- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To investigate the neuroprotective effects of glycyrrhizin (Gly) as well as its effect on expression of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in rats after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham group, TBI group, and TBI+Gly group (n=36 per group). Rat TBI model was made by using the modified Feeney's method. In TBI+Gly group, Gly was administered intravenously at a dosage of 10 mg/kg 30 min after TBI. At 24 h after TBI, motor function and brain water content were evaluated. Meanwhile, HMGB1/HMGB1 receptors including toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE)/nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB) signaling pathway and inflammatory cytokines in the injured brain tissues were detected using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blot, electrophoretic mobility shift assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Furthermore, HMGB1, RAGE and TLR4 immunohistochemistry and apoptosis were analyzed. Results: Beam walking performance impairment and brain edema were significantly reduced in TBI+Gly group compared with TBI group; meanwhile, the over-expressions of HMGB1/HMGB1 receptors (TLR4 and RAGE)/NF-κB DNA-binding activity and inflammatory cytokines were inhibited. The percentages of HMGB1, RAGE and TLR4-positive cells and apoptotic cells were respectively 58.37% ± 5.06%, 54.15% ± 4.65%, 65.50% ± 4.83%, 52.02% ± 4.63% in TBI group and 39.99% ± 4.99%, 34.87% ± 5.02%, 43.33% ± 4.54%, 37.84% ± 5.16% in TBI+Gly group (all P<0.01 compared with TBI group). Conclusion: Gly can reduce secondary brain injury and improve outcomes in rat following TBI by down-regulation of HMGB1/HMGB1 receptors (TLR4 and RAGE)/NF-κB-mediated inflammatory responses in the injured rat brain.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the effects of anisomycin on glioma cells and the related mechanisms in vitro. The U251 and U87 human glioblastoma cell lines were tested. The growth of the cells was analyzed using a CCK-8 cell viability assay. Apoptosis was detected using a flow cytometry assay. The expression of proteins and phosphorylated kinases was detected using Western blotting. Treatment of U251 and U87 cells with anisomycin (0.01-8 μmol/L) inhibited the cell growth in time- and concentration-dependent manners (the IC(50) values at 48 h were 0.233±0.021 and 0.192±0.018 μmol/L, respectively). Anisomycin (4 μmol/L) caused 21.5%±2.2% and 25.3%±3.1% of apoptosis proportion, respectively, in U251 and U87 cells. In the two cell lines, anisomycin (4 μmol/L) activated p38 MAPK and JNK, and inactivated ERK1/2. However, neither the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 (10 μmol/L) nor the JNK inhibitor SP600125 (10 μmol/L) prevented anisomycin-induced cell death. On the other hand, anisomycin (4 μmol/L) reduced the level of PP2A/C subunit (catalytic subunit) in a time-dependent manner in the two cell lines. Treatment of the two cell lines with the PP2A inhibitor okadaic acid (100 nmol/L) caused marked cell death. Anisomycin induces glioma cell death via down-regulation of PP2A catalytic subunit. The regulation of PP2A/C exression by anisomycin provides a clue to further study on its role in glioma therapy.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although sEH inhibitors are well studied in inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases, their effects on gliomas are unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of t-AUCB, a more potent and selective sEH inhibitor, on U251 and U87 human glioblastoma cell lines and the HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. Our results showed that t-AUCB efficiently inhibited sEH activities in all three cell lines (the inhibition rate was more than 80% in each) and suppressed U251 and U87 cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, but exhibited no cell growth inhibition on HepG2. We detected high levels of phosphorylated NF-κB-p65 (Ser536) in t-AUCB-treated U251 and U87 cells, and then found that the NF-κB inhibitor PDTC can completely abolish t-AUCB-induced growth inhibition. This indicated that t-AUCB suppresses U251 and U87 cell growth by activating NF-κB-p65. Moreover, we found that t-AUCB induces cell-cycle G0/G1 phase arrest by regulating Cyclin D1 mRNA and protein levels and CDC2 (Thr161) phosphorylation level. We propose to further test this promising reagent for its anti-glioma activity in clinical relevant orthotopic brain glioma models.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma is one of the most malignant brain tumors. Current treatments for glioblastoma usually make poor responses, and novel treatment strategies are extremely imperative. Cytochalasin E was reported to inhibit angiogenesis and tumor growth in some studies, but its effects on gliomas are still unknown. In this study, we found cytochalasin E inhibits U87 human glioblastoma cell growth in a very low concentration range of 10 -8 to 10 -6 M in a time and concentration dependent manner, and the IC50 were 1.17 ± 0.32 × 10 -7 M for 48 h treatment, 6.65 ± 1.12 × 10 -8 M for 72 h and 3.78 ± 1.30 × 10 -8 M for 96 h. We also found cytochalasin E induces cell-cycle G2/M phase arrest (72 h-treatment of 10 -6 M cytochalasin E caused 56.2 ± 6.1% cells arrest in G2/M phase) and cell apoptosis (96 h-treatment of 10 -6 M cytochalasin E induced 24.1 ± 4.2% cells apoptosis). Thus, cytochalasin E is proposed as a potential agent for glioblastoma chemotherapy.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed to assess the potential therapeutic efficacy of gene-modified mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), MSCs-TH and MSCs-GDNF, in PD rats. Fifty-nine PD rat models were divided into five groups and then the gene-modified MSCs were transplanted into the striatum of rats according to the design. Apomorphine-induced rotational behavior in rats was observed weekly; rats which received both MSCs-TH and MSCs-GDNF showed the most significant improvement compared with those in other groups (P < 0.01). Three weeks later, immunohistochemistry analysis found TH-positive cells and GDNF-positive cells in striatal. Eight weeks later, PD rats were killed. HPLC and ELISA results showed DA and GDNF content in striatum of rats which received both MSCs-TH, and MSCs-GDNF was considerably higher compared with those of other groups (P < 0.01),respectively. In conclusion, our results suggest that combined transplantation of MSCs expressing TH and GDNF can lead to remarkable therapeutic effects in a rat model of PD.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radiotherapy is widely used in cancer treatment and biological studies. Multiple mechanisms induced by radiation, especially changes of the expression profile of genes, lead to the disruption of cellular homeostasis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important post-transcriptional gene regulators and play an important role in response to cellular stress. Here we investigated the profiles of miRNA expression following exposure to radiation and the possible role of miRNAs in the modulation of radiosensitivity in the glioblastoma multiform U87MG cell line. MiRNA expression profiles revealed a limited set of miRNAs with altered expression in U87MG cells in response to radiation treatment. MiR-181a, a member of miR-181 family, was one of the down-regulated miRNAs, whose expression was further validated by qRT-PCR. The target mRNAs of radiation-responsive miRNAs were predicted with a target prediction tool. Transiently overexpressed miR-181a significantly sensitized malignant glioma cells to radiation treatment concurrent with the down-regulation of the protein Bcl-2 (B cell lymphoma/lewkmia-2). It indicates that miR-181a may modulate radiosensitivity by targeting Bcl-2 in human malignant glioma cells. These data suggest that radiation can affect miRNA expression, which regulates the cellular response, and miR-181a could be a target for enhancing the effect of radiation treatment on malignant glioma cells.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytosine deaminase (CD) converts 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in CD/5-FC gene therapy, 5-FU will be mostly converted into nontoxic beta-alanine without uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT). UPRT catalyzes the conversion of 5-FU to 5-fluorouridine monophosphate, which directly kills CD::UPRT-expressing cells and surrounding cells via the bystander effect. But the pharmacokinetics and the bystander effect of CD::UPRT/5-FC has not been verified in vivo and in vitro. Before the CD::UPRT/5-FC bi-gene therapy system is used in clinical trial, it is essential to monitor the transgene expression and function in vivo. Thus, we developed a preclinical tumor model to investigate the feasibility of using (19)F-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((19)F-MRS) and optical imaging to measure non-invasive CD and UPRT expression and its bystander effect. C6 and C6-CD::UPRT cells were cultured with 5-FC. The medium, cells and their mixture were analyzed by (19)F-MRS. Rats with intracranial xenografted encephalic C6-CD::UPRT glioma were injected intraperitoneally with 5-FC and their (19)F-MRS spectra recorded. Then the pharmacokinetics of 5-FC was proved. Mixtures of C6 and C6-CD::UPRT cells at different ratios were cultured with 5-FC and the cytotoxic efficacy and survival rate of cells recorded. To determine the mechanism of the bystander effect, the culture media from cell comprising 25% and 75% C6-CD::UPRT cells were examined by (19)F-MRS. A comparative study of mean was performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). (19)F-MRS on samples from C6-CD::UPRT cells cultured with 5-FC showed three broad resonance signals corresponding to 5-FC, 5-FU and fluorinated nucleotides (F-Nuctd). For the C6 mixture, only the 5-FC peak was detected. In vivo serial (19)F-MRS spectra showed a strong 5-FC peak and a weak 5-FU peak at 20 minutes after 5-FC injection. The 5-FU concentration reached a maximum at about 50 minutes. The F-Nuctd signal appeared after about 1 hour, reached a maximum at around 160 minutes, and was detectable for several hours. At a 10% ratio of C6-CD::UPRT cells, the survival rate was (79.55 +/- 0.88)% (P < 0.01). As the C6-CD::UPRT ratio increased, the survival rate of the cells decreased. (19)F-MRS showed that the signals for 5-FU and F-Nuctd in the culture medium increased as the ratio of C6-CD::UPRT in the mixture increased. (19)F-MRS studies indicated that C6-CD::UPRT cells could effectively express CD and UPRT enzymes. The CD::UPRT/5-FC system showed an obvious bystander effect. This study demonstrated that CD::UPRT/5-FC gene therapy is suitable for 5-FC to F-Nuctd metabolism; and (19)F-MRS can monitor transferred CD::UPRT gene expression and catalysis of substrates noninvasively, dynamically and quantitatively.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the novel use of radiofrequency thermocoagulation to facilitate surgical excision of intracranial giant vasogenic tumors and detail the operative procedures and patient outcomes. There were 2 patients with intracranial giant vasogenic tumors. The first was an extracerebral deep-seated cavernous angioma in the cavernous sinus (largest diameter: 8 cm), and the other was a hemangiopericytoma accreting the left confluence sinus (largest diameter: 9.2 cm). The tumors were well exposed during surgery and separated from the surrounding brain tissue by blunt dissection. The external surface of each tumor was devascularized. Radiofrequency thermocoagulation was applied in multiple cycles with each cycle encompassing a 3-cm-diameter volume to coagulate the inner tissue of the tumors prior to resection. The tumors were then resected in a piecemeal fashion starting from the thermocoagulated regions until complete removal was achieved. With radiofrequency thermocoagulation assistance, the 2 intracranial giant vasogenic tumors were removed completely with no bleeding. The surrounding brain tissue, cranial nerves, and vessels were kept intact. Patient recovery was uneventful. No complications and no tumor recurrences have occurred over a 2-year follow-up period. Radiofrequency thermocoagulation is extremely effective in controlling bleeding during surgical excision of intracranial giant vasogenic tumors. This improves the ease and safety of such procedures and allows for complete removal of tumors.