[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
The aim of this study was to radiolabel a novel bis-deuterium substituted L-deprenyl analogue ((18)F-fluorodeprenyl-D2) with fluorine-18 and to evaluate its potential to visualize and quantify monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) activity in vivo.
The precursor compound (5a + 5b) and reference standard (6) were synthesized in multi-step syntheses. Recombinant human MAO-B and MAO-A enzyme preparations were used in order to determine IC50 values. Radiolabeling was accomplished by nucleophilic substitution reaction. Whole hemisphere autoradiography (ARG) was performed with (18)F-fluorodeprenyl-D2. A positron emission tomography (PET) study was carried out in a cynomolgus monkey. Radiometabolites were measured in monkey plasma using HPLC.
Compound 6 inhibited MAO-B with an IC50 of 227 ± 36.8 nM and for MAO-A >2000 nM. Radiolabeling was accomplished with high radiochemical yield, purity and specific radioactivity. The ARG binding density of (18)F-fluorodeprenyl-D2 was consistent with known MAO-B expression in the human brain. In vivo (18)F-fluorodeprenyl-D2 showed favorable kinetic properties with relatively fast wash-out from the brain. Regional time activity curves were better described by 2 Tissue Compartment Model. The administration 1 mg/Kg of L-Deprenyl yielded to 70 % inhibition of MAO-B in all regions. Radiometabolite studies demonstrated 20% unchanged radioligand at 120 min post injection. (18)F-Fluorodeprenyl-D2 showed a less irreversible behavior than previously reported MAO-B radioligands. The results suggest that (18)F-fluorodeprenyl-D2 is suitable PET radioligand for visualization of MAO-B activity in human brain.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Nuclear Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fluorine-18 labelled N,N-diethyl-2-(2-[4-(2-fluoroethoxy)phenyl]-5,7-dimethylpyrazolo[1,5-α]pyrimidine-3-yl)acetamide ([(18)F]DPA-714) binds to the 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) with high affinity. The aim of this initial methodological study was to develop a plasma input tracer kinetic model for quantification of [(18)F]DPA-714 binding in healthy subjects and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, and to provide a preliminary assessment whether there is a disease-related signal. Ten AD patients and six healthy subjects underwent a dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) study along with arterial sampling and a scan protocol of 150 minutes after administration of 250±10 MBq [(18)F]DPA-714. The model that provided the best fits to tissue time activity curves (TACs) was selected based on Akaike Information Criterion and F-test. The reversible two tissue compartment plasma input model with blood volume parameter was the preferred model for quantification of [(18)F]DPA-714 kinetics, irrespective of scan duration, volume of interest, and underlying volume of distribution (VT). Simplified reference tissue model (SRTM)-derived binding potential (BPND) using cerebellar gray matter as reference tissue correlated well with plasma input-based distribution volume ratio (DVR). These data suggest that [(18)F]DPA-714 cannot be used for separating individual AD patients from heathy subjects, but further studies including TSPO binding status are needed to substantiate these findings.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 4 February 2015; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2014.261.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
Imaging of the 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) is a potential tool for examining microglial activation and neuroinflammation in early Alzheimer's disease (AD). [(18)F]FEMPA is a novel high-affinity second-generation TSPO radioligand that has displayed suitable pharmacokinetic properties in preclinical studies. The aims of this study were to quantify the binding of [(18)F]FEMPA to TSPO in AD patients and controls and to investigate whether higher [(18)F]FEMPA binding in AD patients than in controls could be detected in vivo.
Ten AD patients (five men, five women; age 66.9 ± 7.3 years; MMSE score 25.5 ± 2.5) and seven controls (three men, four women; age 63.7 ± 7.2 years, MMSE score 29.3 ± 1.0) were studied using [(18)F]FEMPA at Turku (13 subjects) and at Karolinska Institutet (4 subjects). The in vitro binding affinity for TSPO was assessed using PBR28 in a competition assay with [(3)H]PK11195 in seven controls and eight AD patients. Cortical and subcortical regions of interest were examined. Quantification was performed using a two-tissue compartment model (2TCM) and Logan graphical analysis (GA). The outcome measure was the total distribution volume (V T). Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to assess the effect of group and TSPO binding status on V T.
Five AD patients and four controls were high-affinity binders (HABs). Three AD patients and three controls were mixed-affinity binders. V T estimated with Logan GA was significantly correlated with V T estimated with the 2TCM in both controls (r = 0.97) and AD patients (r = 0.98) and was selected for the final analysis. Significantly higher V T was found in the medial temporal cortex in AD patients than in controls (p = 0.044) if the TSPO binding status was entered as a covariate. If only HABs were included, significantly higher V T was found in the medial and lateral temporal cortex, posterior cingulate, caudate, putamen, thalamus and cerebellum in AD patients than in controls (p < 0.05).
[(18)F]FEMPA seems to be a suitable radioligand for detecting increased TSPO binding in AD patients if their binding status is taken into account.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to synthesize and evaluate a novel fluorine-18 labeled deuterium substituted analogue of rasagiline (9, [(18)F]fluororasagiline-D2) as a potential PET radioligand for studies of monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B). The precursor compound (6) and reference standard (7) were synthesized in multi-step syntheses. Radiolabeling of 9 was accomplished by a two-step synthesis, compromising a nucleophilic substitution followed by hydrolysis of the sulfamidate group. The incorporation radiochemical yield from fluorine-18 fluoride was higher than 30%, the radiochemical purity was >99% and the specific radioactivity was >160GBq/μmol at the time of administration. In vitro compound 7 inhibited the MAO-B activity with an IC50 of 173.0±13.6nM. The MAO-A activity was inhibited with an IC50 of 9.9±1.1μM. The fluorine-18 version 9 was characterized in the cynomolgus monkey brain where a high brain uptake was found (275% SUV at 4min). There was a higher uptake in the striatum and thalamus compared to the cortex and cerebellum. A pronounced blocking effect (50% decrease) was observed in the specific brain regions after administration of l-deprenyl (0.5mg/kg) 30min prior to the administration of 9. Radiometabolite studies demonstrated 40% of unchanged radioligand at 90min post injection. An efficient radiolabeling of 9 was successfully established and in the monkey brain 9 binds to MAO-B rich regions and its binding is blocked by the selective MAO-B compound l-deprenyl. The radioligand 9 is a potential candidate for human PET studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammation is a pathophysiological hallmark of many diseases of the brain. Specific imaging of cells and molecules that contribute to cerebral inflammation is therefore highly desirable, both for research and in clinical application. The 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) has been established as a suitable target for the detection of activated microglia/macrophages. A number of novel TSPO ligands have been developed recently. Here, we evaluated the high affinity TSPO ligand DPA-714 as a marker of brain inflammation in two independent animal models. For the first time, the specificity of radiolabeled DPA-714 for activated microglia/macrophages was studied in a rat model of epilepsy (induced using Kainic acid) and in a mouse model of stroke (transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, tMCAO) using high-resolution autoradiography and immunohistochemistry. Additionally, cold-compound blocking experiments were performed and changes in blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability were determined. Target-to-background ratios of 2 and 3 were achieved in lesioned vs. unaffected brain tissue in the epilepsy and tMCAO models, respectively. In both models, ligand uptake into the lesion corresponded well with the extent of Ox42- or Iba1-immunoreactive activated microglia/macrophages. In the epilepsy model, ligand uptake was almost completely blocked by pre-injection of DPA-714 and FEDAA1106, another high-affinity TSPO ligand. Ligand uptake was independent of the degree of BBB opening and lesion size in the stroke model. We provide further strong evidence that DPA-714 is a specific ligand to image activated microglia/macrophages in experimental models of brain inflammation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The activation of microglia, in general, and the upregulation of the translocator protein (18 kDa) (TSPO) system, in particular, are key features of neuroinflammation, of which the in vivo visualization and quantitative assessment are still challenging due to the lack of appropriate molecular imaging biomarkers. Recent positron emission tomography (PET) studies using TSPO radioligands such as [11C]PK11195 and [11C]PBR28 have indicated the usefulness of these PET biomarkers in patients with neuroinflammatory diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). [18F]FEDAA1106 is a recently developed PET radioligand for the in vivo quantification of TSPO. In the present study, we aimed at investigating the diagnostic usefulness of [18F]FEDAA1106 in patients with MS.
Nine patients (three on the interferon beta therapy and six without immunomodulatory therapy; seven females/two males; age 34.2 ± 9.1 years old) with relapsing-remitting MS in acute relapse and with gadolinium (Gd)-enhancing lesion(s) in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and five healthy controls (four females/one male, age 38.0 ± 9.7 years old) were investigated in this study. Genetic information about the TSPO binding could not be obtained because knowledge about the importance of genetic background for TSPO binding was not available at the time the study was performed. Dynamic PET measurements were performed using an ECAT EXACT HR system (CTI/Siemens, Knoxville, TN, USA) for a total of 150 min, with a 30-min break after the injection of 153.4 ± 10.2 MBq of [18F]FEDAA1106. Metabolite-corrected arterial plasma samples were used to calculate the input function. PET data were analyzed in the following ways: (1) region-of-interest analysis for cortical and subcortical regions was performed using a two-tissue compartment kinetic model in order to estimate binding potentials (BPND) and distribution volume (VT), (2) the feasibility of the estimation of BPND and VT was investigated for MS lesions, and (3) VT parametric images by a Logan plot and standard uptake value (SUV) images were visually compared with the corresponding MRI, focusing on MRI-identified MS lesions.
There were no significant differences in the BPND or VT values between patients with MS and healthy controls. Robust BPND and VT values could not be obtained for most MS lesions due to noisy time-activity curves. Visual inspection of VT and SUV images in all nine patients did not reveal high uptake of the radioligand inside and beyond MRI-identified active MS lesions with the exception of one Gd-enhanced MS lesion in the whole patient population.
In our study, [18F]FEDAA1106 as a PET radioligand could neither differentiate patients with MS from healthy controls nor detect active plaques in the brain of MS patients. Stratification with respect to genetics and binder status might help to uncover the differences between the groups, which could not be detected here.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
Imaging the 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) is considered a potential tool for in vivo evaluation of microglial activation and neuroinflammation in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). ((R)-1-(2-chlorophenyl)-N-[(11)C]-methyl-N-(1-methylpropyl)-3-isoquinoline caboxamide ([(11)C]-(R)-PK11195) has been widely used for PET imaging of TSPO and, despite its low specific-to-nondisplaceable binding ratio, increased TSPO binding has been shown in AD patients. The high-affinity radioligand N-(5-fluoro-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2-[(18)F]fluoroethyl-5-methoxybenzyl)acetamide ([(18)F]FEDAA1106) has been developed as a potential in vivo imaging tool for better quantification of TSPO binding. The aim of this study was to quantify in vivo binding of [(18)F]FEDAA1106 to TSPO in control subjects and AD patients.
Seven controls (five men, two women, age 68±3 years, MMSE score 29±1) and nine AD patients (six men, three women, age 69±4 years, MMSE score 25±3) were studied with [(18)F]FEDAA1106. PET measurements were performed on an ECAT EXACT HR system (Siemens Medical Solutions) in two 60-min dynamic PET sessions with a 30-min interval between sessions. Arterial blood radioactivity was measured using an automated blood sampling system for the first 5 min and using manually drawn samples thereafter. Quantification was performed using both kinetic analysis based on a two-tissue compartment model and Logan graphical analysis. Outcome measures were total distribution volume (V T) and binding potential (BP(ND)=k3/k4). An estimate of nondisplaceable distribution volume was obtained with the Logan graphical analysis using the first 15 min of PET measurements (V(ND 1-15 min)). Binding potential (BP(ND)) was also calculated as: V(T)/V(ND 1-15 min) - 1.
No statistically significant differences in V(T), k3/k4 or BP(ND) were observed between controls and AD patients.
This study suggests that TSPO imaging with [(18)F]FEDAA1106 does not enable the detection of microglial activation in AD.
No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · European Journal of Nuclear Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this project was to synthesize and evaluate three novel fluorine-18 labeled derivatives of propargyl amine as potential PET radioligands to visualize monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) activity. The three fluorinated derivatives of propargyl amine ((S)-1-fluoro-N,4-dimethyl-N-(prop-2-ynyl)-pent-4-en-2-amine (5), (S)-N-(1-fluoro-3-(furan-2-yl)propan-2-yl)-N-methylprop-2-yn-1-amine (10) and (S)-1-fluoro-N,4-dimethyl-N-(prop-2-ynyl)pentan-2-amine (15)) were synthesized in multi-step organic syntheses. IC(50) values for inhibition were determined for compounds 5, 10 and 15 in order to determine their specificity for binding to MAO-B. Compound 5 inhibited MAO-B with an IC(50) of 664±48.08nM. No further investigation was carried out with this compound. Compound 10 inhibited MAO-B with an IC(50) of 208.5±13.44nM and compound 15 featured an IC(50) of 131.5±0.71nM for its MAO-B inhibitory activity. None of the compounds inhibited MAO-A activity (IC(50) > 2μM). The fluorine-18 labeled analogues of the two higher binding affinity compounds (10 and 15) (S)-N-(1-[(18)F]fluoro-3-(furan-2-yl)propan-2-yl)-N-methylprop-2-yn-1-amine (16) and (S)-1-[(18)F]fluoro-N,4-dimethyl-N-(prop-2-ynyl)pentan-2-amine (18) were both prepared from the corresponding precursors 9A, 9B and 14A, 14B by a one-step fluorine-18 nucleophilic substitution reaction. Autoradiography experiments on human postmortem brain tissue sections were performed with 16 and 18. Only compound 18 demonstrated a high selectivity for MAO-B over MAO-A and was, therefore, chosen for further examination by PET in a cynomolgus monkey. The initial uptake of 18 in the monkey brain was 250% SUV at 4min post injection. The highest uptake of radioactivity was observed in the striatum and thalamus, regions with high MAO-B activity, whereas lower levels of radioactivity were detected in the cortex and cerebellum. The percentage of unchanged radioligand 18 was 30% in plasma at 90min post injection. In conclusion, compound 18 is a selective inhibitor of MAO-B in vitro and demonstrated a MAO-B specific binding pattern in vivo by PET in monkey. It can, therefore, be considered as a candidate for further investigation in human by PET.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques are a major pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The noninvasive detection of Aβ plaques may increase the accuracy of clinical diagnosis as well as monitor therapeutic interventions. While [11C]-PiB is the most widely used Aβ positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer, due to the short half-life of 11C (20 min), its application is limited to centers with an on-site cyclotron and 11C radiochemistry expertise. Therefore, novel [18F] (half-life 110 min)-labeled Aβ PET tracers have been developed. We have demonstrated that [18F]-florbetaben-PET can differentiate individuals diagnosed with AD from healthy elderly, Parkinson's disease and frontotemporal lobe dementia (FTLD-tau) patients. While [18F]-florbetaben-PET retention matched the reported postmortem distribution of Aβ plaques, the nature of [18F]-florbetaben binding to other pathological lesions comprising misfolded proteins needs further assessment. The objective of this study was to determine whether Florbetaben selectively binds to Aβ plaques in postmortem tissue specimens containing mixed pathological hallmarks (i.e., tau and α-synuclein aggregates).
No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Nuclear Medicine and Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we evaluated the in vivo characteristics of a new monoamine oxidase type B (MAO-B) radioligand, [¹⁸F]fluorodeprenyl, by positron emission tomography (PET) in two cynomolgus monkeys. The brain uptake of [¹⁸F]fluorodeprenyl was more than 7% (600% SUV) of the total injected radioactivity and similar to that of [¹¹C]deprenyl, an established MAO-B radioligand. The highest uptake was observed in the striatum, one of the MAO-B-rich regions, with a peak at approximately 2-3 min after injection, followed by lower uptake in the thalamus and the cortex and lowest uptake in the cerebellum. Brain uptake of [¹⁸F]fluorodeprenyl was largely inhibited by preadministration of the MAO-B inhibitor, L-deprenyl, whereas clorgyline, a MAO Type A blocker, had no significant inhibitory effect, thus demonstrating selectivity for MAO-B. [¹⁸F]Fluorodeprenyl showed relatively slow metabolism with the presence of two radiometabolite peaks with similar retention time as the labeled metabolites of [¹¹C]deprenyl. These results suggest that [¹⁸F]fluorodeprenyl is a potential PET radioligand for visualization of MAO-B activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to synthesize and evaluate a novel fluorine-18 labeled analogue of rasagiline (6) as a PET radioligand for monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B). The corresponding non-radioactive fluorine-19 ligand, (1S,2S)-2-fluoro-N-(prop-2-yn-1-yl)indan-1-amine (4), was characterized in in vitro assays. The precursor compound (3aS,8aR)-3-(prop-2-yn-1-yl)-3,3a,8,8a-tetrahydroindeno[1,2-d][1,2,3]oxathiazole 2,2-dioxide (3) and reference standard 4 were synthesized in multi-step syntheses. Recombinant human MAO-B and MAO-A enzyme preparations were used in order to determine IC(50) values for compound 4 by use of an enzymatic assay employing kynuramine as substrate. Radiolabeling was accomplished by a two-step synthesis, compromising a nucleophilic substitution followed by hydrolysis of the sulphamidate group. Human whole hemisphere autoradiography (ARG) was performed with [(18)F]fluororasagiline. Blocking experiments with pirlindole (MAO-A), L-deprenyl and rasagiline (MAO-B) were conducted to demonstrate the specificity of the binding. A positron emission tomography (PET) study was carried out in a cynomolgus monkey where time activity curves for whole brain and regions with high and low MAO-B activity were recorded. Radiometabolites were measured in monkey plasma using gradient HPLC. Compound 4 inhibited MAO-B with an IC(50) of 27 nM and MAO-A with an IC(50) of 2.3 μM. Radiolabeling of precursor 3 and subsequent hydrolysis of the protecting group towards (1S,2S)-2-[(18)F]fluoro-N-(prop-2-yn-1-yl)indan-1-amine (6) was successfully accomplished with an radiochemical yield of 40-70%, a radiochemical purity higher than 99% and a specific radioactivity higher than 200GBq/μmol. ARG demonstrated selective binding for [(18)F]fluororasagiline (6) to MAO-B containing brain regions, for example, striatum. The initial uptake in the monkey brain was 250% SUV at 4 min post injection. The highest amounts of radioactivity were observed in the striatum and thalamus as expected whereas in the cortex and cerebellum lower levels were observed. Metabolite studies demonstrated 30% unchanged radioligand at 90 min post injection. Our investigations demonstrated that the new ligand [(18)F]fluororasagiline (6) binds specifically to MAO-B in vitro and has a MAO-B specific binding pattern in vivo. Thus, it could serve as a novel potential candidate for human PET studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim in this project was to synthesize and to study fluorine-18 labeled analogues of l-deprenyl which bind selectively to the enzyme monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B). Three fluorinated l-deprenyl analogues have been generated in multistep organic syntheses. The most promising fluorine-18 compound N-[(2S)-1-[(18)F]fluoro-3-phenylpropan-2-yl]-N-methylprop-2-yn-1-amine (4c) was synthesized by a one-step fluorine-18 nucleophilic substitution reaction. Autoradiography on human brain tissue sections demonstrated specific binding for compound 4c to brain regions known to have a high content of MAO-B. In addition, the corresponding nonradioactive fluorine-19 compound (13) inhibited recombinant human MAO-B with an IC(50) of 170.5 ± 29 nM but did not inhibit recombinant human MAO-A (IC(50) > 2000 nM), demonstrating its specificity. Biodistribution of 4c in mice showed high initial brain uptake leveling at 5.2 ± 0.04%ID/g after 2 min post injection. In conclusion, compound 4c is a specific inhibitor of MAO-B with high initial brain uptake in mice and is, therefore, a candidate for further investigation in PET.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: [(18)F]FEDAA1106 is a recently developed positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand for in vivo quantification of the 18 kDa translocator protein [TSPO or, as earlier called, the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR)]. TSPO imaging is expected to be useful for the clinical evaluation of neuroinflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to provide dosimetry estimates for [(18)F]FEDAA1106 based on human whole-body PET measurements.
PET scans were performed for a total of 6.6 h after the injection of 183.8 ± 9.1 MBq of [(18)F]FEDAA1106 in six healthy subjects. Regions of interest were drawn on coronal images. Estimates of the absorbed doses of radiation were calculated using the OLINDA software.
Peak uptake was largest in lungs, followed by liver, small intestine, kidney, spleen and other organs. Peak values of the percent injected dose (%ID) at a time after radioligand injection were calculated for the lungs (27.1%ID at 0.2 h), liver (21.1%ID at 0.6 h), small intestine (10.4%ID at 6.3 h), kidney (4.9%ID at 1.8 h) and spleen (4.6%ID at 0.6 h). The largest absorbed dose was found in the spleen (0.12 mSv/MBq), followed by kidneys (0.094 mSv/MBq). The calculated mean effective dose was 0.036 mSv/MBq.
Based on the distribution and dose estimates, the estimated radiation burden of [(18)F]FEDAA1106 is moderately higher than that of [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). In clinical studies, the administered activity of this radioligand ought to be adjusted in line with regional regulations. This result would be helpful for further clinical TSPO imaging studies.
No preview · Article · Jul 2011 · European Journal of Nuclear Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Degeneration of locus ceruleus (LC) neurons and subsequent reduction of norepinephrine (NE) in LC projection areas represent an early pathological indicator of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In order to study the effects of NE depletion on cortical and hippocampal adrenergic system changes, LC degeneration was induced in 3-month-old APP/PS1 mice by the neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-bromo-benzylamine (dsp4). Dsp4 induced a widespread loss of norepinephrine transporter binding in multiple brain structures already at 4.5 months. This was accompanied by changes of α-1-, α-2-, and β-1-adreneroceptor binding sites as well as altered adrenoceptor mRNA expression. In parallel, we observed increased micro- and astrogliosis in cortical and hippocampal structures in dsp4-treated groups. In addition, the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines CCL2 and IL-1β were induced in both, dsp4-treated and APP/PS1-transgenic mice, whereas IL-1α was only up-regulated in dsp4-treated APP/PS1 mice. Concerning amyloid β (Aβ) deposition, we observed an elevation of Aβ1-42 levels in aged dsp4-treated APP/PS1 mice. These data support the hypothesis that LC degeneration leads to dysregulation of adrenergic receptors and exacerbation of Aβ-induced neuroinflammation, both of which are exploitable for early disease marker development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Earlier post-mortem histological and autoradiographic studies have indicated a reduction of cell numbers in the locus coeruleus (LC) and a corresponding decrease in norepinephrine transporter (NET) in brains obtained from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients as compared to age-matched healthy controls. In order to test the hypothesis that the regional decrease of NET is a disease specific biomarker in AD and as such, it can be used in PET imaging studies for diagnostic considerations, regional differences in the density of NET in various anatomical structures were measured in whole hemisphere human brain slices obtained from AD patients and age-matched control subjects in a series of autoradiographic experiments using the novel selective PET radioligand for NET (S,S)-[(18)F]FMeNER-D(2). (S,S)-[(18)F]FMeNER-D(2) appears to be a useful imaging biomarker for quantifying the density of NET in various brain structures, including the LC and the thalamus wherein the highest densities are found in physiological conditions. In AD significant decreases of NET densities can be demonstrated with the radioligand in both structures as compared to age-matched controls. The decreases in AD correlate with the progress of the disease as indicated by Braak grades. As the size of the LC is below the spatial resolution of the PET scanners, but the size of the thalamus can be detected with appropriate spatial accuracy in advanced scanners, the present findings confirm our earlier observations with PET that the in vivo imaging of NET with (S,S)-[(18)F]FMeNER-D(2) in the thalamus is viable. Nevertheless, further studies are warranted to assess the usefulness of such an imaging approach for the early detection of changes in thalamic NET densities as a disease-specific biomarker and the possible use of (S,S)-[(18)F]FMeNER-D(2) as a molecular imaging biomarker in AD.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · Neurochemistry International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Degeneration of locus ceruleus neurons and subsequent reduction of norepinephrine concentration in locus ceruleus projection areas represent an early pathological indicator of Alzheimer's disease. In order to model the pathology of the human disease and to study the effects of norepinephrine-depletion on amyloid precursor protein processing, behaviour, and neuroinflammation, locus ceruleus degeneration was induced in mice coexpressing the swedish mutant of the amyloid precursor protein and the presenilin 1 DeltaExon 9 mutant (APP/PS1) using the neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-bromo-benzylamine (dsp4) starting treatment at 3 months of age. Norepinephrine transporter immunolabelling demonstrated severe loss of locus ceruleus neurons and loss of cortical norepinephrine transporter starting as early as 4.5 months of age and aggravating over time. Of note, dsp4-treated transgenic mice showed elevated amyloid beta levels and impaired spatial memory performance at 6.5 months of age compared to control-treated APP/PS1 transgenic mice, indicating an accelerating effect on cerebral amyloidosis and cognitive deficits. Likewise, norepinephrine-depletion increased neuroinflammation compared to transgenic controls as verified by macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha and -1beta gene expression analysis. Exploratory activity and memory retention was compromised by age in APP/PS1 transgenic mice and further aggravated by induced noradrenergic deficiency. In contrast, novel object recognition was not influenced by norepinephrine deficiency, but by the APP/PS1 transgene at 12 months. Overall, our data indicate that early loss of noradrenergic innervation promotes amyloid deposition and modulates the activation state of inflammatory cells. This in turn could have had impact on the acceleration of cognitive deficits observed over time.
No preview · Article · Feb 2010 · Neurochemistry International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The binding of two radiolabelled analogues (N-(5-[125I]Iodo-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2,5-dimethoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desfluoro-DAA1106) and N-(5-[125I]Fluoro-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2-[125I]Iodo-5-methoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desmethoxy-DAA1106) of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) (or TSPO, 18kDa translocator protein) ligand DAA1106 was examined by in vitro autoradiography on human post mortem whole hemisphere brain slices obtained from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and age-matched controls. Both [(125)I]desfluoro-IDAA1106 and [(125)I]desmethoxy-IDAA1106 were effectively binding to various brain structures. The binding could be blocked by the unlabelled ligand as well as by other PBR specific ligands. With both radiolabelled compounds, the binding showed regional inhomogeneity and the specific binding values proved to be the highest in the hippocampus, temporal and parietal cortex, the basal ganglia and thalamus in the AD brains. Compared with age-matched control brains, specific binding in several brain structures (temporal and parietal lobes, thalamus and white matter) in Alzheimer brains was significantly higher, indicating that the radioligands can effectively label-activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in AD. Complementary immunohistochemical studies demonstrated reactive microglia activation in the AD brain tissue and indicated that increased ligand binding coincides with increased regional microglia activation due to neuroinflammation. These investigations yield further support to the PBR/TSPO binding capacity of DAA1106 in human brain tissue, demonstrate the effective usefulness of its radio-iodinated analogues as imaging biomarkers in post mortem human studies, and indicate that its radiolabelled analogues, labelled with short half-time bioisotopes, can serve as prospective in vivo imaging biomarkers of activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in the human brain.
No preview · Article · Nov 2008 · Neurochemistry International