[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antiangiogenic therapy resistance occurs frequently in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The purpose of this study was to understand the mechanism of resistance to sunitinib, an antiangiogenic small molecule, and to exploit this mechanism therapeutically. We hypothesized that sunitinib-induced upregulation of the prometastatic MET and AXL receptors is associated with resistance to sunitinib and with more aggressive tumor behavior. In the present study, tissue microarrays containing sunitinib-treated and untreated RCC tissues were stained with MET and AXL antibodies. The low malignant RCC cell line 786-O was chronically treated with sunitinib and assayed for AXL, MET, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) protein expression and activation. Co-culture experiments were used to examine the effect of sunitinib pretreatment on endothelial cell growth. The effects of AXL and MET were evaluated in various cell-based models by short hairpin RNA or inhibition by cabozantinib, the multi-tyrosine kinases inhibitor that targets vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, MET and AXL. Xenograft mouse models tested the ability of cabozantinib to rescue sunitinib resistance. We demonstrated that increased AXL and MET expression was associated with inferior clinical outcome in patients. Chronic sunitinib treatment of RCC cell lines activated both AXL and MET, induced EMT-associated gene expression changes, including upregulation of Snail and β-catenin, and increased cell migration and invasion. Pretreatment with sunitinib enhanced angiogenesis in 786-0/human umbilical vein endothelial cell co-culture models. The suppression of AXL or MET expression and the inhibition of AXL and MET activation using cabozantinib both impaired chronic sunitinib treatment-induced prometastatic behavior in cell culture and rescued acquired resistance to sunitinib in xenograft models. In summary, chronic sunitinib treatment induces the activation of AXL and MET signaling and promotes prometastatic behavior and angiogenesis. The inhibition of AXL and MET activity may overcome resistance induced by prolonged sunitinib therapy in metastatic RCC.Oncogene advance online publication, 14 September 2015; doi:10.1038/onc.2015.343.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this review, we describe the role, feasibility and safety of partial nephrectomy in the setting of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Partial nephrectomy is currently the preferred therapeutic modality in patients with localized renal tumors, while radical cytoreductive nephrectomy is the standard of care for appropriately selected patients with metastatic disease. Several studies have shown the prognostic value of percentage tumor removed when cytoreductive nephrectomy is done. This concept of percentage tumor removal and the associated benefit should also be applied when considering patients for cytoreductive partial nephrectomy; however, the potential adverse events after partial nephrectomy should be kept in mind, as these, when they occur, could delay time to starting systemic therapy. Several small retrospective studies have shown the feasibility of this approach in carefully selected patient groups. In well--selected patients with metastatic disease and primary tumors that are amenable to nephron sparing approaches, partial nephrectomy could offer an alternative to radical nephrectomy, with manageable adverse events, and good renal functional outcomes. Preserving renal function in this population could allow these patients to participate in clinical trial that they otherwise might not qualify for.
No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Minerva urologica e nefrologica = The Italian journal of urology and nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytoreductive nephrectomy (CN) was regarded standard of care for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) in the immunotherapy era. With the advent of targeted molecular therapy (TMT) for the treatment of mRCC, the routine use of CN has been questioned. Up to date evidence continues to suggest that CN remains an integral part of treatment in appropriately selected patients. This review details the original context in which the efficacy of CN was established and rationale for the continued use of cytoreductive surgery in the era of TMT.
No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Translational Andrology and Urology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytoreductive nephrectomy (CN) became a standard procedure in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) in the immunotherapy era. Historically, median overall survival (OS) of patients treated with interferon alpha (IFN-α) without CN was 7.8 months. Median OS in patients treated with targeted therapy (TT) without CN is unknown.
We retrospectively reviewed records of patients with mRCC who received TT without CN. Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox regression analysis were used to estimate median OS and identify poor prognostic factors.
One hundred and eighty-eight patients were identified. Most patients had intermediate-risk (54.8%) or poor-risk (44.1%) disease. Median OS for all patients was 10.4 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 8.1-12.5]. By multivariable analysis, elevated baseline lactate dehydrogenase and corrected calcium, performance status of two or more, retroperitoneal nodal metastasis, thrombocytosis, current smoking, two or more metastatic sites, and lymphopenia were independent risk factors for inferior OS. Patients with four or more factors had increased risk of death (hazard ratio 8.83, 95% CI 5.02-15.5, P < 0.001) and 5.5-month median OS. Nineteen patients (10.0%) survived for 2+ years.
These data highlight the improved OS of patients with mRCC treated with TT without CN, compared with historical IFN-α treatment, and may guide the design of trials investigating the role of CN in the TT era.
No preview · Article · Nov 2010 · Annals of Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The long-term prognosis for clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is dramatically altered by the development of metastatic recurrence. However, there are very few indicators that can predict which patient will develop a recurrence. MicroRNAs regulate many cellular processes and have been shown to be associated with cancer development and recurrence. More recently it has been shown that microRNA genes can be epigenetically modified in cancer, resulting in aberrant silencing of microRNA genes with tumor suppressor functions. In this study, we show that two genes encoding for hsa-miR-9 are significantly hypermethylated in ccRCC tumors compared with adjacent normal tissues (P-value <0.001 for both miR-9-1 and miR-9-3) resulting in decreased expression, and that the methylation of these genes was more significant in DNA obtained from the primary tumor for patients who developed a recurrence (P-value: 0.012 and 0.009 for miR-9-1 and miR-9-3, respectively) than in tumors from nonrecurrent patients. Furthermore, methylation of miR-9-3 was significantly associated with an increased risk of recurrence (hazard ratio: 5.85, 95% confidence intervals: 1.30-26.35) and high methylation levels of either miR-9-1 or miR-9-3 resulted in a significant, nearly 30-month decrease in recurrence-free survival time (P-value: 0.034 and 0.007 for miR-9-1 and miR-9-3, respectively). Our results demonstrate that hsa-miR-9 is involved in the development of ccRCC while also having a role in the development of metastatic recurrence.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously demonstrated the importance of interleukin-8 (IL-8) as a mediator of angiogenesis, tumorigenicity, and metastasis of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder. In the present study, we evaluated the feasibility of adenoviral mediated antisense IL-8 gene transfer (Ad IL-8-AS) as therapy for established TCC. In vitro, Ad IL-8-AS inhibited endothelial cell proliferation and enhanced endothelial cell apoptosis. The highly metastatic human TCC cell line 253J B-V(R) was implanted into the subcutis of athymic nude mice, and intralesional therapy with Ad IL-8-AS commenced when the tumors reached a diameter between 5 and 7 mm. Tumor growth was significantly inhibited compared with therapy in controls (saline and beta-galactosidase adenovirus). Ad IL-8-AS therapy decreased the in vivo expression of IL-8 and matrix metalloproteinase type 9 (MMP-9), reduced microvessel density, and enhanced endothelial cell apoptosis. These results indicate that Ad IL-8-AS therapy targets both tumor cells and host endothelial cells resulting in endothelial cell apoptosis and significant inhibition of tumor growth.
No preview · Article · Sep 2001 · Oncology Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metastases from prostatic adenocarcinoma (prostate cancer) are characterized by their predilection for bone and typical osteoblastic features. An in vitro model of bone metastases from prostate cancer was developed using a bicompartment coculture system of mouse osteoblasts and human prostate cancer cells. In this model, the bone-derived prostate cancer cell lines MDA PCa 2a and MDA PCa 2b induced a specific and reproducible increase in osteoblast proliferation. Moreover, these cells were able to induce osteoblast differentiation, as assessed by increased alkaline phosphatase activity, Osteocalcin expression, and calcified matrix formation. This osteoblastic reaction was confirmed in vivo by intrafemoral injection of MDA PCa 2b cells into severe combined immunodeficiency disease mice. In contrast, the highly undifferentiated, bone-derived human prostate cancer cell line PC3 did not produce an osteoblastic reaction in vitro and induced osteolytic lesions in vivo. The osteoblast differentiation induced by MDA PCa 2b cells was associated with up-regulation of the osteoblast-specific transcriptor factor Cbfa1. Moreover, treatment of osteoblasts with conditioned medium obtained from MDA PCa 2b cells resulted in up-regulation of Cbfa1 and Osteocalcin expression. In support of the differentiation studies, a microarray analysis showed that primary mouse osteoblasts grown in the presence of MDA PCa 2b cells showed a shift in the pattern of gene expression with an increase in mRNA-encoding Procollagen type I and Osteopontin and a decrease in mRNA-encoding proteins associated with myoblast differentiation, namely myoglobin and myosin light-chain 2. Taken together, these findings suggest that the bone-derived prostate cancer cells MDA PCa 2a and MDA PCa 2b promote differentiation of osteoblast precursors to an osteoblastic phenotype through a Cbfa1-dependent pathway. These results also established that soluble factors produced by prostate cancer cells can induce expression of osteoblast-specific genes. This in vitro model provides a valuable system to isolate molecules secreted by prostate cancer cells that favor osteoblast differentiation. Moreover, it allows to screen for therapeutic agents blocking the osteoblast response to prostate cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously investigated the role of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) as a mediator of angiogenesis, tumorigenicity, and metastasis of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder. In the present study, we determined whether adenoviral-mediated antisense bFGF gene transfer therapy (Ad bFGF-AS) would inhibit TCCs growing in the subcutis of nude mice. In vitro, Ad bFGF-AS inhibited endothelial cell proliferation and enhanced apoptosis. The highly metastatic human TCC cell line 253J-BV(R) was implanted ectopically in the subcutis of athymic nude mice, and therapy was begun when the tumors reached a diameter between 5 and 7 mm. Intralesional therapy with Ad bFGF-AS decreased the in vivo expression of bFGF and matrix metalloproteinase type 9 mRNA and protein, and reduced microvessel density and enhanced endothelial cell apoptosis. Tumor growth was significantly inhibited by Ad bFGF-AS (mean, 58 mg) compared with controls [saline (mean, 562 mg), beta-galactosidase adenovirus (mean, 586 mg), and sense bFGF adenoviral therapy (Ad bFGF-S; mean, 3012 mg)]. These results suggest that Ad bFGF-AS therapy affects endothelial cells directly and tumor cells indirectly through down-regulation of bFGF and matrix metalloproteinase type 9, resulting in endothelial cell apoptosis and significant tumor growth inhibition. Furthermore, these studies confirm that bFGF expression is a valid target for the therapy of bladder cancer.
No preview · Article · Dec 2000 · Clinical Cancer Research