Paul C Lee

New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York, United States

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Publications (78)315.62 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Plavix (clopidogrel) is a potent antiplatelet agent used to prevent thrombosis in a variety of clinical settings. The perioperative management of thoracic surgery patients who are on clopidogrel at the time of surgery is not well defined. We conducted this review to examine the perioperative management and outcomes of patients undergoing general thoracic surgical procedures. Methods: From January 2005 to January 2010, 165 patients on clopidogrel underwent 182 operative procedures. Three management strategies were identified: Group I: clopidogrel continued through surgery (n = 17), Group II: clopidogrel discontinued with a bridging agent (n = 44) and Group III clopidogrel discontinued without a bridging agent (n = 121). Propensity score matched cohorts (17 clopidogrel continued; 34 clopidogrel discontinued) were constructed based on age, clopidogrel indication, American Society of Anesthesiology status, and procedure and used to compare the impact of clopidogrel management on postoperative bleeding and cardiovascular morbidity. Results: Unmatched analysis revealed a significantly higher rate of transfusion in the group of patients who continued on clopidogrel throughout the perioperative period, compared with patients who had clopidogrel discontinued. Although there were more cardiovascular events in Groups II and III, there were no significant differences between groups in postoperative mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, or reoperation for bleeding. In propensity matched patients only the rate of postoperative transfusions was significantly higher in patients continued on clopidogrel compared with patients whose clopidogrel was discontinued (35.3 vs. 2.9%), p < 0.004. Conclusions: In selected patients, some thoracic surgical procedures can be performed safely on clopidogrel but are associated with higher rates of postoperative transfusion.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · The Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: We examined the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database to compare short-term postoperative outcomes following open and thoracoscopic lobectomy. Thoracoscopic (video-assisted thoracic surgery) lobectomy has been demonstrated to be associated with fewer postoperative complications compared with open thoracotomy lobectomy in several large case series. However, as no randomized trial has been performed, there are many who question this. Methods: We examined the NIS database for all patients undergoing lobectomy as their principal procedure either via thoracoscopic or open thoracotomy from 2007 to 08. We compared the postoperative outcomes of these two groups of patients after propensity matching these groups based on several preoperative variables. Results: Over a 2-year-period, 68 350 patients underwent a lobectomy by either thoracoscopy [n = 10 554 (15%)] or thoracotomy [n = 57 796(85%)]. Thirty-two percent of thoracoscopic lobectomies (n = 3421) were performed in either rural or non-teaching urban centres. Although in propensity-matched cohorts there was no difference in operative mortality, thoracoscopic lobectomy was associated with a lower incidence of postoperative complications [n = 4146 (40.8%) vs n = 13 913 (45.1%), P < 0.001] and shorter length of stay (5.0 vs 7.0 days; P < 0.001) compared with open lobectomy. Specifically, the incidences of supraventricular arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism and empyema were lower. Conclusions: This large national database study demonstrates that thoracoscopic lobectomy is associated with fewer in-hospital postoperative complications compared with open lobectomy. Thoracoscopic lobectomy appears to be applicable to the wider general thoracic surgical community.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2012 · European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery

  • No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Gastrointestinal endoscopy
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    ABSTRACT: Local and distant recurrences are frequent after curative resection for esophageal cancer and are considered uniformly fatal. However, some patients may present with isolated recurrences that appear amenable to definitive local therapy either by resection or chemoradiotherapy. We reviewed the clinical outcome of all patients with isolated nodal or distant metastases who were treated with curative intent. In this retrospective review, all patients (n=561) who underwent curative resection for esophageal cancer from 1988 to 2011 were identified from a prospectively assembled thoracic surgery database. Patients who had any type of recurrence were identified (n=205). In this group, 27 patients were identified with isolated disease defined as single station of nodal disease or isolated distant metastases. Survival was modeled using the Kaplan-Meier method, and subgroup survival estimates were compared by the log rank test. The impact of age, sex, histology, pathology stage, site of recurrence, and treatment modality on mortality were analyzed by logistic regression. Twenty-seven patients (22 male, median age 61 years) had an isolated esophageal cancer recurrence; of those, 15 patients underwent surgical resection and 12 underwent definitive chemoradiation therapy. The sites of isolated recurrence were most commonly nodal. Median overall survival from time of recurrence was 25.2 months; 3-year estimated survival was 33.0% (confidence interval: 13.7 to 52.5). In univariate analysis, no relationship was formed. In appropriately selected patients with isolated esophageal metastases, definitive therapy can prolong survival. A long disease-free interval and recurrence limited to single nodal stations may select patients likely to have longer survival after definitive local therapy.
    No preview · Article · May 2012 · The Annals of thoracic surgery
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    ABSTRACT: The Worldwide Oesophageal Cancer Collaboration (WECC) reported recommendations regarding the optimum number of lymph nodes to be removed during oesophagectomy based upon patients undergoing surgery alone. We sought to determine whether these recommendations are relevant in the case of oesophageal cancer (EC) patients receiving neoadjuvant therapy. Patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by transthoracic en bloc oesophagectomy were reviewed. Patients were grouped by optimal versus suboptimal lymphadenectomy per WECC recommendations (pTis/T0/T1 ≥ 10; pT2 ≥ 20; pT3/T4 ≥ 30). Cohorts were compared for factors predicting optimal lymphadenectomy and for overall survival (OS). During the time period, 135 patients (adeno = 100, squamous = 35) met the study criteria, of whom 94 patients (70%) had optimal lymphadenectomy. Optimal lymphadenectomy was more likely for tumours with lower ypT (P ≤ 0.001). Optimal lymphadenectomy predicted the OS (0.50, confidence intervals 0.29-0.85, P = 0.011), although it was collinear with ypT classification, which was also predictive. Patients not down-staged in ypT (n = 66, 49%) particularly experienced a trend towards improved 3-year survival with optimal lymphadenectomy (51 versus 29%, P = 0.144). Similarly, of patients with persistent nodal disease (n = 79, 59%), those who had optimal lymphadenectomy (n = 51) experienced improved 3-year OS compared with those with suboptimal lymphadenectomy (n = 28), (55 versus 36%, P = 0.087). WECC recommendations regarding lymphadenectomy for EC may be applicable to patients undergoing oesophagectomy following neoadjuvant therapy, particularly those who are not down-staged by pathological tumour depth (T) classification and those with persistent nodal metastases. Techniques to enhance the extent of LAN should be pursued in this patient population.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the comparative effectiveness of various approaches to diaphragmatic hernia (DH) repair, including open abdominal, laparoscopic abdominal, and thoracotomy. Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 1999 to 2008, a comprehensive cohort of 38 764 patients (mean [SD] age, 60.8 [19.5] years) hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of DH who underwent repair was identified. Morbidity and mortality of patients who underwent DH repair. Open approaches were the most common, performed in 91% of patients (open abdominal, n=28 824 [74.4%]; thoracotomy, n=6573 [17.0%]). Hospital mortality was 1.1% or less for each of the approaches. However, patients who underwent a laparoscopic DH repair had a shorter length of stay (mean [SD], 4.5 [0.10] days) and fewer discharges to skilled nursing facilities than those who underwent open abdominal or thoracotomy repair approaches. Patients who underwent a DH repair through a thoracotomy approach had the longest length of stay (mean [SD], 7.8 [0.11] days) and a higher need for postoperative mechanical ventilation than those undergoing open or laparoscopic abdominal approaches (5.6% vs 3.2% vs 2.3%, respectively; P.001). In addition, the thoracotomy approach was found to be an independent predictor for the development of a pulmonary embolism. This large national study demonstrates that most DH repairs are performed through open abdominal and thoracic approaches. Laparoscopic approaches are associated with decreased length of stay and more routine discharges than open abdominal and thoracotomy approaches.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill.: 1960)
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    ABSTRACT: As the population ages, clinicians are increasingly confronted with octogenarians with resectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We reviewed the outcomes of octogenarians who underwent lobectomy for NSCLC by video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) versus open thoracotomy, to determine if there was a benefit to the VATS approach in this group. We conducted a retrospective single-institution review of patients age 80 years or greater who underwent a lobectomy for NSCLC from 1998 to 2009. Outcomes including complication rates, length of stay, disposition, and long-term survival were analyzed. One hundred twenty-one octogenarians underwent lobectomy: 40 VATS and 81 through open thoracotomy. Compared with thoracotomy, VATS patients had fewer complications (35.0% vs 63.0%, p = 0.004), shorter length of stay (5 vs 6 days, p = 0.001), and were less likely to require admission to the intensive care unit (2.5% vs 14.8%, p = 0.038) or rehabilitation after discharge (5% vs 22.5%, p = 0.015). In multivariate analysis, VATS was an independent predictor of reduced complications (odds ratio, 0.35; 95% confidence interval, 0.15 to 0.84; p = 0.019). Survival comparisons demonstrated no significant difference between the two techniques, either in univariate analysis of stage I patients (5-year VATS, 76.0%; thoracotomy, 65.3%; p = 0.111) or multivariate analysis of the entire cohort (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% confidence interval, 0.27 to 1.28; p = 0.183). Octogenarians with NSCLC can undergo resection with low mortality and survival among stage I patients, which is comparable with the general lung cancer population. The VATS approach to resection reduces morbidity in this age demographic, resulting in shorter, less intensive hospitalization, and less frequent need for postoperative rehabilitation.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · The Annals of thoracic surgery

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Journal of the American College of Surgeons

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Journal of the American College of Surgeons
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    ABSTRACT: Current practice is to repair uncomplicated diaphragmatic hernias (UDHs) to avoid complications such as obstruction or gangrene. However, practice patterns are based on limited data. We analyzed the National Inpatient Sample to compare outcomes of patients with obstructed (ODH) or gangrenous (GDH) diaphragmatic hernias and those who underwent repair of UDHs to perform a risk-benefit analysis of observation versus elective repair. We queried the National Inpatient Sample for hospitalized patients who underwent a UDH repair as the principal procedure during their admission. To this repair group, we compared the outcomes of those patients who had a diagnosis of GDH or ODH. A risk-benefit analysis of observation versus elective repair was performed based on these data. Over a 10-year period, 193,554 admissions for the diagnosis of diaphragmatic hernia were identified. A UDH was the diagnosis in 161,777 (83.6%) admissions with 38,764 (24.0%) admissions for elective repair. ODH or GDH was the reason for admission in 31,127 (16.1%) and 651 (0.3%), respectively. Compared with patients who underwent elective repair, mortality was higher in patients with ODH or GDH (1% vs 4.5%; P < .001; and 1% vs 27.5%; P < .001). Risk-benefit analysis suggested a small but real benefit to elective repair in patients aged 50 to 70 years or if the operative mortality is 1% or less. Elective UDH repair is associated with better outcomes than admissions for ODH or GDH with a favorable risk-benefit profile than observation if the operative mortality is low.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2011 · The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Radiation dose from diagnostic imaging procedures is not monitored in patients undergoing surgery for lung cancer. Evidence suggests an increased lifetime risk of malignancy of 1.0% per 100 millisieverts (mSv). As such, recommendations are to restrict healthcare and radiation workers to a maximum dose of 50 mSv per year or to 100 mSv over a three-year period. The purpose of this study was to estimate cumulative effective doses of radiation in patients undergoing lung cancer resection and to determine predictors of increased exposure. We identified 94 consecutive patients undergoing resection for non-small cell lung cancer. Radiologic procedures performed from one year prior to resection until two years postresection were recorded. Estimates of effective doses (mSv) were obtained from published literature and institutional records. Predictors of dose greater than 50 mSv per year and greater than 100 mSv per three years were examined statistically. The majority of patients (median age = 67 years) had stage IA cancer (52%). In the three-year period, patients had 1,958 radiologic studies (20.8/patient) including 398 computed tomographic (CT) scans (4.23/patient) and 211 positron emission tomography (PET) scans (2.24 per patient). The three-year median estimated radiation dose was 84.0 mSv (interquartile range, 44.1 to 123.2 mSv). The highest dose was in the preoperative year. In any one year, 66% of patients received more than 50 mSv, while 19% received over 100 mSv. Over the three-year period, 43.6% of patients exceeded 100 mSv. The majority of the radiation (89.8%) was from CT or PET scans. On multivariate analysis, a history of previous malignancy (odds ratio [OR] 3.8; confidence interval [CI] 1.14 to 12.7), postoperative complications (OR 6.16; CI 1.42 to 26.6), and postoperative surveillance with PET-CT (OR 13.2; CI 4.34 to 40.3) predicted exposure greater than 100 mSv over the three-year period. This study demonstrates that lung cancer patients often receive a higher dose of radiation than that considered safe for healthcare and radiation workers. The median cumulative dose reported in this study could potentially increase the individual estimated lifetime cancer risk by as much as 0.8%. Although risk-benefit considerations are clearly different between these groups, strategies should be in place to decrease radiation doses during the preoperative workup and postoperative period.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2011 · The Annals of thoracic surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Myoepitheliomas have been described most commonly in salivary glands and have been reported elsewhere but are rare in the lung, with only six previously reported cases. To our knowledge, this represents the first endotracheal myoepithelioma. These tumors have characteristic features that distinguish them from other tumors, and the diagnosis is a pathologic one, based on the morphology and supported by immunohistochemistry. Myoepitheliomas should be considered in the diagnosis of any pulmonary nodule.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2011 · Chest
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    ABSTRACT: No consensus exists on the optimal treatment strategy for clinical T2-T3N0M0 esophageal cancer. This study was conducted to determine rates of nodal positivity (N+) and to evaluate results of treatment strategies in this cohort. Surgically treated patients with cT2-T3N0M0 esophageal cancer were reviewed. Adequacy of lymph node dissection was assessed by guidelines applied to clinical stage. Survival was determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Univariate and multivariate analyses were done for predictors of N+ and survival. We identified 102 patients, 51 cT2N0 and 51 cT3N0, 39 (38%) of whom had induction therapy. Despite being clinically node negative, 61 patients (60%) had nodal metastases. Applied to cT classification, adequate nodal dissection was achieved in 64 patients (63%). Transthoracic esophagectomy was more likely than transhiatal esophagectomy to achieve adequate nodal dissection (69% versus 31%, p=0.005). Adequate nodal dissection was more likely to document pN+ disease in both the surgery alone group (70% versus 50%, p=0.13) and induction therapy group (71% versus 33%, p=0.02). Five-year overall survival was 44% with surgery alone and 55% with induction therapy. On multivariate analysis, pN+ was the strongest predictor of overall survival (relative risk 2.73, confidence interval: 1.29 to 5.78). Most cT2-T3N0M0 patients have pN+ disease. Despite induction therapy, more than 50% have persistent nodal disease. Transthoracic esophagectomy is more likely to detect pN+ disease and more likely to meet criteria of adequate nodal dissection than is transhiatal esophagectomy. Therefore, the majority of patients with cT2-T3N0M0 should be considered for neoadjuvant protocols and should be treated by transthoracic resection whenever possible.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · The Annals of thoracic surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Cesium-131 ((131)Cs) radioactive seed is Food and Drug Administration approved for permanent seed implant for all cancers, including lung and head and neck (HN) cancers. We describe the first clinical report of (131)Cs dosimetry and exposure rates to treating physicians and staff. Twenty-eight patients received (131)Cs implant for early stage lung and recurrent HN cancers. A nomogram was developed to calculate the number of seeds needed to cover the wedge line with the prescription dose (80 Gy). Final dosimetry was obtained after CT planning a few days following the surgical procedure. Radiation exposure to the treating physicians and staff was measured at the completion of the procedure. A nomogram was developed using the variseed software with source data from American Association of Physicists in Medicine TG-43 report. The total volume covered by the prescription isodose line of (131)Cs was measured and compared with (125)I. The prescription volume was smaller for (131)Cs. In addition, the exposure rate with (131)Cs was found to be acceptable. Our preliminary experience with (131)Cs lung and HN brachytherapy has been very encouraging with excellent dosimetric coverage and acceptable exposure to the treating physicians and staff.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Brachytherapy
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    ABSTRACT: The primary objective of this study was to determine the rate of pathological response after preoperative celecoxib and concurrent taxane-based chemotherapy in patients with cancer of the esophagus and gastroesophageal junction. Thirty-nine patients were enrolled in this single-arm, phase II clinical trial. Patients were administered daily celecoxib in combination with two to three cycles of carboplatin and paclitaxel with preoperative intent. Levels of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in resected tumors were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and correlated with clinical outcome measures. Postoperatively, patients were administered daily celecoxib for 1 year or until documented tumor recurrence. All patients received two to three cycles of chemotherapy plus celecoxib 800 mg/d. Toxicities were as expected. A major clinical response (complete response + partial response) was noted in 22 patients (56%); six patients (15%) had a complete clinical response. Thirty-seven patients underwent esophagectomy. Five patients had a major pathological response (12.8%). Four-year overall and disease-free survivals were 40.9% and 30.3%, respectively. Patients with tumors expressing COX-2 demonstrated a higher likelihood of a major clinical response response (62% versus 50%) and an improved overall survival, compared with patients with COX-2-negative tumors. Preoperative celecoxib with concurrent chemotherapy demonstrated sufficient effect on pathologic response to warrant further study. Patients with tumors expressing COX-2 demonstrated trends toward improved response to preoperative therapy and improved overall survival compared with nonexpressors.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: The prognosis for patients with esophageal cancer is poor, even among those who undergo potentially curative esophagectomy. The neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is hypothesized to reflect the systemic inflammatory response created by a tumor and is possibly predictive of tumor aggressiveness and propensity for metastasis. We performed a single-center retrospective analysis of esophageal cancer patients who underwent attempted curative esophagectomy at Weill Cornell Medical Center between 1996 and 2009. We collected data on patient demographics, clinical characteristics, and receipt of neoadjuvant treatment. Preoperative blood tests were used to calculate NLR. Elevated NLR was defined a priori as ≥5.0. Logistic regression modeling was performed to analyze characteristics associated with elevated NLR. We conducted Kaplan-Meier analyses and Cox regression modeling to determine estimates and predictors of disease-free and overall survival. We identified a total of 295 patients who underwent esophagectomy. The median duration of follow-up was 31 months (interquartile range [IQR] 13-61). There were 56 patients (18.9%) who had elevated NLR preoperatively. Receipt of neoadjuvant therapy was independently associated with high NLR (odds ratio [OR] 2.14, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.02-4.51). In multivariable analyses, elevated NLR was associated with significantly worse disease-free (hazard ratio [HR] 2.26, 95% CI 1.43-3.55) and overall survival (HR 2.31, 95% CI 1.53-3.50). Preoperative NLR is a potential prognostic marker for recurrence and death after esophagectomy. It is unclear whether NLR reflects the degree of inflammatory response to the primary tumor or other patient-specific or tumor characteristics that predispose to recurrence. Further investigation is warranted to clarify the mechanisms explaining the observed associations between elevated NLR and poor outcomes in esophageal cancer.
    Full-text · Article · May 2011 · Annals of Surgical Oncology
  • Andrew B Nguyen · Paul C Lee · Subroto Paul

    No preview · Article · Apr 2011 · The Annals of thoracic surgery
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to analyze factors predictive of recurrence and disease-free survival in patients with completely resected esophageal carcinoma. We conducted a retrospective review of a prospective database to identify patients with completely resected esophageal carcinoma. Medical records were reviewed. Recurrence rates, time to recurrence, and disease-free survival were analyzed. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for time to event estimation, and multivariate Cox regression models were constructed to analyze factors thought to be significant in determining both freedom from recurrence and disease-free survival. From 1988 to 2009, 465 of 500 patients underwent complete resection for esophageal carcinoma. Median follow-up for living patients was 49 months; 197 patients (42.4%) had recurrence, leading to 175 patients dying of cancer and 22 patients living with recurrent disease. Multivariate regression adjusted for P stage identified the following variables as independent predictors of freedom from recurrence: performance status greater than 0 (hazard ratio [HR], 1.84; 95 confidence interval [CI], 1.35-2.49]; P < .001), poor differentiation (HR, 1.50; CI, 1.12-2.01; P = .006), induction therapy (HR, 1.65; CI, 1.21-2.25]; P = .002), en bloc resection (HR, 0.61; CI, 0.43-0.88; P = .007), and advanced pathologic stages (II/III/IV) (HR, 5.46; CI, 3.05-9.78; P < .001). Independent predictors of disease-free survival adjusted for P stage were performance status greater than 0 (HR, 1.73; CI, 1.34-2.23; P < .001), en bloc resection (HR, 0.63; CI, 0.47-0.84; P = .002), induction therapy (HR, 1.34; CI, 1.02-1.76; P = .033), and advanced pathologic stages (II/III/IV) (HR, 3.16; CI, 2.15-4.65; P < .001). For patients with completely resected esophageal cancer, independent predictors of improved freedom from recurrence and disease-free survival include good performance status, en bloc resection, and early pathologic stage.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
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    ABSTRACT: In clinical stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer, the role of surgical resection, particularly pneumonectomy, after induction therapy remains controversial. Our objective was to determine factors predictive of survival after postinduction surgical resection. We retrospectively reviewed a prospectively collected database of 136 patients who underwent surgical resection after induction chemotherapy (n = 119) or chemoradiation (n = 17) from June 1990 to January 2010. One hundred five lobectomies or bilobectomies and 31 pneumonectomies were performed. There was 1 perioperative death (pneumonectomy). Seventy-one patients had downstaging to N0 or N1 nodal status (52%). There were 2 complete pathologic responses. Median follow-up was 42 months (range, 0.69-136 months). Overall 5-year survival for entire cohort was 33% (36% lobectomy, 22% pneumonectomy, P = .001). Patients with pathologic downstaging to pN0 or pN1 had improved 5-year survival (45% vs 20%, P = .003). For patients with pN0 or pN1 disease, survival after lobectomy was better than after pneumonectomy (48% vs 27%, P = .011). In patients with residual N2 disease, there was no statistically significant survival difference between lobectomy and pneumonectomy (5-year survival, 21% vs 19%; P = .136). Multivariate analysis showed as independent predictors of survival age (hazard ratio, 1.05; P = .002), extent of resection (hazard ratio, 2.01; P = .026), and presence of residual pN2 (hazard ratio, 1.60; P = .047). After induction therapy for patients with clinical stage IIIA disease, both pneumonectomy and lobectomy can be safely performed. Although survival after lobectomy is better, long-term survival can be accomplished after pneumonectomy for appropriately selected patients. Nodal downstaging is important determinant of survival, particularly after lobectomy.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Although patients with esophageal cancer (EC) often develop lymph node metastases in the cervical and recurrent laryngeal (CRL) distribution, lymphadenectomy in this field is rarely performed. The purpose of this study was to determine factors associated with CRL node positivity and to determine the appropriate indications to perform a "three field" lymphadenectomy. In a retrospective review, EC patients who underwent three-field lymphadenectomy were analyzed. Predictors of positive CRL nodes were examined univariately, then selected for inclusion in a multivariate logistic regression model. From 1994 to 2009, 185 patients had a three-field lymphadenectomy, of whom 46 patients (24.9%) had positive CRL nodes. Final pathology stages (seventh edition) were I in 24 patients, II in 43, III in 109, and IV in 1 patient. Eight patients had a major pathologic response after induction therapy. On univariate analysis, variables significantly associated with positive CRL nodes included squamous cell histology, proximal location, advanced clinical presentation, the presence of clinical nodal disease, higher pT classification, and higher pN classification. There was no reduction in the rate of positive CRL nodes after induction chemotherapy. On multivariate analysis, higher pN classification (adjusted odds ratio 16.25, 95% confidence interval: 5.40 to 48.87; p < 0.0001) and squamous histology (adjusted odds ratio 6.04, 95% confidence interval: 2.21 to 16.56; p < 0.0001) predicted positive CRL nodes. Complete lymphadenectomy is necessary in esophageal cancer to appropriately stage patients. Low rates of positive CRL nodes are present with early clinical stage, with pT0-2 tumors, and with pN0 classification, particularly in patients with adenocarcinoma and gastroesophageal junction tumors. Dissection of the CRL field should be considered with advanced disease for adenocarcinoma and in all patients with squamous cell cancer.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2010 · The Annals of thoracic surgery

Publication Stats

2k Citations
315.62 Total Impact Points


  • 2007-2015
    • New York Presbyterian Hospital
      • Department of Thoracic Surgery
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2005-2015
    • Weill Cornell Medical College
      • • Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery
      • • Department of Public Health
      • • Department of Genetic Medicine
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2008-2014
    • New York Hospital Queens
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2005-2012
    • Cornell University
      Итак, New York, United States