[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Excessive dietary P intake alone can be deleterious to bone through increased parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion, but adverse effects on bone increase when dietary Ca intake is low. In many countries, P intake is abundant, whereas Ca intake fails to meet recommendations; an optimal dietary Ca:P ratio is therefore difficult to achieve. Our objective was to investigate how habitual dietary Ca:P ratio affects serum PTH (S-PTH) concentration and other Ca metabolism markers in a population with generally adequate Ca intake. In this cross-sectional analysis of 147 healthy women aged 31-43 years, fasting blood samples and three separate 24-h urinary samples were collected. Participants kept a 4-d food record and were divided into quartiles according to their dietary Ca:P ratios. The 1st quartile with Ca:P molar ratio < or = 0.50 differed significantly from the 2nd (Ca:P molar ratio 0.51-0.57), 3rd (Ca:P molar ratio 0.58-0.64) and 4th (Ca:P molar ratio > or = 0.65) quartiles by interfering with Ca metabolism. In the 1st quartile, mean S-PTH concentration (P = 0.021) and mean urinary Ca (U-Ca) excretion were higher (P = 0.051) than in all other quartiles. These findings suggest that in habitual diets low Ca:P ratios may interfere with homoeostasis of Ca metabolism and increase bone resorption, as indicated by higher S-PTH and U-Ca levels. Because low habitual dietary Ca:P ratios are common in Western diets, more attention should be focused on decreasing excessively high dietary P intake and increasing Ca intake to the recommended level.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · The British journal of nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Foods can contain natural phosphorus (NP) and phosphate-containing food additives (AP). The main objective of the present study was to investigate whether NP and AP of habitual diets differ in their effects on markers of Ca metabolism. We also investigated the impact of total habitual dietary P intake on markers of Ca metabolism.
Cross-sectional study. Fasting blood samples were collected and participants kept a 4 d food record, from which dietary intake of total P and the consumption of NP (milk and cheese, excluding processed cheese) and AP (processed cheese) sources were calculated. Participants were divided into groups according to their NP- and AP-containing food consumption and into quartiles according to their total P intake.
One hundred and forty-seven healthy premenopausal women aged 31-43 years.
Relative to the lowest total dietary P quartile, mean serum parathyroid hormone (S-PTH) concentration was higher (P = 0.048, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA)) and the mean serum ionized Ca concentration lower (P = 0.016, ANCOVA) in the highest P intake quartile. Mean S-PTH concentrations were higher among participants who consumed processed cheese (P = 0.027, ANCOVA) and less milk and other cheese than processed cheese (P = 0.030, ANCOVA).
High total habitual dietary P intake affected S-PTH unfavourably. Furthermore, phosphate additives may have more harmful effects on bone than other P sources, as indicated by higher mean S-PTH concentration among participants who consumed AP-containing foods. Because of the high dietary P intake and current upward trend in consumption of processed foods in Western countries, these findings may have important public health implications.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2009 · Public Health Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thus far the search for osteoporosis candidate genes has focused less attention on the regulation of calcium homeostasis. Associations of vitamin D receptor (VDR) FokI, calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) A986S and parathyroid hormone (PTH) BstBI polymorphisms with calcium homeostasis and peripheral bone density were investigated in adult Finns.
The subgroup of the population-based FINRISK survey consists of 339 healthy adults aged 31-43 years. Lifestyle data were assessed with questionnaires and food diaries. DNA was isolated from blood, and biochemical determinants of calcium metabolism were measured from blood and 24-hour urine samples. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using the DXA method at the distal forearm and by quantitative ultrasound (broadband ultrasound attenuation and speed of sound) at the calcaneus. Subjects were genotyped for VDR FokI, CaSR A986S and PTH BstBI polymorphisms.
The CaSR 986S allele was associated with higher serum ionized calcium (p = 0.014). Forearm BMD was lowest for the PTH BstBI genotype bb in males (p = 0.023). VDR FokI and PTH BstBI polymorphisms showed a significant interaction on serum PTH (p = 0.010). The other gene-gene or diet-gene interactions studied showed no significant results.
VDR, CaSR and PTH contribute to the genetic regulation of calcium homeostasis and peripheral bone density.
No preview · Article · Feb 2009 · Journal of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate whether a plant sterol mixture would reduce serum cholesterol when added to low fat dairy products in subjects with hypercholesterolaemia, and to examine the effects of the mixture on the serum plant sterol and fat-soluble vitamin levels.
A parallel, double-blind study.
The study was performed in three different locations in Finland.
In total, 164 mildly or moderately hypercholesterolaemic subjects participated in the study.
The subjects were randomly divided into two groups: a plant sterol group and a control group. The subjects consumed the products for 6 weeks after a 3-week run-in period. The targeted plant sterol intake was 2 g/day in the sterol group.
During the treatment period, there was a 6.5% reduction in serum total cholesterol in the sterol group while no change was observed in the control group (P<0.0005). Serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was reduced by 10.4% in the sterol group and by 0.6% in the control group (P<0.00005). There was no change during the trial in serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol or triacylglycerol concentrations. The HDL/LDL cholesterol ratio increased by 16.1% in the sterol group and by 4.3% in the control group (P=0.0001). Serum plant sterol levels increased significantly (P=0.0001) in the sterol group. None of the fat-soluble vitamin levels decreased significantly when changes in serum total cholesterol were taken into account. The hypocholesterolaemic effect of sterol administration was not influenced by apolipoprotein E phenotype.
Yoghurt, low-fat hard cheese and low-fat fresh cheese enriched with a plant sterol mixture reduced serum cholesterol in hypercholesterolaemic subjects and no adverse effects were noted in the dietary control of hypercholesterolaemia.
Full-text · Article · May 2006 · European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the association between vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene FokI polymorphism and bone mineral density and quantitative ultrasound parameters in Finnish adolescents. We assessed bone mineral density at the distal sites of radius and ulna, quantitative ultrasound of the calcaneus, serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), calcium intake, physical activity, and BsmI and FokI polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor gene in 86 girls and 38 boys aged 14 to 16 years. In girls, FokI polymorphism was not significantly associated with bone mineral density or quantitative ultrasound parameters. In adolescent boys, the Ff genotype was associated with higher forearm BMD and calcaneal ultrasound values, when adjusted for body and bone size, BsmI polymorphism, calcium intake, vitamin D status, smoking, and physical activity.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2004 · Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone mineral density (BMD) is regulated by genetic and environmental factors. Sixty percent to 80% of bone mass is suggested to be under polygenetic control, but the role of individual genes seems to be modest. Several studies have indicated that the vitamin D receptor ( VDR) gene has a role in the regulation of BMD and bone metabolism, but the results are very controversial. We studied the associations between BsmI-polymorphism of the VDR gene and BMD and bone metabolism in 24 premenopausal (aged 22-45 years) and 69 postmenopausal (aged 48-65 years) Finnish women. The BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck and bone turnover markers were measured, and the intestinal calcium absorption was investigated, using a method based on the absorption of non-radioactive strontium. The genotype distribution was 16%, BB; 34.5%, Bb; and 49.5%, bb, which differs from the genotype distribution found in other Caucasian populations, but is similar to earlier Finnish reports. The winter value of 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25-OH-D) was highest for the BB genotype in both age groups (analysis of covariance [ANCOVA]; premenopausal women P = 0.5, postmenopausal women P = 0.03, and for the groups combined P = 0.02). Lumbar spine BMD and intestinal strontium absorption were highest for the BB genotype in both age groups, but these results were nonsignificant. The markers of bone metabolism did not differ significantly between the VDR genotypes. The BB genotype had the best vitamin D status, which could explain the differences in calcium absorption between the genotypes. However, the conclusions of our study are limited because of the small number of subjects.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2002 · Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study was designed to evaluate the vitamin D status in women of different physiological status of two socio-economic groups in Bangladesh.
A cross-sectional study, using serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase activity.
Two regions of Bangladesh. The Dhaka city area and west region of Nandail (Betagair Union), Mymensingh.
Representative subjects of two groups (low socio-economic group=group L, n=99; and high socio-economic group=group H, n=90) of Bangladeshi women aged 16-40 y. About 87% of the subjects were housewives and the rest, 13%, were distributed among other different professions. Each group comprised of three sub-groups (non-pregnant non-lactating=1, pregnant=2, and lactating=3).
The influence of socio-economic status and physiological status on serum 25-OHD concentration (P=0.038, P=0.015, respectively), serum calcium concentration (P<0.001, P<0.001, respectively) and alkaline phosphatase activity (P<0.001, P<0.001, respectively) were observed. The distribution of serum 25-OHD concentration in both groups was shifted overall toward the lower limit of the normal range. Seventeen percent of women in group L and 12% of women in group H had serum 25-OHD concentration <25 nmol/l. Hypovitaminosis D (serum 25-OHD concentration < or = 37.5 nmol/l) was observed in 50% of subjects in group L and 38% of subjects in group H, respectively. The prevalence of hypovitaminosis was higher in lactating subjects of the groups L and H (63 and 46%, respectively) than in the other sub-groups in the same group.
The results of the study suggested that women in Bangladesh were at risk of hypovitaminosis D and lactation was an additional risk factor in low income groups. The situation may increase the risk of bone loss.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2002 · European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A low vitamin D status could be a concern not only in children and the elderly in Europe, but also in adults. We do not know the effect of mild vitamin D deficiency on bone in this age group. The aim of this study was to detect the prevalence of low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [S-25(OH)D] and elevated serum intact parathyroid hormone (S-iPTH) concentrations in healthy young adults in the winter in northern Europe and to characterize the determinants of these variables. In addition, we studied the association between vitamin D status and forearm bone mineral density (BMD) in this population group. Three hundred and twenty-eight healthy adults (202 women and 126 men, 31-43 years) from southern Finland (60 degrees N) participated in this study conducted in February through March 1998. Fasting overnight blood samples were collected in the morning. Forearm BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The mean daily vitamin D intake met the recommendations in the men (5.6 +/- 3.2 microg) and almost met it in the women (4.7 +/- 2.5 microg). The mean S-25(OH)D concentrations did not differ between genders (women, 47 +/- 34 nM; men, 45 +/- 35 nM; mean +/- SD), but the women had significantly higher mean S-iPTH levels than the men (women, 30 +/- 13 ng/liter; men, 24 +/- 12 ng/liter; p < 0.001). Low S-25(OH)D concentrations (<25 nM) were found in 26.2% of the women (53 women) and 28.6% of the men (36 men), respectively. Based on nonlinear regression analysis between S-25(OH)D and S-iPTH concentration, the S-iPTH concentration started to increase with S-25(OH)D concentrations lower than approximately 80 nM in the women and lower than approximately 40 nM in the men. Based on this relation between S-25(OH)D and S-iPTH concentrations, 86% of the women and 56% of the men had an insufficient vitamin D status. In linear regression analysis, the main positive determinants of S-25(OH)D were dietary vitamin D intake (p < 0.02), the use of supplements (p < 0.005), alcohol intake (p < 0.05), and age (p < 0.005). Smoking associated negatively with the S-25(OH)D concentration (p < 0.03). The main determinants of S-iPTH were S-25(OH)D (p < 0.01), dietary calcium intake (p < 0.02), and body mass index (BMI; p < 0.01). In addition, female gender was associated with higher S-iPTH concentration. The mean daily dietary calcium intake was 1,037 +/- 489 mg and 962 +/- 423 mg, in the men and women, respectively. Significantly lower forearm BMD was found in the men (p = 0.01) but not in the women (p = 0.14) with higher S-iPTH concentrations. Low vitamin D status was prevalent in these young adults in northern Europe in winter, although the vitamin D intake met the recommendation. This probably is not a local problem for northern Europe, because the natural sources of vitamin D are scarce and fortification is not very common in Europe, and with the exception of the southern part of Europe, sunshine is not very abundant in this part of the world. Thus, the results of this study indicate that more attention should be focused on vitamin D status and the sources of vitamin D in these countries.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2001 · Journal of Bone and Mineral Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vitamin D deficiency leads to secondary hyperparathyroidism, which has a negative effect on bone metabolism in the elderly. Puberty is an important time of bone metabolism and growth. The effect of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations on parathyroid hormone concentrations and bone mineral density (BMD) has not been well studied cross-sectionally in adolescents.
We studied the effect of vitamin D status on serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) concentrations and bone metabolism in adolescents.
One hundred seventy-eight healthy female adolescents (aged 14-16 y) volunteered for this study, which was conducted in Finland (Helsinki, 60 degrees N) during the winter. Forearm BMD at radial and ulnar sites was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The determinants of different variables were studied by use of regression models.
On the basis of the relation between serum 25(OH)D and iPTH concentrations, serum 25(OH)D concentrations > approximately 40 nmol/L were needed to keep serum iPTH concentrations low. One hundred ten subjects (61.8%) had serum 25(OH)D concentrations < or =40 nmol/L. Twenty-four subjects (13.5%) were considered vitamin D deficient when the serum 25(OH)D concentration of 25 nmol/L was used as a cutoff. Subjects with serum 25(OH)D concentrations < or =40 nmol/L had low mean forearm BMD values at both the radial (P = 0.04) and ulnar (P = 0.08) sites.
A large percentage of adolescent females have low vitamin D status during the winter in Finland, which seems to have negative effects on bone health.
No preview · Article · Sep 2001 · American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study vitamin D status and bone metabolism of premenopausal vegetarians and omnivores during a 1-year period.
Longitudinal, observational study. Bone mineral density was measured, blood samples from fasting subjects were obtained, and 24-hour urinary samples were collected in February 1994, August 1994, and January 1995. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [S-25(OH)D] and intact parathyroid hormone (S-iPTH) concentrations were measured and intestinal calcium absorption was estimated. Dietary intakes of vitamin D and calcium were calculated.
Six vegans, 6 lactovegetarians, and 16 omnivores living in Helsinki, Finland.
Student-Newman-Keuls test; unbalanced, repeated-measures multiple analysis of variance; analysis of covariance; Pearson correlation test; and linear regression analysis.
Dietary intake of vitamin D was significantly lower in vegans (P < .05, yearly mean +/- standard deviation = 0.09 +/- 0.06 microgram/day) and in lactovegetarians (P < .05, 0.7 +/- 0.4 microgram/day) compared with omnivores (4.0 +/- 2.1 micrograms/day). Throughout the year S-25(OH)D (P = .01) concentrations were lower and S-iPTH (P = .01) concentrations were higher in vegans than in omnivores and lactovegetarians. Bone mineral density in the lumbar region of the spine was lower in vegans (yearly mean +/- standard deviation = 1.034 +/- 0.174 g/cm2) than in omnivores (P = .05, 1.177 +/- 0.099 g/cm2) and tended to be lower than that in lactovegetarians (P = .17, 1.138 +/- 0.06 g/cm2). Bone mineral density in the neck of the femur tended to be lower in vegans (0.843 +/- 0.116 g/cm2) than in omnivores (P = .07, 0.999 +/- 0.138 g/cm2) and lactovegetarians (P = .15, 0.961 +/- 0.059 g/cm2). No seasonal variation was found in bone mineral density in the study groups.
At northern latitudes, dietary intake of vitamin D in vegans was insufficient to maintain S-25(OH)D and S-iPTH concentrations within normal ranges in the winter, which seems to have negative effects on bone mineral density in the long run.
An increase in vitamin D intake should generally be recommended for vegans at least during winter, or selections of foodstuffs fortified with vitamin D should be broadened in northern latitudes.
No preview · Article · Apr 2000 · Journal of the American Dietetic Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The bioavailability of vitamin D from mushrooms in humans is unknown.
We investigated the bioavailability of vitamin D from wild edible mushrooms (Cantharellus tubaeformis) using the increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations as a measure of vitamin D bioavailability.
Twenty-seven volunteers with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations <60 nmol/L (mean : 38.5 nmol/L; range: 15-60 nmol/L) were randomly divided into 3 groups of 9 persons each. For 3 wk, excluding Saturdays and Sundays, group 1 received mushrooms (C. tubaeformis) providing 14 microg ergocalciferol/d with their lunch, group 2 (control) received an ergocalciferol supplement providing 14 microg/d, and group 3 (also a control) received no supplementation.
At the beginning of the study, mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations did not differ significantly among the groups (P = 0.280). When all 3 groups were considered, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations showed different time-related changes among the groups during the study: group (P = 0.388), time (P = 0.000), and group x time (P = 0.001). When groups 1 and 2 were compared with group 3, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations at 3 wk differed significantly between groups 1 and 3 (P = 0.032) as well as between groups 2 and 3 (P = 0.004). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations at 3 wk did not differ significantly between groups 1 and 2 (P = 0.317).
We showed for the first time that ergocalciferol was well absorbed from lyophilized and homogenized mushrooms in humans and that vitamin D bioavailability can be studied in humans with such an experimental protocol.
No preview · Article · Feb 1999 · American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have investigated the food and nutrient intake of five demi-vegans, six lacto-vegetarians and fourteen omnivores, all females and aged 22-45 years, collecting a total of 42 dietary records per person in 2-day periods during one year. The yearly mean intakes of cereals, vegetables, fruits and berries, dietary fibre and vitamin C were higher and that of sugar, eggs, saturated fat and cholesterol lower in the vegetarians than in the omnivores. The intake of iron was higher in the vegetarians, but their serum ferritin levels were lower throughout the year than in the omnivores indicating lower iron status in vegetarians. The vegetarian diets provided practically no vitamin D, which was reflected in a low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D concentration during spring, but during summer concentrations increased to the adequate level. Furthermore, the mean iodine intake of vegetarians using minor amounts of dairy products was below the recommended level. Thus, the vegetarians had lower cholesterol, saturated fat and higher carbohydrates and fibre intakes than omnivores. However, seven of the eleven vegetarians were iron deficient throughout the year and six had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D concentrations below reference values in the winter.
No preview · Article · Mar 1998 · Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition/Naringsforskning
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: The study was designed to evaluate the vitamin D status in women of different physiological status of two socio- economic groups in Bangladesh. Design: A cross-sectional study, using serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase activity. Setting: Two regions of Bangladesh. The Dhaka city area and west region of Nandail (Betagair Union), Mymensingh. Subjects: Representative subjects of two groups (low socio-economic group ¼ group L, n ¼ 99; and high socio-economic group ¼ group H, n ¼ 90) of Bangladeshi women aged 16 - 40 y. About 87% of the subjects were housewives and the rest, 13%, were distributed among other different professions. Each group comprised of three sub-groups (non-pregnant non- lactating ¼ 1, pregnant ¼ 2, and lactating ¼ 3). Results: The influence of socio-economic status and physiological status on serum 25-OHD concentration (P ¼ 0.038, P ¼ 0.015, respectively), serum calcium concentration (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively) and alkaline phosphatase activity (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively) were observed. The distribution of serum 25-OHD concentration in both groups was shifted overall toward the lower limit of the normal range. Seventeen percent of women in group L and 12% of women in group H had serum 25-OHD concentration < 25 nmol=l. Hypovitaminosis D (serum 25-OHD concentration � 37.5 nmol=l) was observed in 50% of subjects in group L and 38% of subjects in group H, respectively. The prevalence of hypovitaminosis was higher in lactating subjects of the groups L and H (63 and 46%, respectively) than in the other sub-groups in the same group. Conclusions: The results of the study suggested that women in Bangladesh were at risk of hypovitaminosis D and lactation was an additional risk factor in low income groups. The situation may increase the risk of bone loss.