[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify predictors of residual beta-cell function and glycemic control during the first 12 months after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1D).
Clinical information and blood samples were collected from 275 children. HbA1c, antibodies, HLA typing and mixed meal-stimulated C-peptide levels 1, 6, and 12 months after diagnosis were analyzed centrally.
Mean age at diagnosis was 9.1 yr. DKA with standard bicarbonate <15 mmol/L was associated with significantly poorer residual beta-cell function 1 (p = 0.004) and 12 months (p = 0.0003) after diagnosis. At 12 months, the decline in stimulated C-peptide levels compared with the levels at 1 month was 69% in the youngest age group and 50% in patients 10 yr and above (p < 0.001). Stimulated C-peptide at 12 months was predicted by younger age (p < 0.02) and bicarbonate levels at diagnosis (p = 0.005), and by stimulated C-peptide (p < 0.0001), postmeal blood glucose (p = 0.0004), insulin antibodies (IA; p = 0.02) and glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADA; p = 0.0004) at 1 month. HbA1c at 12 months was predicted by HbA1c at diagnosis (p < 0.0001), GADA at 1 month (p = 0.01), and non-white Caucasian ethnicity (p = 0.002).
Younger age, ketoacidosis at diagnosis, and IA and GADA 1 month after diagnosis were the strongest explanatory factors for residual beta-cell function at 12 months. Glycemic control at 12 months was influenced predominantly by ethnicity, HbA1c at diagnosis, and GADA at 1 month.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Th1 related chemokines CCL3 and CCL5 and Th2 related CCL4 as ligands of the receptor CCR5 contribute to disease development in animal models of type 1 diabetes. In humans, no data are available addressing the role of these chemokines regarding disease progression and remission. We investigated longitudinally circulating concentrations of CCR5 ligands of 256 newly diagnosed patients with type 1 diabetes. CCR5 ligands were differentially associated with beta-cell function and clinical remission. CCL5 was decreased in remitters and positively associated with HbA1c suggestive of a Th1 associated progression of the disease. Likewise, CCL3 was negatively related to C-peptide and positively associated with the beta-cell stress marker proinsulin but increased in remitters. CCL4 associated with decreased beta-cell stress shown by negative association with proinsulin. Blockage of chemokines or antagonism of CCR5 by therapeutic agents such as maraviroc may provide a new therapeutic target to ameliorate disease progression in type 1 diabetes.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2008 · Clinical Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 2 gene (IDDM2) is a type 1 diabetes susceptibility locus contributed to by the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) upstream of the insulin gene (INS). We investigated the association between INS VNTR class III alleles (-23HphIA/T) and both insulin antibody presentation and residual beta cell function during the first year after diagnosis in 257 children with type 1 diabetes.
To estimate C-peptide levels and autoantibody presentation, patients underwent a meal-stimulated C-peptide test 1, 6, and 12 months after diagnosis. The insulin -23HphIA/T variant was used as a marker of class III alleles and genotyped by PCR-RFLP.
The insulin antibody titres at 1 and 6 months were significantly lower in the class III/III and class I/III genotype groups than in the class I/I genotype group (p = 0.01). Class III alleles were also associated with residual beta cell function 12 months after diagnosis and independently of age, sex, BMI, insulin antibody titres, and HLA-risk genotype group (p = 0.03). The C-peptide level was twice as high among class III/III genotypes as in class I/I and class I/III genotypes (319 vs 131 and 166 pmol/l, p=0.01). Furthermore, the class III/III genotype had a 1.1% reduction in HbA(1)c after adjustment for insulin dose (p = 0.04).
These findings suggest a direct connection in vivo between INS VNTR class III alleles, a decreased humoral immune response to insulin, and preservation of beta cell function in recent-onset type 1 diabetes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously shown a strong relationship between high angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity, presence of the deletion (D) allele of the ACEgene and recall of severe hypoglycaemic events in patients with Type 1 diabetes. This study was carried out to assess this relationship prospectively.
We followed 171 adult outpatients with Type 1 diabetes in a one-year observational study with the recording of severe hypoglycaemia. Participants were characterised by serum ACE activity and ACE genotype and not treated with ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor antagonists.
There was a positive relationship between serum ACE activity and rate of severe hypoglycaemia with a 2.7 times higher rate in the fourth quartile of ACE activity compared to the first quartile (p=0.0007). A similar relationship was observed for the subset of episodes with coma (2.9 times higher rate in fourth quartile compared to first quartile; p=0.048). The impact of serum ACE activity was most pronounced in C-peptide negative subjects (4.2 times higher rate in fourth quartile compared to first quartile; p=0.003), and in this subgroup carriers of the D allele of the ACEgene had higher rates of severe hypoglycaemia compared to the group homozygous for the insertion (I) allele. In a multiple regression analysis high serum ACE activity and impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia were identified as the only significant predictors of severe hypoglycemia.
High ACE activity and the presence of the D allele of the ACE gene predict a high rate of severe hypoglycaemia in Type 1 diabetes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims After Danish nationwide investigations (1987, 1989) demonstrated unacceptable blood glucose control in unselected young diabetic patients, we set out to estimate the present glycaemic control and the prevalence of microvascular complications in a cohort of children and adolescents participating in the two previous studies.Methods This follow-up represents 339 patients (47% of the inception cohort), median age 21.1 years (range 12.0–26.9), median diabetes duration 13.2 years (range 8.9–24.5). A standardized questionnaire, fundus photographs (with central reading) and a physical examination were performed. HbA1c and overnight albumin excretion rate (AER) were analysed centrally.Results Although 88% (n = 309) of the young persons were treated with three or more daily insulin injections, HbA1c (nondiabetic range 4.3–5.8, mean 5.3%) was 9.7 ± 1.7% (mean ± SD). Males had higher HbA1c values than females (P < 0.015). Mean daily insulin dose was 0.92 ± 0.25 IU.kg–1.24 h–1. Microalbuminuria (AER > 20–150 μg/min) and macroalbuminuria (AER > 150 μg/min) were found in 9.0% and 3.7% of the patients, respectively, and was associated with increased diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.01) and presence of retinopathy (P < 0.01). Retinopathy was present in ≈ 60% of the patients and was associated with age, diabetes duration, HbA1c, diastolic blood pressure and AER (all P < 0.01). Subclinical neuropathy (vibration perception threshold by biothesiometry > 6.5 V) was found in 62% and showed a significant association with age, linear height, diastolic blood pressure (all P < 0.01) and diabetic retinopathy (P = 0.01).Conclusions In spite of the majority of the patients being on multiple insulin injections, only 11% had HbA1c values below 8% and the prevalence of diabetic microvascular complications in kidneys, eyes and nerves was unacceptable high.Diabet. Med. 16, 79–85 (1999)
No preview · Article · Dec 2001 · Diabetic Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is unclear whether the demands of good metabolic control or the consequences of poor control have a greater influence on quality of life (QOL) for adolescents with diabetes. This study aimed to assess these relations in a large international cohort of adolescents with diabetes and their families.
The study involved 2,101 adolescents, aged 10-18 years, from 21 centers in 17 countries in Europe, Japan, and North America. Clinical and demographic data were collected from March through August 1998. HbA(1c) was analyzed centrally (normal range 4.4-6.3%; mean 5.4%). Adolescent QOL was assessed by a previously developed Diabetes Quality of Life (DQOL) questionnaire for adolescents, measuring the impact of diabetes, worries about diabetes, satisfaction with life, and health perception. Parents and health professionals assessed family burden using newly constructed questionnaires.
Mean HbA(1c) was 8.7% (range 4.8-17.4). Lower HbA(1c) was associated with lower impact (P < 0.0001), fewer worries (P < 0.05), greater satisfaction (P < 0.0001), and better health perception (P < 0.0001) for adolescents. Girls showed increased worries (P < 0.01), less satisfaction, and poorer health perception (P < 0.01) earlier than boys. Parent and health professional perceptions of burden decreased with age of adolescent (P < 0.0001). Patients from ethnic minorities had poorer scores for impact (P < 0.0001), worries (P < 0.05), and health perception (P < 0.01). There was no correlation between adolescent and parent or between adolescent and professional scores.
In a multiple regression model, lower HbA(1c) was significantly associated with better adolescent-rated QOL on all four subscales and with lower perceived family burden as assessed by parents and health professionals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study aimed to identify risk markers (present at the start of the study in 1989) for the occurrence and progression of microvascular complications 6 years later (in 1995) in a Danish nationwide cohort of children and adolescents with Type 1 diabetes (average age at entry 13.7 years). Probabilities for the development of elevated albumin excretion rate (AER), retinopathy, and increased vibration perception threshold (VPT) could then be estimated from a stepwise logistic regression model. A total of 339 patients (47% of the original cohort) were studied. Sex, age, diabetes duration, insulin regimen and dose, height, weight, HbA(1c), blood pressure, and AER were recorded. In addition, information on retinopathy, neuropathy (VPT), and anti-hypertensive treatment was obtained at the end of the study. HbA(1c) (normal range 4.3-5.8, mean 5.3%) and AER (upper normal limit <20 microg min(-1)) in two, timed overnight urine collections were analysed centrally. Eye examination was performed by two-field fundus photography. Determination of VPT was assessed by biothesiometry. Increased AER (> or =20 microg min(-1)) was found in 12.8% of the patients in 1995, and risk markers for this were increased AER and high HbA(1c), in 1989 (both p<0.001). Retinopathy was present in 57.8% of patients in 1995, for which the risk markers were long duration of diabetes (p<0.0001), age (p<0.01), and high HbA(1c) (p<0.0001) in 1989. Elevated VPT (>6.5 V) was found in 62.5% of patients in 1995, for which the risk markers were male sex (p<0.05), age (p<0.0001), and increased AER (p<0.05) in 1989. This study confirms that hyperglycaemia plays a major role for the development of microvascular complications in kidneys and eyes, and emphasises the need for optimal glycaemic control in children and adolescents with Type 1 diabetes.
No preview · Article · Jan 2000 · Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin regimens and metabolic control in children and adolescents with Type 1 diabetes mellitus were evaluated in a cross-sectional, non-population-based investigation, involving 22 paediatric departments, from 18 countries in Europe, Japan, and North America. Blood samples and information were collected from 2873 children from March to August 1995. HbA1c was determined once and analysed centrally (normal range 4.4-6.3%, mean 5.4%). Year of birth, sex, duration of diabetes, height, body weight, number of daily insulin injections, types and doses of insulin were recorded. Average HbA1c in children under 11 years was 8.3 +/- 1.3% (mean +/- SD) compared with 8.9 +/- 1.8% in those aged 12-18 years. The average insulin dose per kg body weight was almost constant (0.65 U kg(-1) 24 h(-1)) in children aged 2-9 years for both sexes, but there was a sharp increase during the pubertal years, particularly in girls. The increase in BMI of children with diabetes was much faster during adolescence compared to healthy children, especially in females. Sixty per cent of the children (n = 1707) used two daily insulin injections while 37% (n = 1071) used three or more. Of those on two or three injections daily, 37% used pre-mixed insulins, either alone or in combination with short- and intermediate-acting insulin. Pre-adolescent children on pre-mixed insulin showed similar HbA1c levels to those on a combination of short- and long-acting insulins, whereas in adolescents significantly better HbA1c values were achieved with individual combinations. Very young children were treated with a higher proportion of long-acting insulin. Among adolescent boys, lower HbA1c was related to use of more short-acting insulin. This association was not found in girls. We conclude that numerous insulin injection regimens are currently used in paediatric diabetes centres around the world, with an increasing tendency towards intensive diabetes management, particularly in older adolescents. Nevertheless, the goal of near normoglycaemia is achieved in only a few.
No preview · Article · Sep 1998 · Diabetic Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Putative risk factors for the development of incipient diabetic nephropathy (persistent microalbuminuria) and overt diabetic nephropathy (persistent macroalbuminuria) were evaluated prospectively in Caucasian non-insulin dependent diabetic (NIDDM) patients. All NIDDM patients < 66 years, with normoalbuminuria (albumin excretion rate [AER] < 30 mg/24 h), attending our clinic during 1987 were identified (n = 191). The patients were followed for a median of 5.8 years. Fifteen of the 191 patients were lost to follow-up. Thirty-six of the remaining 176 patients developed persistent microalbuminuria (AER 30-299 mg/24 h) and five developed persistent macroalbuminuria (AER less than or equal to 300 mg/24 h) during follow-up. The five-year cumulative incidence of incipient diabetic nephropathy was 23% (95% confidence interval 17% to 30%). Baseline log10 AER, male gender, presence of retinopathy, S-cholesterol, HbA1c, and age was found to predict the development of incipient/overt diabetic nephropathy in these patients.
No preview · Article · Jul 1998 · Ugeskrift for laeger
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prognostic significance of microalbuminuria, macroalbuminuria and other putative risk factors for mortality in insulin-dependent diabetic patients were evaluated in a 10 year prospective study. We identified 939 insulin-dependent diabetic patients; 593 patients had normoalbuminuria (< or = 30 mg/24 h), 181 had microalbuminuria (31-299 mg/24 h), and 165 had macroalbuminuria (> or = 300 mg/24 h). Fifteen percent of patients with normoalbuminuria, 25% with microalbuminuria and 44% with macroalbuminuria at baseline died during follow-up (p < or = 0.01). Significant predictors of all-cause mortality were male sex, age, height, smoking, low social class, urinary albumin excretion, hypertension, serum creatinine, and HbA1c. Age, smoking, microalbuminuria, overt nephropathy, and hypertension were significant predictors of cardiovascular mortality. The mortality in patients with microalbuminuria was only slightly increased compared to patients with normoalbuminuria. Median survival after onset of overt diabetic nephropathy was 13.9 (11.8 to 17.2) years. Abnormally elevated urinary albumin excretion and other potentially modifiable risk factors such as hypertension, smoking, poor glycaemic control and social class predicts increased mortality in insulin-dependent diabetic patients.
No preview · Article · Feb 1998 · Ugeskrift for laeger
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate putative risk factors for the development of incipient diabetic nephropathy (persistent microalbuminuria) and overt diabetic nephropathy (persistent macroalbuminuria) in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes.
Prospective, observational study of a cohort of white, non-insulin dependent diabetic patients followed for a median period of 5.8 years.
Outpatient clinic in tertiary referral centre.
191 patients aged under 66 years with non-insulin dependent diabetes and normoalbuminuria (urinary albumin excretion rate < 30 mg/24 h) who attended the clinic during 1987.
Incipient and overt diabetic nephropathy.
Fifteen patients were lost to follow up. Thirty six of the 176 remaining developed persistent microalbuminuria (30-299 mg/24 h in two out of three consecutive 24 hour urine collections) and five developed persistent macroalbuminuria (> or = mg/24 h in two out of three consecutive collections) during follow up. The five year cumulative incidence of incipient diabetic nephropathy was 23% (95% confidence interval 17% to 30%). Cox's multiple stepwise regression analysis revealed the following risk factors for the development of incipient or overt diabetic nephropathy: increased baseline log urinary albumin excretion rate (relative risk 11.1 (3.4 to 35.9); P < 0.0001); male sex (2.6 (1.2 to 5.4); P < 0.02); presence of retinopathy (2.4 (1.3 to 4.7); P < 0.01); increased serum cholesterol concentration (1.4 (1.1 to 1.7); P < 0.01); haemoglobin A1c concentration (1.2 (1.0 to 1.4); P < 0.05); and age (1.07 (1.02 to 1.12); P < 0.01). Known duration of diabetes, body mass index, arterial blood pressure, serum creatinine concentration, pre-existing coronary heart disease, and history of smoking were not risk factors.
Several potentially modifiable risk factors predict the development of incipient and overt diabetic nephropathy in normoalbuminuric patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes.
Full-text · Article · Apr 1997 · BMJ Clinical Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The impact of microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria on mortality was evaluated prospectively in 328 Caucasian patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) followed for five years. One hundred and ninety-one patients with normoalbuminuria (albumin excretion rate (AER) < 30 mg/24 h), 86 patients with microalbuminuria (AER 30-299 mg/24 h), and 51 patients with macroalbuminuria (AER > or = 300 mg/24 h) all less than 66 years old at start of the study were followed from 1987 until death or until 1 January 1993. Eight percent of patients with normoalbuminuria, 20% of patients with microalbuminuria, and 35% of patients with macroalbuminuria had died, predominantly from cardiovascular disease. Significant predictors of all-cause mortality included preexisting coronary heart disease, AER, HbA1c level and age. Significant predictors of cardiovascular mortality included preexisting coronary heart disease, macroalbuminuria, HbA1c level and systolic blood pressure. Abnormally elevated urinary albumin excretion and poor glycaemic control indicate a substantially increased all-cause, mainly cardiovascular, mortality risk in NIDDM patients.
No preview · Article · Nov 1996 · Ugeskrift for laeger
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion are traits that are both genetically and environmentally determined.
The aim of this study was to describe the distribution of the insulin sensitivity index (Si), the acute insulin response, and glucose effectiveness (Sg) in young healthy Caucasians and to estimate the relative impact of anthropometric and environmental determinants on these variables.
The material included 380 unrelated Caucasian subjects (18-32 yr) with measurement of Si, Sg and insulin secretion during a combined intravenous glucose (0.3 grams/kg body weight) and tolbutamide (3 mg/kg body weight) tolerance test.
The distributions of Si and acute insulin response were skewed to the right, whereas the distribution of Sg was Gaussian distributed. Sg was 15% higher in women compared with men (P < 0.001). Waist circumference, body mass index, maximal aerobic capacity, and women's use of oral contraceptives were the most important determinants of Si. Approximately one-third of the variation of Si could be explained by these factors. Compared with individuals in the upper four-fifths of the distribution of Si, subjects with Si in the lowest fifth had higher waist circumference, higher blood pressure, lower VO2max, and lower glucose tolerance and fasting dyslipidemia and dysfibrinolysis. Only 10% of the variation in acute insulin response could be explained by measured determinants.
Estimates of body fat, maximal aerobic capacity, and women's use of oral contraceptives explain about one-third of the variation in Si in a population-based sample of young healthy Caucasians.
Full-text · Article · Oct 1996 · Journal of Clinical Investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the prognostic significance of microalbuminuria and overt diabetic nephropathy and other putative risk factors for cardiovascular and all cause mortality in insulin dependent diabetes.
Ten year observational follow up study.
Outpatient diabetic clinic in a tertiary referral centre.
All 939 adults with insulin dependent diabetes (duration of diabetes five years or more) attending the clinic in 1984; 593 had normal urinary albumin excretion (< or = 30 mg/24 h), 181 persistent microalbuminuria (31-299 mg/24 h), and 165 overt nephropathy (> or = 300 mg/24 h).
All cause and cardiovascular mortality.
Fifteen per cent of patients (90/593) with normoalbuminuria, 25% (45/181) with microalbuminuria, and 44% (72/165) with overt nephropathy at baseline died during follow up. Cox multiple regression analysis identified the following significant predictors of all cause mortality: male sex (relative risk 2.03; 95% confidence interval 1.37 to 3.02), age (1.07; 1.06 to 1.08), height (0.96; 0.94 to 0.98), smoking (1.51; 1.09 to 2.08), social class V versus social class IV (1.70; 1.25 to 2.31), log10 urinary albumin excretion (1.45; 1.18 to 1.77), hypertension (1.63; 1.18 to 2.25), log10 serum creatinine concentration (8.96; 3.34 to 24.08), and haemoglobin A1c concentration (1.11; 1.03 to 1.20). Age, smoking, microalbuminuria, overt nephropathy, and hypertension were significant predictors of cardiovascular mortality. Mortality in patients with microalbuminuria was only slightly increased compared with that in patients with normoalbuminuria. Median survival time after the onset of overt diabetic nephropathy was 13.9 years (95% confidence interval 11.8 to 17.2 years).
Abnormally increased urinary albumin excretion and other potentially modifiable risk factors such as hypertension, smoking, poor glycaemic control, and social class predict increased mortality in insulin dependent diabetes. Microalbuminuria by itself confers only a small increase in mortality. The prognosis of patients with overt diabetic nephropathy has improved, probably owing to effective antihypertensive treatment.
Full-text · Article · Sep 1996 · BMJ Clinical Research