Neal Innocent

University of Bath, Bath, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (3)11.5 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Key neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease include the accumulation of amyloid-beta (Abeta), disruption of Ca(2+) homeostasis and neurodegeneration. However, the physical nature of the toxic Abeta species is controversial. Here, we examined the effect of aging on acute and chronic actions of Abeta peptides: changes in intracellular Ca(2+) and toxic responses, respectively. Acute application of Abeta(1-42) to PC12 cells potentiated KCl-evoked increases in Ca(2+), while chronic application decreased mitochondrial function with concomitant perturbation of membrane integrity and activation of apoptosis in PC12 cells, and reduced neurite length and synaptogenesis in rat cortical neurons. Both the acute and chronic effects of Abeta(1-42) were prevented by the anti-oligomerisation peptide D-KLVFFA, implicating oligomeric structures. The generation of a range of oligomeric species by aging Abeta(1-42) at 37 degrees C for different times was supported by thioflavin T fluorescence and atomic force microscopy. Abeta(1-42) aged for 24 h maximally potentiated KCl-evoked increases in Ca(2+), and this correlated with oligomers composed of 3-6 monomers, as judged by size exclusion filtration. Aging for 72 or 96 h, which generated fibrillar structures, was less efficacious. The Abeta(25-35) fragment that lacks the self-recognition element targeted by D-KLVFFA failed to potentiate KCl-evoked increases in Ca(2+). However, Abeta(25-35) was more efficacious than Abeta(1-42) at decreasing cellular functions when applied chronically. The acute and chronic effects of Abeta(1-42) also showed differential sensitivity to blockade of voltage operated Ca(2+) channels. These results suggest that the acute effects of Abeta(1-42) on Ca(2+) signals do not underpin the toxic responses measured, although both acute and chronic effects are promoted by small oligomeric species.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2010 · Neuropharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: A recently developed alpha-conotoxin, alpha-conotoxin Arenatus IB-[V11L,V16D] (alpha-CtxArIB[V11L,V16D]) [corrected], is a potent and selective competitive antagonist at rat recombinant alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), making it an attractive probe for this receptor subtype. alpha7 nAChRs are potential therapeutic targets that are widely expressed in both neuronal and non-neuronal tissues, where they are implicated in a variety of functions. In this study, we evaluate this toxin at rat and human native nAChRs. Functional alpha7 nAChR responses were evoked by choline plus the allosteric potentiator PNU-120596 [1-(5-chloro-2,4-dimethoxy-phenyl)-3-(5-methyl-isoxazol-3-yl)-urea] in rat PC12 cells and human SH-SY5Y cells loaded with calcium indicators. alpha-CtxArIB[V11L,V16D] specifically inhibited alpha7 nAChR-mediated increases in Ca2+ in PC12 cells. Responses to other stimuli, 5-I-A-85380 [5-iodo-3-(2(S)-azetidinylmethoxy)pyridine dihydrochloride], nicotine, or KCl, that did not activate alpha7 nAChRs were unaffected. Human alpha7 nAChRs were also sensitive to alpha-CtxArIB[V11L, V16D]; acetylcholine-evoked currents in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing human alpha7 nAChRs were inhibited by alpha-CtxArIB[V11L,V16D] (IC(50), 3.4 nM) in a slowly reversible manner, with full recovery taking 15 min. This is consistent with the time course of recovery from blockade of rat alpha7 nAChRs in PC12 cells. alpha-CtxArIB[V11L,V16D] inhibited human native alpha7 nAChRs in SHSY5Y cells, activated by either choline or AR-R17779 [(2)-spiro[1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane-3,59-oxazolidin]-29-one] plus PNU-120596. Rat brain alpha7 nAChRs contribute to dopamine release from striatal minces; alpha-CtxArIB[V11L,V16D] (300 nM) selectively inhibited choline-evoked dopamine release without affecting responses evoked by nicotine that activates heteromeric nAChRs. This study establishes that alpha-CtxArIB[V11L,V16D] selectively inhibits human and rat native alpha7 nAChRs with comparable potency, making this a potentially useful antagonist for investigating alpha7 nAChR functions.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2008 · Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
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    ABSTRACT: The synthesis of (+/-)-epiquinamide 1 and (+/-)-C(1)-epiepiquinamide 2 based on the use of a Curtius rearrangement to introduce the C(1) amino residue is reported. In a competition binding assay for [(3)H]epibatidine binding to rat brain membranes neither (+/-)-1 nor (+/-)-2 showed any significant level of nicotinic activity.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2006 · Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters