A Angeli

Università degli Studi di Torino, Torino, Piedmont, Italy

Are you A Angeli?

Claim your profile

Publications (363)1296.09 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The coexistence of an unilateral adrenal macronodule and Cushing’s disease is well documented in only few reports. We hereby describe two patients with ACTH-dependent Cushing’s syndrome and asymmetric adrenal involvement. In both patients the left-sided adrenal contained a nodule sized 1.5 and 1.4 cm, respectively, while the contralateral gland appeared as normal at abdominal computerized tomography. Adrenal scintiscan revealed a bilateral uptake of the tracer. Dynamic testing of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis was suggestive of pituitary dependency but neuroradiologic imaging was inconclusive. Inferior petrosal sinus sampling demonstrated a clear center to periphery ACTH gradient and an ACTH-producing pituitary microadenoma was found and removed in both cases. Hypopituitarism ensued postoperatively and Cushing’s syndrome resolved but the adrenal nodules regressed only many month after operation. The present cases confirm that the presence of an adrenal mass in a patient with Cushing’s syndrome is insufficient to confidently conclude for the adrenal dependency of the syndrome.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between cortisol secretion, bone health, and bone loss in a cohort of normal women in the early postmenopausal period. We measured lumbar and hip bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and heel ultrasound parameters in 82 healthy, nonosteoporotic (lumbar T-score ≥-2.0) women (median age 52.5 years, range 42-61). These women were examined in two sessions, 1 year apart, in the early postmenopausal period (onset of menopause between 6 and 60 months). Parameters of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function were morning serum cortisol, morning and midnight salivary cortisol, 24-h urinary free cortisol (UFC), serum cortisol after 0.5 and 1 mg overnight dexamethasone, and DHEA-S. In multiple regression analyses, the following significant inverse correlations were found: i) lumbar BMD and either 24-h UFC (P<0.005) or morning serum cortisol (P<0.05), ii) total femur and femoral neck BMD with morning serum cortisol (P=0.05 and P<0.05), and iii) heel ultrasound stiffness index and midnight salivary cortisol (P<0.005). The annual rate of change in lumbar and femoral BMD did not correlate with any of the above-mentioned hormonal variables. No difference was found in the parameters of HPA axis function in slow (loss of BMD <1%) vs fast (loss of BMD ≥3%) bone losers. HPA axis may contribute to postmenopausal bone health, but differences in cortisol secretion do not influence the differential rate of bone loss between slow and fast bone losers in the early postmenopausal period, at least in healthy women.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · European Journal of Endocrinology

  • No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the literature, few studies analyze the effect of GH therapy on height, preferring a more indirect approach, where factors influencing the total pubertal and pre-pubertal growth in GH-deficient patients are evaluated and subsequently used to estimate the overall effect at the end of the therapy; unfortunately, this approach does not quantify the real growth gain in treated patients. Using a non-parametric Empirical Bayes approach, our study analyzes the growth response to GH treatment in a homogeneous cohort of 317 patients with pituitary GH deficiency who were enrolled during their pre-pubertal stage in the GH Piedmont Registry (Italy), between January 2000–October 2008, and have at least 2 yr of follow-up. To estimate the growth curve for males and females, a non-parametric regression model was fitted, applying Empirical Bayes techniques. A validation of the model was also performed. Improvement was evident in both genders, since both males and females mean growth curve, which started below the 3rd percentile at the beginning of the therapy, reached the 10th percentile of the Tanner curve at the end of observation (17 yr old for males and 14 yr old for females); the estimation procedure achieved a good precision. The methodological approach allows for fitting a model able to evaluate longitudinally the response to GH treatment, by means of estimating the overall growth curve, even in presence of sparse information about children heights.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • Source
    G Reimondo · B Allasino · S Bovio · L Saba · A Ardito · A Angeli · M Terzolo
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The results of dexamethasone suppression tests (DST) in the screening of subclinical hypercortisolism are not readily comparable. Aim of the present study was to review the effectiveness of overnight 1-mg DST and 8-mg DST to look for functional autonomy of clinically inapparent adrenal adenomas. Sixty-eight consecutive patients with clinically inapparent adrenal adenomas were enrolled. All patients underwent 1-mg DST. The 8-mg DST was performed in the 11 patients who had post 1-mg DST cortisol >138 nmol/l and in 11 patients who had post 1-mg DST cortisol between 50 and 138 nmol/l. The a priori probability to have autonomous cortisol secretion was defined by the presence of at least two alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis among reduced ACTH concentrations, elevated urinary free cortisol (UFC) or elevated midnight serum cortisol. Cortisol levels >138 nmol/l after the 1-mg DST increases the post-test probability of adrenal functional autonomy to 55%, whereas cortisol levels <50 nmol/l reduce the post-test probability to 8%. Cortisol levels recorded after the 8-mg DST were nonsignificantly lower than after the 1-mg DST and all the patients with cortisol >138 nmol/l after the 1-mg DST maintained cortisol above this cut-point. The 1-mg DST should be considered as the more effective test to detect autonomous cortisol secretion by a clinically inapparent adrenal adenoma when cortisol levels are >138 nmol/l, while cortisol levels <50 nmol/l reduce remarkably the post-test probability of this event. The 8-mg DST seems to replicate by large the results of the 1-mg DST.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Available on http://www.ismj.com/pages/311417173/ISMJ/journals/articles/Vol-12-No3-2011/Effects-of-endurance-and-strength-acute-exercise-on-night-sleep-quality.asp Background: Physical activity is one of the lifestyle-related factors that is decisive for the quality of sleep and for immune system stimulation. Research question: The purpose of this research is to evaluate the effect of high-intensity endurance and strength exercises, carried out in the morning, on the quality of nighttime sleep. Methods: Fifteen healthy, trained, males were assessed at rest and during endurance and strength exercises. Preliminarily, at least one week before testing began, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and maximal upper limb strength (maximal weight load, WLmax) were assessed. During each test session continuous monitoring by means of an actigraph for the rest-activity measurement was collected. Results: A single session of strength or endurance exercise positively influenced the parameters related to sleep patterns. The positive effects were particularly evident during the night immediately following the exercise. Both exercise typologies positively influenced the parameters, indicative of the total amount of sleep (assumed sleep and sleep latency). The quality of sleep, evaluated by means of number of sleep bouts, number of immobile phases, and the number of minutes immobile respectively, was also clearly improved during the first night for both types of physical activity. Sleep efficiency was significantly higher during the first and second nights respectively but only following endurance exercise. None of the parameters of sleep have highlighted statistically significant differences between the strength and the endurance sessions. Conclusions: This study shows that morning physical activity has an effect on nighttime rest, making it easier to fall asleep, lengthening the real time of sleep, and improving overall sleep quality.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · INTERNATIONAL SPORTMED JOURNAL
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare neoplasm characterized by poor prognosis. First-line systemic treatments in advanced disease include mitotane, either alone or in combination with chemotherapy. Studies evaluating second-line therapy options have obtained disappointing results. This trial assessed the activity and toxicity of gemcitabine plus metronomic fluoropyrimidines in heavily pretreated advanced ACC patients. From 1998 to 2008, 28 patients with advanced ACC progressing after mitotane plus one or two systemic chemotherapy lines were enrolled. They received a combination of i.v. gemcitabine (800 mg/m(2), on days 1 and 8, every 21 days) and i.v. 5-fluorouracil protracted infusion (200 mg/m(2)/daily without interruption until progression) in the first six patients, or oral capecitabine (1500 mg/daily) in the subsequent patients. Mitotane administration was maintained in all cases. The rate of non-progressing patients after 4 months of treatment was 46.3%. A complete response was observed in 1 patient (3.5%); 1 patient (3.5%) obtained a partial regression, 11 patients (39.3%) obtained a disease stabilization and 15 patients (53.7%) progressed. Treatment was well tolerated, with grade III and IV toxicities consisting of leukopenia in six patients (21.4%), thrombocytopenia in one patient (3.5%), and mucositis in one patient (3.5%). Median time to progression and overall survival in the patient population were 5.3 (range: 1-43) and 9.8 months (range: 3-73) respectively. Gemcitabine plus metronomic fluoropyrimidines is a well-tolerated and moderately active regimen in heavily pretreated ACC patients.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2010 · Endocrine Related Cancer
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO) is the most common form of secondary osteoporosis. Bisphosphonates are considered the first-line treatment option for the majority of glucocorticoid-treated patients at increased risk of fractures. However, the anti-resorptive mechanism of bisphosphonates does not address the major pathophysiological mechanisms of impaired bone formation during chronic glucocorticoid treatment. PTH, when administered intermittently and at low doses, has effects on bone formation opposite to those of glucocorticoids and therefore is conceptually a more attractive approach. Teriparatide (1-34PTH) has been studied in patients with GIO with effects on bone mineral density and on fracture risk which were shown to be superior to those obtained with alendronate.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2010 · Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Several studies suggest that intense exercise may increase the athlete's thrombotic tendency. Available data on those metabolic alteration are still conflicting and their clinical significance is still worth of interest. The aim of the present study was to investigate if widely used markers of cardiac damage such as NT-proBNP levels are affected by homocysteine concentrations during sustained sport activities. Seventy-eight competitive, non-professional athletes were enrolled in the study; 70 healthy age matched subjects, recruited from blood donors, served as controls. Besides the general clinical determinations, the assessed variables included homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12, total and HDL cholesterol, LDH, CPK, NT-proBNP and IL-6. The percentages of athletes with normal and elevated homocysteine levels resulted 46% and 54%, respectively. Mean NT-proBNP levels were significantly higher in athletes than in controls (1176.66 + or - 442.15 pg/mL versus 450.34 + or - 180.39 pg/mL). No correlation was found between homocysteine and NT-proBNP values. The previously described "sport related" homocysteine is not related to other markers of cardiovascular stress such as NT-proBNP. Available data suggest that both hyperhomocysteinemia and high NT-proBNP levels in healthy young athletes could be interpreted as markers of metabolic and morphologic adaptation to training rather than a risk factor for cardio-vascular diseases.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2009 · The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness

  • No preview · Article · Dec 2009 · The Journal of Rheumatology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Available on http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Intense+physical+exercise+increases+systemic+11beta-hydroxysteroid+dehydrogenase+type+1+activity+in+healthy+adult+subjects. Intense physical exercise activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis but little is known about changes in glucocorticoid sensitivity at the target cell level. No data are available on the acute effects of exercise on 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD) type 1 activity, which generates biologically active cortisol from inactive cortisone and is expressed also in skeletal muscle. Fifteen healthy, trained males (age mean +/- SE 28 +/- 1) were assessed on three non-consecutive days: at rest, during an endurance and strength sessions. During each session, between 1000 and 1600 hours, 6-h urine and four salivary samples were collected. Urinary total tetrahydrocortisol (THF) + alloTHF, tetrahydrocortisone (THE), cortisol (F) and cortisone (E) were measured with HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry; urinary-unconjugated F and E were measured by HPLC-UV. Salivary cortisol and interleukin (IL)-6 were measured by RIA and ELISA, respectively. Both endurance and strength exercises caused an increase in (THF + alloTHF)/THE ratio (mean +/- SE 1.90 +/- 0.07 and 1.82 +/- 0.05 vs. 1.63 +/- 0.06, P < 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively), consistent with increased systemic 11beta-HSD type 1 activity. No relationship was found with age, BMI, VO(2max) maximal power load or perceived exertion. No significant change was apparent in F/E ratio, an index of 11beta-HSD type 2 activity. No effect of exercise on salivary cortisol and IL-6 was observed, whereas a significant effect of sampling time was found. Intense physical exercise acutely increases systemic 11beta-HSD type 1 activity in humans. Such an increase may lead to higher cortisol concentration in target tissues, notably in skeletal muscle where it could contribute to limit exercise-induced muscle inflammatory response.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2009 · Arbeitsphysiologie
  • A. Angeli · G. Calzolari · V. Data

    No preview · Article · Oct 2009 · Bone

  • No preview · Article · Oct 2009 · Bone

  • No preview · Article · Oct 2009 · Bone
  • Source
    Massimo Terzolo · Giuseppe Reimondo · Alberto Angeli
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Clinical endocrinologists have to deal frequently with adrenal incidentalomas in their practice. However, no comprehensive guidelines have been published by professional societies to guide assessment and management of adrenal incidentalomas and current recommendations are mainly based on the NIH state-of-the-science statement or expert opinions. An accompanying paper in this issue of the journal provides a critical revision of the relevant literature on this clinically important topic. The provocative conclusion of the authors is that current recommendations are burdened by high costs, little clinical benefit and also risk of inducing cancer. This paper has the merit to outline the limits of proposed protocols and to stimulate fruitful discussion; however, many aspects represent the personal view of the authors rather than evidence-based assumptions. The purpose of the present comment is to provide a more balanced view addressing the arguments that are condivisible and those that are based on inconsistent data. To add further to the argument of discussion, we also outline a clinically-oriented strategy for follow-up. In conclusion, the need for further research appears evident to define more efficient guidelines.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2009 · European Journal of Endocrinology

  • No preview · Article · Aug 2009 · Bone
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoids (GCs) are widely used for the treatment of hormone refractory prostate cancer. However, few data are available on the expression and regulation of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors (GR and MR) and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD) 1 and -2 activities in prostate cancer cells. Here we show that GR is expressed in both the androgen-independent PC-3 cell line and, at very low levels, in the androgen-dependent LNCaP cells, and MR is expressed in both cell lines. IL-1beta increased GR expression in both cell lines. In LNCaP cells IL-1beta also increased MR expression. Significant 11beta-HSD oxidase activity and 11beta-HSD2 protein were found in LNCaP cells, but not in PC3 cells, and no ketoreductase activity was detected in either cell lines. GR function was assessed by measuring the inhibitory effect of dexamethasone on constitutive and IL-1beta-inducible IL-6 and osteoprotegerin (OPG) production. In PC-3 cells, IL-1beta stimulated IL-6 and OPG release, and dexamethasone dose-dependently inhibited IL-1beta-inducible IL-6 release, and constitutive and IL-1beta-inducible OPG release. In LNCaP cells, IL-1beta stimulated only OPG release. While dexamethasone was ineffective, cortisol dose-dependently inhibited IL-1beta-inducible OPG release. Eplerenone (Epl), a selective mineralocorticoid antagonist, reverted this effect. We conclude that different patterns of expression of receptors and 11beta-HSD activity were associated with different responsiveness to GCs in terms of regulated gene expression. GR and MR expression may vary as a function not only of the malignant phenotype, but also of local conditions such as the degree of inflammation. Inhibition of IL-6 and OPG release by GCs may contribute to the antitumor efficacy in prostate cancer.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2009 · The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology

  • No preview · Article · Jun 2009 · Bone
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Clinically inapparent adrenal masses, or adrenal incidentalomas, are discovered inadvertently in the course of work-up or treatment of unrelated disorders. Cortical adenoma is the most frequent tumour detected incidentally, but adrenocortical cancer, phaeochromocytoma and metastasis are not rare. Two critical questions should be answered before trying to outline the management of adrenal incidentaloma: (1) which tumours may cause harm to the patient, and (2) can we recognize and effectively treat such tumours? Based on the available scientific evidence, two major recommendations should be made: (1) identify either primary (adrenocortical cancer) or secondary (adrenal metastasis) malignancy; (2) identify phaeochromocytoma. Radiological evaluation is the key to the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant tumours. Endocrine testing is necessary to exclude phaeochromocytoma in all patients with an adrenal incidentaloma because this tumour may remain undiagnosed after imaging studies. The management of clinically inapparent adrenal adenomas may vary depending whether or not they are functioning. It is reasonable to screen for primary aldosteronism all hypertensive patients and recommend adrenalectomy when an aldosterone-producing adenoma is confirmed. A subset of adenomas secretes cortisol autonomously and may lead to mild hypercortisolism, a condition defined as subclinical Cushing's syndrome. The criteria for defining subclinical Cushing's syndrome are controversial, and we currently do not have sufficient evidence to define a gold standard for screening. Also the management of this condition is largely empirical, and data are insufficient to indicate the superiority of a surgical or non-surgical approach to managing patients with subclinical Cushing's syndrome.
    No preview · Article · May 2009 · Best Practice & Research: Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism

  • No preview · Article · Mar 2009 · European Urology Supplements

Publication Stats

10k Citations
1,296.09 Total Impact Points


  • 1975-2014
    • Università degli Studi di Torino
      • • Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche e Biologiche
      • • Department of Medical Science
      Torino, Piedmont, Italy
  • 1989-2011
    • University of Milan
      • • Department of Sport, Nutrition and Health Sciences
      • • Faculty of Medicine
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2010
    • Università degli Studi di Brescia
      • Department of Medicine and Surgery
      Brescia, Lombardy, Italy
  • 1994-2008
    • Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria San Luigi Gonzaga
      Orbassano, Piedmont, Italy
  • 2003
    • The American University of Rome
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 1995
    • I.R.C.C.S. Istituto Auxologico Italiano
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy