodulin (CaM)-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) by CaM. Previous work showed that MEL increased the synthesis and translocation of CaM, suggesting that MEL activates CaM-dependent enzymes by this pathway. In this work we investigated whether MEL stimulates dendrite formation by CaMKII activation in organotypic cultures from adult rat hippocampus. We found that the CaMKII inhibitor, KN-62, abolished the MEL stimulatory effects on dendritogenesis and that MEL increased the relative amount of CaM in the soluble fraction of hippocampal slices. Also, PKC inhibition abolished dendritogenesis, while luzindole, an antagonist of MEL receptors (MT1/2), partially blocked the effects of MEL. Moreover, autophosphorylation of CaMKII and PKC was increased in presence of MEL, as well as phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Our results indicate that MEL stimulates dendrite formation through CaMKII and the translocation of CaM to the soluble fraction. Dendritogenesis elicited by MEL also required PKC activation, and signaling through MT1/2 receptors was partially involved. Data strongly suggest that MEL could repair the loss of hippocampal dendrites that occur in neuropsychiatric disorders by increasing CaM levels and activation of CaMKII.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2015 · International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: The light–dark cycle is an environmental factor that influences immune physiology, and so, variations of the photoperiod length result in altered immune responsivity. Macrophage physiology comprises a spectrum of functions that goes from host defense to immune down-regulation, in addition to their homeostatic activities. Macrophages also play a key role in the transition from innate to adaptive immune responses. Met-enkephalin (MEnk) has been recognized as a modulator of macrophage physiology acting in an autocrine or paracrine fashion to influence macrophage activation, phenotype polarization and production of cytokines that would enhance lymphocyte activation at early stages of an immune response. Previously it was shown that splenic MEnk tissue content is reduced in rats exposed to constant light. In this work, we explored whether production of Met-enkephalin-containing peptides (MECPs) in cultured splenic macrophages is affected by exposure of rats to a constant light regime. In addition, we explored whether primary immune response was impaired under this condition. We found that in rats, 15 days in constant light was sufficient to disrupt their general activity rhythm. Splenic MEnk content oscillations and levels were also blunted throughout a 24-h period in animals subjected to constant light. In agreement, de novo synthesis of MECPs evaluated through incorporation of 35S-methionine was reduced in splenic macrophages from rats exposed to constant light. Moreover, MECPs immunocytochemistry showed a decrease in the intracellular content and lack of granule-like deposits in this condition. Furthermore, we found that primary T-dependent antibody response was compromised in rats exposed to constant light. In those animals, pharmacologic treatment with MEnk increased IFN-γ-secreting cells. Also, IL-2 secretion from antigen-stimulated splenocytes was reduced after incubation with naloxone, suggesting that immune-derived opioid peptides and stimulation of opioid receptors are involved in this process. Thus, the immune impairment observed from early stages of the response in constant light-subjected rats, could be associated with reduced production of macrophage-derived enkephalins, leading to a sub-optimal interaction between macrophages and lymphocytes in the spleen and the subsequent deficiency in antibody production.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Chronobiology International
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    ABSTRACT: El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar los efectos de 5 mg. de melatonina de liberación inmediata sobre la macro-arquitectura del sueño en ocho pacientes con diagnóstico de Demencia Tipo Alzheimer (DTA) de media a moderada. Utilizando la técnica polisomnográfica (PSG) se realizó un estudio simple ciego, no aleatorio, controlado con placebo. Los registros PSG se llevaron a cabo de la siguiente manera: Noche 1: administración de placebo; noche 2 y 3: administración continua de melatonina (5 mg). Observamos que el tratamiento con melatonina durante la primera noche de administración disminuyó significativamente la latencia de la fase 2, del sueño de ondas delta y el sueño de MOR al ser comparadas con el placebo (P ≤.05). No se observaron diferencias significativas en el tiempo total de cada fase de sueño; tampoco se observaron diferencias en la eficiencia del sueño en presencia de la melatonina. Sin embargo se observó una tendencia a la disminución del tiempo total de vigilia y un aumento del tiempo total de sueño, principalmente durante la segunda noche de tratamiento. Concluimos que la melatonina puede mejorar el sueño en pacientes con DTA de media a moderada.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Salud Mental
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    ABSTRACT: Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder, due to a 7q11.23 hemizygous deletion. WS has a characteristic neurocognitive profile that includes intellectual disability (ID). Haploinsufficiency of some of the deleted genes is partially associated with the cognitive phenotype. The aim of this paper is to determine the differences in the microRNA (miRNA) expression in WS patients, using a neural cell model from the patients olfactory neuroepithelium (ONE), and to establish the relationship with those genes involved in neurodevelopment and neural function. To assess these goals, we made a comparative analysis of the miRNAs expression profile between WS patients and controls. Through an in silico analysis, we established potential pathways and targets associated with neural tissue. The expression profile shows 14 dysregulated miRNAs, including nervous system (NS)-rich miRNAs such as miR-125b, let-7c and miR-200. Most of these miRNAs have potential targets associated with NS functions while others have been reported to have specific neuronal functions. These data suggest that miRNAs widely contribute to the regulation of neurodevelopmental intrinsic processes, and that specific miRNAs could participate in WS neurobiology.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Frontiers in bioscience (Elite edition)
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    ABSTRACT: El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar los efectos de 5 mg. de melatonina de liberación inmediata sobre la macro-arquitectura del sueño en ocho pacientes con diagnóstico de Demencia Tipo Alzheimer (DTA) de media a moderada. Utilizando la técnica polisomnográfica (PSG) se realizó un estudio simple ciego, no aleatorio, controlado con placebo. Los registros PSG se llevaron a cabo de la siguiente manera: Noche 1: administración de placebo; noche 2 y 3: administración continua de melatonina (5 mg). Observamos que el tratamiento con melatonina durante la primera noche de administración disminuyó significativamente la latencia de la fase 2, del sueño de ondas delta y el sueño de MOR al ser comparadas con el placebo (P ≤.05). No se observaron diferencias significativas en el tiempo total de cada fase de sueño; tampoco se observaron diferencias en la eficiencia del sueño en presencia de la melatonina. Sin embargo se observó una tendencia a la disminución del tiempo total de vigilia y un aumento del tiempo total de sueño, principalmente durante la segunda noche de tratamiento. Concluimos que la melatonina puede mejorar el sueño en pacientes con DTA de media a moderada.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Salud Mental
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    ABSTRACT: Dementias are progressive and neurodegenerative neuropsychiatry disorders, with a high worldwide prevalence. These disorders affect memory and behavior, causing impairment in the performance of daily activities and general disability in the elders. Cognitive impairment in these patients is related to anatomical and structural alterations at cellular and sub-cellular levels in the Central Nervous System. In particular, amyloid plaques and neurofibrillar tangles have been defined as histopathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. Likewise, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are implicated in the etiology and progression of the disease.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Salud Mental
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    ABSTRACT: Olfactory neuroepithelial cells in culture have been proposed as a model to study the physiopathology of psychiatric disorders and biomarker characterization for diagnosis. In patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) diminished microtubule-associated proteins expression occurs, which might lead to aberrant microtubular organization and which in turn may affect Ca(2+) voltage-activated currents. The aim of this work was to characterize of microtubule organization as well as of the L-type Ca(2+) current in neuronal precursors obtained from nasal exfoliates of patients with SZ and BD. Microtubule organization was studied by immunofluorescence with a specific anti-III β-tubulin antibody and by quantification of globular and assembled tubulin by Western blot. L-type current recording was performed by whole-cell patch-clamp technique and nifedipine superfusion. The results showed differential altered microtubular organization in neuronal precursors of SZ and BD. Short microtubules were observed in BD neurons, while extensive, unstained subcellular areas and disorganized microtubules were evident in SZ neuronal precursors. Patients with BD showed a decrease in amounts of tubulin in total homogenates and 40% decrease in the globular fraction. However, L-type current in BD was similar to that in healthy subjects (HS). In contrast, this current in SZ was 50% lower. These reduction in L-type current in SZ together with differential microtubule alterations are potential biomarkers that may differentiates SZ and BD.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Schizophrenia Research
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the 5 mg. melatonin effects on the sleep macro-architecture in eight patients with middle to moderate Alzheimer´s disease (DTA). Using the polysomnographic technique (PSG), we made a simple-blind, non-randomized, controlled with placebo study. The PSG was carried out according to the following order: night 1: placebo administration; night 2 and 3: continues melatonin administration. In the first night with melatonin treatment, the sleep latency to the first episode of Stage 2, Delta and REM sleep, was significantly diminished as compared with placebo (≤.05). No significant difference in total time of each sleep stage and sleep efficiency was observed. Nevertheless, a tendency to diminish the total time of nocturnal wake and increase of the total sleep time in the second night with melatonin treatment was observed. We conclude that melatonin can improve sleep in patients with middle to moderate DTA.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Salud Mental
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    ABSTRACT: Melatonin modulates adult hippocampal neurogenesis in adult mice. Also, plasma melatonin levels and new neuron formation decline during aging probably causing cognitive alterations. In this study, we analyzed the impact of exogenous supplementation with melatonin in three key events of hippocampal neurogenesis during normal aging of mice. The analysis was performed in rodents treated with melatonin during 3, 6, 9 or 12 months. We found an increase in cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus after 3, 6 and 9 months of treatment (>90%). Additionally, exogenous melatonin promoted survival of new cells in the dentate gyrus (>50%). Moreover, melatonin increased the number of doublecortin-labeled cells after 6 and 9 months of treatment (>150%). In contrast, melatonin administered during 12 months did not induce changes in hippocampal neurogenesis. Our results indicate that melatonin also modulates the neurogenic process in the hippocampus during normal aging of mice. Together, the data support melatonin as one of the positive endogenous regulators of neurogenesis during aging.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Neuroscience Letters
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    ABSTRACT: La esquizofrenia (EZ) es un trastorno psiquiátrico que se caracteriza por la presencia de delirios, alucinaciones, pensamiento desorganizado, lenguaje desestructurado, alteraciones del comportamiento social y aplanamiento afectivo, entre otros síntomas. Los pacientes con EZ también presentan un déficit en la capacidad olfatoria desde la fase prodrómica del trastorno.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Salud Mental
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    ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by delusions, hallucinations, disorganization in speech and thinking as well as alterations in social behavior, and affective flattening. Schizophrenic patients also have an olfactory deficit since prodromal stages of this disorder. The olfactory deficit could be present in schizophrenic patients due to anatomic and structural alteration of the Central Nervous System, or peripheral abnormalities in the olfactory epithelium. The major alterations of the Central Nervous System are diminished volumes of olfactory bulb and structures of primary olfactory cortex, hippocampus and amygdala. While, olfactory epithelium has functional abnormalities in cellular differentiation and electric response of sensory olfactory neurons, which suggest an impairment of the odor transduction. The cellular culture of olfactory epithelium has allowed isolating multipotential progenitor cells that have the ability to proliferate and differentiate in mature neurons and glia. This model could provide evidences on the causes that could explain the olfactory deficits in schizophrenia. Moreover, it will allow testing hypothesis on pathophysiological causes of this mental disorder in different of stages of the neurodevelopment. In addition, olfactory epithelial neuronal precursors constitute a novel model to detect genetic, proteomic and functional biomarkers that allow a biological diagnosis.
    No preview · Article · May 2012 · Salud Mental
  • Graciela Jiménez-Rubio · Leonardo Ortíz-López · Gloria Benítez-King
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    ABSTRACT: Melatonin concentration in plasma reaches high levels during the night and synchronizes body rhythms with the photoperiod. Previous evidence obtained in cultured cells suggests that melatonin synchronizes cytoskeletal re-arrangements at nocturnal plasma concentration. In this study, we determined the amount of microtubules and microfilaments in the rat hippocampus as an index of cytoskeletal organization in rats submitted to a photoperiodic regime. Additionally, these parameters were determined in control rats, sham rats, pinealectomized rats, and rats that were pinealectomized and treated with melatonin for 1 week. The results showed an increase in both the amount of microfilaments in the hippocampus of rats sacrificed in the dark phase, and in melatonin levels. In addition, a decrease in both microfilament and microtubule amounts occurred in pinealectomized rats. In contrast, melatonin treatment partially reestablished actin and tubulin proportions organized in microfilaments and microtubules, respectively. The results indicate that actin organization in microfilaments was associated with both the photoperiod and with melatonin levels. Together, the data support that cytoskeletal organization is regulated rhythmically by melatonin in synchrony with the photoperiod.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Neuroscience Letters
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    ABSTRACT: Neuropsychiatric disorders are characterized by hippocampus decreased volume and loss of dendrite arborizations in the subiculum and prefrontal cortex. These structural changes are associated with diminished memory performance. Hilar neurons of the hippocampus integrate spatial memory and are lost in dementia. They receive information from dentate gyrus neurons through dendrites, while they send axonal tracts to the CA3 region. Dendrites are complex structures of neurons that receive chemical information from presynaptic and postsynaptic terminals. Melatonin, the main product of the pineal gland, has neuroprotective actions through its free radical-scavenging properties and decreases neuronal apoptosis. Recently, we found that melatonin increases dendrite maturation and complexity in new neurons formed in the dentate gyrus of mice. In addition, in N1E-115 cultured cells, the indole stimulates early stages of neurite formation, a process that is known to antecede dendrite formation and maturation. Thus, in this study, we explored whether melatonin stimulates dendrite formation and complexity in the adult rat hippocampus in organotypic slice cultures, which is a model that preserves the hippocampal circuitry and their tridimensional organizations of connectivity. The effects of melatonin were studied in nonpathological conditions and in the absence of harmful agents. The results showed that the indole at nocturnal concentrations reached in the cerebrospinal fluid stimulates dendritogenesis at formation, growth, and maturation stages. Also, data showed that dendrites formed became competent to form presynaptic specializations. Evidence strongly suggests that melatonin may be useful in the treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases to repair the loss of dendrites and re-establish lost synaptic connections.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Journal of Pineal Research
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    ABSTRACT: Entamoeba histolytica, a protozoan parasite of humans, relays on its striking motility to survive and invade host tissues. Characterization of the molecular components involved in motile processes is crucial to understand its pathogenicity. Although protein components of myosin II hexamers have been predicted from E. histolytica genome data, only a heavy chain of myosin, EhmhcA, has been characterized so far. We have cloned an E. histolytica cDNA sequence that best matched Dictyostelium discoideum myosin essential light chain and found that the cloned sequence is transcribed as an mRNA of 0.445 kb which could encode a protein of 16.88 kDa, within the predicted range for a myosin light chain. In silico analyses revealed that the protein sequence, named EhMLCI, shows two consensus domains for binding MHC, but lacks the N-terminal sequence for actin binding, as in A2 type myosin essential light chains. A single EF-hand calcium-binding domain was identified in the C-terminus and several high score predictability sites for serine and tyrosine phosphorylation. Antibodies to recombinant EhMLCI identified two proteins of approximately 17 and 15 kDa in trophozoite extracts, the latter phophorylated in tyrosines. Serine phosphorylation was not detected. Immunomicroscopy revealed EhMLCI cortical and cytoplasmic distribution in trophozoites and true colocalization with EhmhcA determined by PCC. Co-immunoprecipitation corroborated EhMLCI interaction with EhmhcA. EhMLCI was also localized in actomyosin-containing complexes. Differential partition of phospho-tyrosinated EhMLCI into cell fractions containing the soluble form of EhmhcA and its lack of serine phosphorylation suggest its possible participation in a novel down regulatory mechanism of myosin II activity in E. histolytica.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
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    ABSTRACT: Brain imaging and histopathological studies suggest that neurodevelopmental anomalies play a key role in the etiology of schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD). New neuron formation and maturation occur in human olfactory epithelium throughout life. Therefore, the olfactory epithelium has been proposed as a model to study alterations in neurodevelopment, particularly in some psychiatric diseases. However, former studies were done with olfactory epithelium biopsies taken post mortem or under anesthesia from patients with SZ and BD. In this work we have developed a new method to obtain viable neural precursors by exfoliation of the anterior region of the medial lateral turbinate of the nasal cavity from healthy controls, and ambulatory patients. Cells were propagated to establish neural precursor banks. Thawed cells showed cytoskeletal phenotypes typical of developing neurons. They also conserved the ability to differentiate in presence of 2mM dibutyril-cyclic adenosine monophosphate, and maintained voltage-operated Ca(2+) currents in culture. Moreover, proportions of neuronal maturation stages were maintained in cultured exfoliates obtained from SZ and BD patients. Data support that neural precursors obtained from a nasal exfoliate are an excellent experimental model to later approach studies on biomarkers, neural development and cellular alterations in the pathophysiology of SZ and BD.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2011 · Journal of Neuroscience Methods
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    ABSTRACT: Circadian rhythms are oscillations of physiological functions. The period of their oscillation is about 24 h, and can be synchronized by environmental periodic signals as night–day cycle.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · Salud Mental
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    ABSTRACT: Circadian rhythms are oscillations of physiological functions. The period of their oscillation is about 24 h, and can be synchronized by environmental periodic signals as night-day cycle. The endogenous periodical changes depend on various structural elements of the circadian system which consists of the effectors, the secondary oscillators, the synchronizers and the circadian pacemaker. In mammalian species, the physiological function better understood respect their oscillation pattern are the synthesis and release of several hormones (i.e. cortisol and melatonin), the body temperature, the sleep-awake cycle, the locomotive activity, cell proliferation, neuronal activity among other rhythms. The Suprachiasmatic nucleus is the main circadian pacemarker in mammals; its oscillation keeps the circadian system synchronized particularly with respect to the environment photoperiod. When light reaches the pigment melanopsin in ganglionar neurons in the retina, the photoperiod signal is sent to Suprachiasmatic nucleus, and its postsinaptic neurons distributes the temporal signal to pheripheral oscillators by nervous or humoral pathways. Among the oscillators, the pineal gland is a peripheral one modulated by Suprachiasmatic nucleus. At night, the indolamine melatonin is synthesized and released from pinealocytes, and reaches other peripheral oscillators. Melatonin interacts with membrane receptors on Suprachiasmatic nucleus pacemarker neurons, reinforcing the signal of the photoperiod. In mammals, exogenous melatonin synchronizes several circadian rhythms including locomotive activity and melatonin release. When this indolamine is applied directly into the Suprachiasmatic nucleus, it produces a phase advance of the endogenous melatonin peak and increases the amplitude of the oscillation. In humans, melatonin effect on the circadian system is evident because it changes the circadian rhythms phase in subjects with advanced sleep-phase syndrome, night workers or blind people. Also it reduces jet lag symptoms enhancing sleep quality and reseting the circadian system to local time. Melatonin effects on circadian rhythms indicate their role as a chronobiotic, since decreased daily melatonin levels that occur with age and in neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with disturbances in the sleep-awake cycle. In particular, it has been described that Alzheimer's disease patients have disturbed sleep-awake cycle and have decreased serum melatonin levels. Sleep disorders in Alzheimer's disease patients decrease when they are treated with melatonin. Moreover, sleep disturbances have been observed in bipolar disorder patients and often precede relapses of insomnia-associated mania and hypersomniaassociated depression. These disturbances are linked to delayed- and advanced- phases of circadian rhythms or arrhythmia; therefore, it has been suggested that bipolar disorder patients could be treated with light and dark therapy. In depressed patients, the levels of melatonin are low throughout the 24 hour period and have a delayed onset of the indolamine concentration and showed an advance of its peak. Schizophrenic patients have decreased levels in the plasmatic melatonin in both phases of the light-dark cycle. Melatonin administration to these patients increases their sleep efficiency. In addition, melatonin acts as a neuroprotector because of its potent antioxidant action and through its cytoskeletal modulation properties. In neurodegenerative animal models, its protector effect has been observed using okadaic acid. This neurotoxin is employed for reproducing cytoskeletal damage in neurons and increased oxidative stress levels, which are molecular events similar to those that occur in Alzheimer's disease. In N1E-115 cell cultures incubated with okadaic acid, the administration of melatonin diminishes hyperphosphorylated tau and oxidative stress levels, and prevents the neurocytoskeletal damage caused by the neurotoxin. Although it is known that melatonin plays a key role in the circadian rhythms entrainment, little is known about its synchronizing effects at molecular and structural level. In algae, it has been observed a link between morphological changes and the light-dark cycle and it is known that shape is determinated by the cytoskeletal structure. In particular, the alga Euglena gracilis changes its shape two times per day under the effect of a daily light-dark cycle. This alga has a long shape when there is a higher photosynthetic capacity at the half period of the day; on the contrary, it showed a rounded shape at the end of 24 h cycle. Also, the influence of the cell shape changes on the photosynthetic reactions was investigated by altering them with drugs that disrupt the cytoskeletal structure as cytochalasin B and colchicine. Both inhibitors blocked the rhythmic shape changes and the photosynthetic rhythm. Moreover, there are some reports about cytoskeletal changes in plants targeted by circadian rhythms. Guarda cells of Vicia faba L. showed a diurnal cycle on the alpha and beta tubulin levels. In addition, it has been proposed that melatonin synchronizes different body rhythms through cytoskeletal rearrangements. In culture cells, nanomolar melatonin concentrations cause an increase in both the polimerization rate and microtubule formation through calmodulin antagonism. A cyclic pattern produced by melatonin in the actin microfilament organization has been demonstrated in canine kidney cells. Cyclic incubation of MDCK cells with nanomolar concentrations of melatonin, resembling the cyclic pattern of secretion and release to plasma produces a microfilament reorganization and the formation of domes. Studies in animals are controvertial regarding if the amount of microtubules in different tissues varies cyclically. In rats and baboons, melatonin administration or exposure of rats to darkness induced an increased number of microtubules in the pineal gland. However, in the hypothalamus, the exposure of rats to light resulted in an increase in the microtubular protein content. Similarly, 〈 -tubulin mRNA was augmented during the light phase in the hypothalamus, hippocampus and cortex. By contrast, in rats maintained in constant darkness, a decreased level in the tubulin content was observed in the visual cortex. Additional information on cycle variations observed in cytoskeletal molecules indicated that beta actin mRNA levels are lower during the day in the hippocampus and cortex. But no change was observed in actin protein levels in the cerebral cortex. However, increased levels of actin and its mRNA were observed in the hypothalamus. Exogenous melatonin administration at onset of night decreased the amount of actin in the hypothalamus, while the actin mRNA levels decreased when the administration was realized in the morning. In this review we will describe the synchronizer role of melatonin in the sleep-awake cycle and in the organization of cytoskeletal proteins and their mRNAs. Also, we will describe alterations in the melatonin secretion rhythm associated with a neuronal cytoskeleton disorganization in the neuropsychiatric diseases such as Alzheimer, depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Salud Mental
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    ABSTRACT: Haloperidol a typical antipsychotic commonly used in the treatment of schizophrenia causes neuronal damage and extrapiramidal symptoms after several years of treatment. These symptoms have been associated with increased levels of oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species produce cytoskeletal collapse and an excessive phosphorylation of tau, a microtubule-associated protein that plays a key role in microtubule stabilization, and in growth cone and neurite formation, which are cytoskeletal phenotypes that participate in neurodevelopment. Thus, we hypothesized that haloperidol produces neurocytoskeletal disorganization by increasing free radicals and tau hyperphosphorylation, and consequently, the loss of neurodevelopmental cytoskeletal phenotypes, neurites and growth cones. The purpose of this work was the characterization of neuronal cytoskeletal changes caused by haloperidol in neuroblastoma N1E-115 cells. We also studied the mechanisms by which haloperidol causes cytoskeletal changes. The results showed that haloperidol at 100microM caused a complete cytoskeleton collapse in the majority of the cells. Melatonin, a free radical scavenger, blocks tau hyperphosphorylation, and microtubule disorganization caused by haloperidol in a dose-response mode. Additionally, the indole blocks lipoperoxide formation in haloperidol treated cells. The results indicate that free radicals and tau hyperphosphorylation produced by haloperidol caused a cytoskeletal collapse and the lost of growth cones and neurites. These effects were blocked by melatonin. Data suggest that extrapiramidal symptoms in schizophrenic patients can be produced by cytoskeletal disorganization during adult brain neurodevelopment after prolonged haloperidol treatment that can be prevented by melatonin.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · European journal of pharmacology