Jai-Sing Yang

China Medical University (ROC)

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Publications (233)

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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most feared complications of diabetes and is a leading cause of acquired blindness in working adults. The prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes in Taiwan is about 4%, and the annual incidence of T2D (Type 2 Diabetes) in Taiwan is 1.8% following the 1985 WHO criteria. Multiple mechanisms have been shown in T2DR with some signaling pathways, including the polyol pathway, PKC pathway, AGEs pathway, and MAPK pathway. However, the cause of vision loss in diabetic retinopathy is complex and remains incompletely understood. Herein, we try to fully understand the new concepts regarding hyperglycemia-induced biochemical pathways contributing to DR pathophysiology. Our work may be able to provide new strategies for the prevention and treatment of diabetic vascular complications.
    Full-text Article · Jun 2016
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a green tea polyphenol that presents anticancer activities in multiple cancer cells, but no available report was addressed for the underling molecular mechanism of cytotoxic impacts on drug-resistant oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. In the present study, the inhibitory effects of EGCG were experienced on cisplatin-resistant oral cancer CAR cells. EGCG inhibited cell viability in a time- and concentration-dependent manner by a sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. EGCG induced CAR cell apoptosis and autophagy by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) dye, acridine orange (AO) staining and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged LC3B assay, respectively. EGCG also significantly enhanced caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities by caspase activity assay. EGCG markedly increased the protein levels of Bax, cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3, Atg5, Atg7, Atg12, Beclin-1, and LC3B-II, as well as significantly decreased the expression of Bcl-2, phosphorylated AKT (Ser473) and phosphorylation of STAT3 on Tyr705 by western blotting in CAR cells. Importantly, the protein and gene expression of multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) were dose-dependently inhibited by EGCG. Overall, downregulation of MDR1 levels and alterations of AKT/STAT3 signaling contributed to EGCG-induced apoptosis and autophagy in CAR cells. Based on these results, EGCG has the potential for therapeutic effect on oral cancer and may be useful for long-term oral cancer prevention in the future. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2016.
    Article · May 2016 · Environmental Toxicology
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: “Jinchuang ointment” is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine complex for treatment of incised wounds. For more than ten years, it has been used at China Medical University Hospital (Taichung, Taiwan) for the treatment of diabetic foot infections and decubitus ulcers. Three different cases are presented in this study. “Jinchuang” ointment is a mixture of natural product complexes from nine different components, making it difficult to analyze its exact chemical compositions. To further characterize the herbal ingredients used in this study, the contents of reference standards present in a subset of the ointment ingredients (dragon’s blood, catechu, frankincense, and myrrh) were determined by HPLC. Two in vitro cell based assay platforms, wound healing and tube formation, were used to examine the biological activity of this medicine. Our results show that this herbal medicine possesses strong activities including stimulation of angiogenesis, cell proliferation, and cell migration, which provide the scientific basis for its clinically observed curative effects on nonhealing diabetic wounds.
    Full-text Article · Mar 2016 · Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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    Full-text Dataset · Sep 2015
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    Chi-Cheng Lu · Jai-Sing Yang · An-Cheng Huang · [...] · Jing-Gung Chung
    Full-text Dataset · Aug 2015
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 2-aryl-4-quinolones are converted into phosphates by reacting with tetrabenzyl pyrophosphate to form dibenzyl phosphates thereof, which are then subject to hydrogenation to replace dibenzyl groups with H, followed by reacting with Amberlite IR-120(Na+ form) to form disodium salts. The results of preliminary screening revealed that these phosphates showed significant anti-cancer activity. A novel intermediate, 2-selenophene 4-quinolone and N,N-dialkylaminoalkyl derivatives of 2-phenyl-4-quinolones are also synthesized. These novel intermediates exhibited significant anticancer activities.
    Full-text Patent · May 2015
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 2-aryl-4-quinolones are converted into phosphates by reacting with tetrabenzyl pyrophosphate to form dibenzyl phosphates thereof, which are then subject to hydrogenation to replace dibenzyl groups with H, followed by reacting with Amberlite IR-120(Na+ form) to form disodium salts. The results of preliminary screening revealed that these phosphates showed significant anti-cancer activity. A novel intermediate, 2-selenophene 4-quinolone and N,N-dialkylaminoalkyl derivatives of 2-phenyl-4-quinolones are also synthesized. These novel intermediates exhibited significant anticancer activities.
    Full-text Patent · May 2015
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 2-aryl-4-quinolones are converted into phosphates by reacting with tetrabenzyl pyrophosphate to form dibenzyl phosphates thereof, which are then subject to hydrogenation to replace dibenzyl groups with H, followed by reacting with Amberlite IR-120 (Na+ form) to form disodium salts. The results of preliminary screening revealed that these phosphates showed significant anti-cancer activity. A novel intermediate, 2-selenophene 4-quinolone and N,N-dialkylaminoalkyl derivatives of 2-phenyl-4-quinolones are also synthesized. These novel intermediates exhibited significant anticancer activities.
    Full-text Patent · May 2015
  • Jai-Sing Yang · Chia-Chun Wu · Hong-Zin Lee · [...] · Jing-Gung Chung
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oral cancer is one of the major causes of deaths in the male population of Taiwan. Gan-Lu-Yin (GLY) is used for an adjuvant treatment of Traditional Chinese Medicine in clinical patients. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms in oral cancer cell lines after exposure to GLY. The cytometric bead-based array (CBA) method was used for the examining and analyzing of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) secretion level. TNF-α mRNA expression was determined by real-time PCR analysis. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity and other relative proteins were determined by NF-κB promoter assay, Western blotting, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), and immuno-staining analyses. GLY decreased the secretion of TNF-α from the oral cancer CAL 27 cells. Furthermore, 2000 μg/mL of GLY significantly suppressed TNF-α mRNA expression of CAL 27 cells in a time-dependent manner. GLY reduced the levels of proteins, including nuclear NF-κB (p65 and p50), p-IKK (ser176), p-IκB, p-AKT, p-ERK, and nuclear Egr-1 in a time and dose-dependent manner. GLY also suppressed the NF-κB activity and translocation in CAL 27 cells. We suggest that GLY might promote the cure of oral cancer through decreasing the level of TNF-α cytokine, and these actions were mediated partially through the NF-κB, AKT, and ERK-dependent pathways in vitro. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Article · Feb 2015 · Environmental Toxicology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A number of experiments have demonstrated that benzyl-isothiocyanate (BITC) induces cytotoxic cell death through the induction of apoptosis in various human cancer cell lines. In the present study, we investigated the effects of BITC on the growth of A375.S2 cell xenograft tumors in nude BALB/c mice in vivo. The A375.S2 cancer cells were inoculated subcutaneously into the lower flanks of each nude mouse. After cancer cell inoculation, all animals were maintained in the animal room for seven days and all mice produced one palpable tumor. Animals were randomly divided into two groups, each mouse was individually given intraperitoneal injections of BITC (20 mg/kg) or not (control). Results from the in vivo experiments indicated that BITC did not significantly affect the body weight of nude BALB/c mice bearing xenograft A375.S2 cell tumors but did significantly decrease the tumor weight.
    Article · Sep 2014 · In vivo (Athens, Greece)
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Crude extract of Rheum palmatum L (CERP) has been used to treat different diseases in the Chinese population for decades. In this study, we investigated the effects of CERP on LS1034 human colorectal cancer cells in vitro and also examined possible mechanisms of cell death. Flow cytometric assays were used to measure the percentage of viable cells, cell cycle distribution including the sub-G1 phase (apoptosis), the activities of caspase-8, -9, and -3, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca(2+) levels, and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ(m) ). DNA damage, nuclei condensation, protein expression, and translocation were examined by Comet assay, 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, Western blotting, and confocal laser system microscope, respectively. CERP induced apoptosis as seen by DNA fragmentation and DAPI staining in a concentration- and time-dependent manner in cancer cells. CERP was associated with an increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 protein ratio and CERP promoted the activities of caspase-8, -9, and -3. Both ROS and Ca(2+) levels were increased by CERP but the compound decreased levels of ΔΨ(m) in LS1034 cells. Laser confocal microscope also confirmed that CERP promoted the expressions of AIF, Endo G, cytochrome c, and GADD153 to induce apoptosis through mitochondrial-dependent pathway. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2013.
    Article · Sep 2014 · Environmental Toxicology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Crude extract of Corni Fructus (CECF) has been used in Traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of different diseases for hundreds of years. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic effects of CECF on U-2 OS human osteosarcoma cells. Flow cytometry was used for measuring the percentage of viable cells, cell-cycle distribution, apoptotic cells in sub-G1 phase, reactive oxygen species (ROS), Ca(2+) levels, and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ(m) ). Comet assay and 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining were used for examining DNA damage and condensation. Western blotting was used to examine apoptosis-associated protein levels in U-2 OS cells after exposed to CECF. Immunostaining and confocal laser system microscope were used to examine protein translocation after CECF incubation. CECF decreased the percentage of viability, induced DNA damage and DNA condensation, G(0) /G(1) arrest, and apoptosis in U-2 OS cells. CECF-stimulated activities of caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3, ROS, and Ca(2+) production, decreased ΔΨ(m) levels of in U-2 OS cells. CECF increased protein levels of caspase-3, caspase-9, Bax, cytochrome c, GRP78, AIF, ATF-6α, Fas, TRAIL, p21, p27, and p16 which were associated with cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. These findings suggest that CECF triggers apoptosis in U-2 OS cells via ROS-modulated caspase-dependent and -independent pathways. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2012.
    Article · Sep 2014 · Environmental Toxicology
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Twelve novel 20-sulfonylamidine derivatives (9a-9l) of camptothecin (1) were synthesized via a Cu-catalyzed three-component reaction. They showed similar or superior cytotoxicity compared with that of irinotecan (3) against A-549, DU-145, KB, and multidrug-resistant (MDR) KBvin tumor cell lines. Compound 9a demonstrated better cytotoxicity against MDR cells compared with that of 1 and 3. Mechanistically, 9a induced significant DNA damage by selectively inhibiting Topoisomerase (Topo) I and activating the ATM/Chk related DNA damage-response pathway. In xenograft models, 9a demonstrated significant activity without overt adverse effects at 5 and 10 mg/kg, comparable to 3 at 100 mg/kg. Notably, 9a at 300 mg/kg (i.p.) showed no overt toxicity in contrast to 1 (LD50 56.2 mg/kg, i.p.) and 3 (LD50 177.5 mg/kg, i.p.). Intact 9a inhibited Topo I activity in a cell-free assay in a manner similar to that of 1, confirming that 9a is a new class of Topo I inhibitor. 20-Sulfonylamidine 1-derivative 9a merits development as an anticancer clinical trial candidate.
    Full-text Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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    Chi-Cheng Lu · Jai-Sing Yang · Jo-Hua Chiang · [...] · Jing-Gung Chung
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This investigation clearly clarified the synthesized and antimitotic compound, 2-(3'-methoxyphenyl)-6-pyrrolidinyl-4-quinazolinone (HMJ-38), addressing its target and precise mechanism of action. We hypothesized that HMJ-38 might sensitize apoptotic death of human oral carcinoma CAL 27 cells in vitro and inhibited xenograft tumor growth in vivo. Cell viability was assessed utilizing MTT assay. HMJ-38-treated cells represented DNA fragmentation using agrose gel electrophoresis as further evidenced using TUNEL staining. Flow cytometric analyses, immunoblotting and quantitative RT-PCR were applied for protein and gene expression. Antitumor xenograft study was employed. HMJ-38 concentration- and time-dependently reduced viability of CAL 27 cells. The effect of intrinsic molecules was signalized during HMJ-38 exposure with disruption of ΔΨm, MPT pore opening and the releases of various events from mitochondria undergoing cell apoptosis. HMJ-38 also markedly facilitated G2/M phase arrest. HMJ-38 stimulated the activation of CDK1 activity that modulated phosphorylation on Ser70 of Bcl-2-mediated mitotic arrest and apoptosis. HMJ-38 triggered intracellular Ca(2+) release and activated related pivotal hallmarks of ER stress. HMJ-38 in nude mice bearing CAL 27 tumor xenografts decreased tumor growth. Furthermore, HMJ-38 enhanced caspase-3 gene expression and protein level in xenotransplanted tumors. Early roles of mitotic arrest, unfolded protein response and mitochondria-dependent signaling contributed to apoptotic CAL 27 cell demise induced by HMJ-38. In in vivo experiments, HMJ-38 also efficaciously suppressed tumor volume in a xenotransplantation model. This finding might fully support a critical event for HMJ-38 via induction of apoptotic machinery and ER stress against human oral cancer cells.
    Full-text Article · Jul 2014 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of 6-fluoro-2-(3-fluorophenyl)-4-(cyanoanilino) quinazoline (HMJ-30) on the anti-angiogenic properties and apoptosis-related mechanism of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In this study, HMJ-30 dose- and time-dependently inhibited the viability of HUVECs. We also found that HMJ-30 enhanced disruption of tube-like structures and suppressed cell migration in HUVECs after vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induction. HMJ-30 was also observed to inhibit vessel branching and sprouting in chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). Microsprouting induced by VEGF in the rat aortic ring and blood vessel formation in a mouse Matrigel plug were individually suppressed by HMJ-30. In an in vitro study, HMJ-30 induced the apoptotic death of HUVECs as indicated by DNA fragmentation and promoted reactive oxygen species (ROS) production as determined by flow cytometric assay. In addition, extrinsic caspase signaling (caspase-8 and -3) was activated in the HMJ-30-treated HUVECs and their inhibitors were applied to assess the signal transduction. We investigated the upstream of the death receptor pathway and further observed that the levels of death receptor 5 (DR5) and phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signals were upregulated in HUVECs following HMJ-30 challenge, which was confirmed by a JNK-specific inhibitor (SP600125). Hence, HMJ-30-induced endothelial cell apoptosis involved the ROS/JNK-regulated DR5 pathway. In summary, HMJ-30 may provide a potential therapeutic effect for the anti-vascular targeting of angiogenesis during cancer treatment.
    Full-text Article · Jun 2014 · Oncology Reports
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    Min-Tsang Hsieh · Hao-Ping Chen · Chi-Cheng Lu · [...] · Jai-Sing Yang
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pterostilbene is an effective chemopreventive agent against multiple types of cancer cells. A novel pterostilbene derivative, ANK-199, was designed and synthesized by our group. Its antitumor activity and mechanism in cisplatin-resistant CAR human oral cancer cells were investigated in this study. Our results show that ANK-199 has an extremely low toxicity in normal oral cell lines. The formation of autophagic vacuoles and acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs) was observed in the ANK-199-treated CAR cells by monodansylcadaverine (MDC) and acridine orange (AO) staining, suggesting that ANK-199 is able to induce autophagic cell death in CAR cells. Neither DNA fragmentation nor DNA condensation was observed, which means that ANK-199-induced cell death is not triggered by apoptosis. In accordance with morphological observation, 3-MA, a specific inhibitor of PI3K kinase class III, can inhibit the autophagic vesicle formation induced by ANK-199. In addition, ANK-199 is also able to enhance the protein levels of autophagic proteins, Atg complex, beclin 1, PI3K class III and LC3-II, and mRNA expression of autophagic genes Atg7, Atg12, beclin 1 and LC3-II in the ANK-199-treated CAR cells. A molecular signaling pathway induced by ANK-199 was therefore summarized. Results presented in this study show that ANK-199 may become a novel therapeutic reagent for the treatment of oral cancer in the near future (patent pending).
    Full-text Article · Jun 2014 · International Journal of Oncology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chrysophanol (1,8-dihydroxy-3-methylanthraquinone) is one of the anthraquinone compounds, and it has been shown to induce cell death in different types of cancer cells. The effects of chrysophanol on human lung cancer cell death have not been well studied. The purpose of this study is to examine chrysophanol-induced cytotoxic effects and also to investigate such influences that involved apoptosis or necrosis in A549 human lung cancer cells in vitro. Our results indicated that chrysophanol decreased the viable A549 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Chrysophanol also promoted the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca(2+) and decreased the levels of mitochondria membrane potential (ΔΨ(m) ) and adenosine triphosphate in A549 cells. Furthermore, chrysophanol triggered DNA damage by using Comet assay and DAPI staining. Importantly, chrysophanol only stimulated the cytocheome c release, but it did not activate other apoptosis-associated protein levels including caspase-3, caspase-8, Apaf-1, and AIF. In conclusion, human lung cancer A549 cells treated with chrysophanol exhibited a cellular pattern associated with necrotic cell death and not apoptosis in vitro. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 2012.
    Article · May 2014 · Environmental Toxicology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer has its highest incidence and is becoming a major concern. Many studies have shown that traditional Chinese medicine exhibited antitumor responses. Quercetin, a natural polyphenolic compound, has been shown to induce apoptosis in many human cancer cell lines. Although numerous evidences show multiple possible signaling pathways of quercetin in apoptosis, there is no report to address the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in quercetin-induced apoptosis in PC-3 cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of quercetin on the induction of the apoptotic pathway in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Cells were treated with quercetin for 24 and 48 h and at various doses (50-200 μM), and cell morphology and viability decreased significantly in dose-dependent manners. Flow cytometric assay indicated that quercetin at 150 μM caused G0/G1 phase arrest (31.4-49.7%) and sub-G1 phase cells (19.77%) for 36 h treatment and this effect is a time-dependent manner. Western blotting analysis indicated that quercetin induces the G0/G1 phase arrest via decreasing the levels of CDK2, cyclins E, and D proteins. Quercetin also stimulated the protein expression of ATF, GRP78, and GADD153 which is a hall marker of ER stress. Furthermore, PC-3 cells after incubation with quercetin for 48 h showed an apoptotic cell death and DNA damage which are confirmed by DAPI and Comet assays, leading to decrease the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein and level of ΔΨ(m) , and increase the proapoptotic Bax protein and the activations of caspase-3, -8, and -9. Moreover, quercetin promoted the trafficking of AIF protein released from mitochondria to nuclei. These data suggest that quercetin may induce apoptosis by direct activation of caspase cascade through mitochondrial pathway and ER stress in PC-3 cells. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2012.
    Article · Apr 2014 · Environmental Toxicology
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TLR4, a membrane receptor that functions in complex with its accessory protein myeloid differentiation factor-2 (MD-2), is a therapeutic target for bacterial infections. Taiwanofungus camphoratus is highly valued as a medicinal mushroom for cancer, hypertension, and inflammation in traditional medicine. Zhankuic acid A (ZAA) is the major pharmacologically active compound of T. camphoratus. The mechanism of action of T. camphoratus or ZAA has not been fully elucidated. We analyzed the structure of human TLR4/MD-2 complex with ZAA by X-score and HotLig modeling approaches. Two Abs against MD-2 were used to verify the MD-2/ZAA interaction. The inflammation and survival of the mice pretreated with ZAA and injected with LPS were monitored. The modeling structure shows that ZAA binds the MD-2 hydrophobic pocket exclusively via specific molecular recognition; the contact interface is dominated by hydrophobic interactions. Binding of ZAA to MD-2 reduced Ab recognition to native MD-2, similar to the effect of LPS binding. Furthermore, ZAA significantly ameliorated LPS-induced endotoxemia and Salmonella-induced diarrhea in mice. Our results suggest that ZAA, which can compete with LPS for binding to MD-2 as a TLR4/MD-2 antagonist, may be a potential therapeutic agent for gram-negative bacterial infections.
    Full-text Article · Feb 2014 · The Journal of Immunology
  • Yung-Liang Chen · Fu-Shin Chueh · Jai-Sing Yang · [...] · Jing-Gung Chung
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Irinotecan HCl (CPT-11) is an anticancer prodrug, but there is no available information addressing CPT-11-inhibited leukemia cells in in vitro and in vivo studies. Therefore, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of CPT-11 in promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells and in vivo and tumor growth in a leukemia xenograft model. Effects of CPT-11 on HL-60 cells were determined using flow cytometry, immunofluorescence staining, comet assay, real-time PCR, and Western blotting. CPT-11 demonstrated a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cell growth, induction of apoptosis, and cell-cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase in HL-60 cells. CPT-11 promoted the release of AIF from mitochondria and its translocation to the nucleus. Bid, Bax, Apaf-1, caspase-9, AIF, Endo G, caspase-12, ATF-6b, Grp78, CDK2, Chk2, and cyclin D were all significantly upregulated and Bcl-2 was down-regulated by CPT-11 in HL-60 cells. Induction of cell-cycle arrest by CPT-11 was associated with changes in expression of key cell-cycle regulators such as CDK2, Chk2, and cyclin D in HL-60 cells. To test whether CPT-11 could augment antitumor activity in vivo, athymic BALB/c(nu/nu) nude mice were inoculated with HL-60 cells, followed by treatment with either CPT-11. The treatments significantly inhibited tumor growth and reduced tumor weight and volume in the HL-60 xenograft mice. The present study demonstrates the schedule-dependent antileukemia effect of CPT-11 using both in vitro and in vivo models. CPT-11 could potentially be a promising agent for the treatment of promyelocytic leukemia and requires further investigation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2014.
    Article · Jan 2014 · Environmental Toxicology

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Institutions

  • 2015
    • China Medical University (ROC)