[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) is a reliable option for screening of subjects who are unable or unwilling to undergo optical colonoscopy (OC). A colon capsule (PillCam Colon2®, CC2) has shown promising results in detecting polyps >6 mm. We compared the accuracies of CC2 and CTC in identifying individuals with at least 1 polyp >6 mm and subjects' attitude towards the procedures.
Fifty individuals (mean age, 59.2±5.8 y; 58% male) with positive results from the immunochemical fecal occult blood test (iFOBT-positive) underwent CC2, CTC, and OC. The unblinded colonoscopy, integrating OC, CTC, and CC2 results were used as the reference standard. In a per-patient analysis, the accuracy of CC2 and CTC were assessed for individuals with at least 1 polyp ≥6 mm. Individuals were asked to choose which procedure they would be willing to repeat between CTC and CC2.
The combination of OC, CTC, and CC2 identified 16 cases with at least 1 polyp ≥6 mm (reference standard). CTC identified the polyps with 88.2% sensitivity, 84.8% specificity, a 3.0 positive likelihood ratio, and a 0.07 negative likelihood ratio. CC2 identified the polyps with 88.2% sensitivity, 87.8% specificity, a 3.75 positive likelihood ratio, and a 0.06 negative likelihood ratio. Thirty-nine subjects (78%) said they preferred CC2 to CTC.
CC2 and CTC detect polyps ≥6 mm with high levels of accuracy; these techniques are effective in selecting iFOBT-positive individuals who do not need to be referred for colonoscopy. CC2 seems to be better tolerated than CTC, and could be a reliable alternative to CTC for iFOBT-positive individuals who are unable or unwilling to undergo OC. Clinical Trials.gov number: NCT01744509.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology: the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Hyoscine N-butylbromide (HBB), commonly used during colonoscopy to facilitate cecal intubation, has been proposed to increase the adenoma detection rate (ADR). AIMS: To evaluate whether HBB administration increases the adenoma detection rate and influences patients' tolerance. METHODS: Consecutive colonoscopy outpatients were randomized after cecal intubation to receive either 20mg HBB or placebo i.v. The number, size, histology and location of polyps were recorded. The air retained in the abdomen was either indirectly estimated by ΔAC (difference in the abdominal circumference measured before and after colonoscopy) or directly evaluated by patients' perception (visual analogic scale, range 0-100). RESULTS: 402 patients (44% male; mean age 57.7±12.5years) received either HBB or placebo. No differences in ADR (31.7% vs. 28%, p=0.48), advanced-ADR (7.4% vs. 10.5%, p=0.35) were observed between HBB and placebo group, respectively. A significantly lower detection rate of flat/depressed lesions was observed in the HBB group (0.5% vs. 5.5%, p=0.003). The ΔAC and the bloating perception were comparable between the two groups (p=0.22 and p=0.48, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: HBB administered before colonoscope withdrawal does not increase adenoma detection rate and seems to hamper the visualization of flat/depressed lesions. This finding raises concerns on the indiscriminate use of HBB during colonoscopy.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Digestive and Liver Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and study aims:
Narrow-band imaging (NBI) has shown promising results in discriminating adenomatous from non-adenomatous colonic polyps. In patients with small polyps (< 10 mm), the application of NBI within a "resect and discard" strategy, might allow post-polypectomy surveillance intervals to be determined independently from histopathology. The aim of the present study was to assess the feasibility and safety of this approach in routine clinical practice.
Patients and methods:
Consecutive colonoscopy outpatients with one or more polyps smaller than 10 mm were prospectively included. Each polyp was categorized by the endoscopist as adenoma or non-adenoma according to simplified NBI criteria, and future post-polypectomy surveillance interval was assigned accordingly. Following histopathology, post-polypectomy surveillance interval was subsequently re-assigned, and the accordance between endoscopy- and histology-directed surveillance strategies was calculated.
Among 942 colonoscopy patients, 286 (30.4 %) with only small polyps were included. In total, 511 small polyps were evaluated; 350 (68.5 %) were adenomas and 18 of these (5.1 %) had histologic features of advanced neoplasia. For the in vivo diagnosis of adenoma, NBI sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative likelihood ratios were 94.9 %, 65.8 %, 85.7 %, 2.80, and 0.08, respectively. The endoscopy-directed surveillance strategy was in accordance with the histology-directed strategy in 237 of 286 patients (82.9 %). In 9.8 % and 7.3 % patients, the endoscopy-directed approach would have resulted in early and delayed surveillance, respectively.
The resect and discard strategy seems to be a viable, safe, and cost-effective approach for the management of patients with small polyps. However, caution in the application of the strategy should be advocated for patients with polyps 6 - 9 mm in size and those with right-sided lesions, due to their malignant potential. The study was registered on Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01462123).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Narrow band imaging (NBI) is an imaging technique that allows a better definition of capillary pattern and improves the contrast between adenomas and the surrounding mucosa. Conflicting data exist on the ability of NBI to improve detection of colonic neoplasm; the impact of NBI is being tested in several screening scenarios. We evaluated whether the routine use of NBI, compared with white light (WL), during the withdrawal phase of screening colonoscopy improved adenoma detection.
This randomized controlled study included consecutive 50- to 69-year-old patients with positive immunologic fecal occult blood tests. They were randomly assigned to groups that were examined with WL (n = 108) or NBI (n = 103) during the withdrawal phase of their colonoscopies. The primary end point was the adenoma detection rate. The prevalence of non-polypoid and the total number of adenomas were also evaluated.
The number of total and mean per-patient adenomas were 201 (1.95 +/- 2.3) and 198 (1.83 +/- 2.1) in the NBI and WL groups, respectively (P = .69). The adenoma detection rates were 57.3% for patients examined by NBI and 58.3% for those examined by WL (P = .88). A total of 41 non-polypoid adenomas were identified (26 in the NBI and 15 in the WL groups, P = .16). The flat adenoma detection rates were 21.4% and 9.3% in the NBI and WL groups, respectively (P = .019).
The routine use of NBI in screening colonoscopy did not increase the adenoma detection rate. NBI seems to improve the detection of flat adenomas, although additional studies are necessary.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2009 · Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology: the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Constipation is a highly prevalent and bothersome disorder that negatively affects patients’ social and professional lives and places a great economic burden on both patients and national health services. An accurate determination of the prevalence of constipation is difficult because of the various definitions used, but many epidemiological studies have shown that it affects up to 20% of the population at any one time. Although constipation is not a physiological consequence of normal aging, decreased mobility and other co-morbid medical conditions may contribute to its prevalence in older adults. Functional constipation is diagnosed when no secondary causes can be identified.
Patients have some unusual beliefs about their bowel habits. Systematic attention to history, examination and investigation, especially in older people, can be highly effective in resolving problems and in enhancing quality of life.
There is a considerable range of treatment modalities available for patients with constipation, but the clinical evidence supporting their use varies widely. However, if constipation is not managed proactively, patients can experience negative consequences, such as anorexia, nausea, bowel impaction or bowel perforation.
The clinical benefits of various traditional pharmacological and non-pharmacological agents remain unclear. The first steps in the treatment of simple constipation include increasing intake of dietary fibre and the use of a fibre supplement. Patients with severe constipation or those unable to comply with the recommended intake of fibre may benefit from the addition of laxatives. More recently, newer agents (e.g. tegaserod and lubiprostone), have been approved for the treatment of patients with chronic constipation. Additional work is needed to determine what role, if any, these agents may play in the treatment of patients with chronic constipation.
The purpose of this review is to identify evidence-based interventions for the prevention and management of constipation in the elderly.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The most effective schedule of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) administration following endoscopic hemostasis of bleeding ulcers remains uncertain.
Patients with actively bleeding ulcers and those with nonbleeding visible vessel or adherent clot were treated with epinephrine injection and/or thermal coagulation, and randomized to receive intravenous PPIs according to an intensive regimen (80 mg bolus followed by 8 mg/h as continuous infusion for 72 h) or a standard regimen (40 mg bolus daily followed by saline infusion for 72 h). After the infusion, all patients were given 20 mg PPI twice daily orally. The primary end point was the in-hospital rebleeding rate, as ascertained at the repeat endoscopy.
Bleeding recurred in 28 of 238 patients (11.8%) receiving the intensive regimen, and in 19 of 236 (8.1%) patients receiving the standard regimen (P= 0.18). Most rebleeding episodes occurred during the initial 72-h infusion: 18 (7.6%) and 19 events (8.1%) in the intensive and standard groups, respectively (P= 0.32). Mean units of blood transfused were 1.7 +/- 2.1 in the intensive and 1.5 +/- 2.1 in the standard regimen group (P= 0.34). The duration of hospital stay was <5 days for 88 (37.0%) and 111 patients (47.0%) in the intensive and standard groups (P= 0.03). There were fewer surgical interventions in the standard versus intensive regimen (1 vs 3). Five patients in each treatment group died.
Following endoscopic hemostasis of bleeding ulcers, standard-dose PPIs infusion was as effective as a high-dose regimen in reducing the risk of recurrent bleeding. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00374101).
Full-text · Article · Dec 2008 · The American Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of segmental colitis associated with diverticula (SCAD) is unclear, but tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) has been shown to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases. The aim of this study was to assess TNF-alpha levels in patients with SCAD. In a post hoc analysis of a prospective multicenter study, tissue samples from 13 patients diagnosed with SCAD were subjected to histological analyses. The severity of the inflammation was assessed by means of a histological score and histomorphometry (number of inflammatory cells/mm2). Immunohistochemical staining with an antibody against TNF-alpha was performed on all biopsies and the degree of staining expressed as the percentage of positive stromal cells/1000 counted (TNF-alpha score). Matched patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) were used as controls. Over-expression of TNF-alpha was found in all SCAD patients (38.6 +/- 10.4%), and it was associated with a high histological score (2.5 +/- 0.5) and neutrophil cell count (16.3 +/- 3/mm2). These values were distinctly higher than those found in the IBS controls. Our data suggest that TNF-alpha activity is involved in SCAD pathogenesis, similarly to what occurs in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2008 · Digestive Diseases and Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Continuous quality improvement (CQI) is recommended by professional societies as part of every colonoscopy program, but little is known with regard to its effectiveness for colonoscopy outcomes. We prospectively assessed whether the implementation of a CQI program in routine clinical practice influences the quality performance of colonoscopy.
In an open-access endoscopy unit at a secondary care center in Northern Italy, 6-monthly audit cycles were carried out over a 4-year period, to identify reasons for poor colonoscopy outcomes and institute appropriate changes to improve performance. The colonoscopy completion rate and the polyp detection rate as detected by endoscopists were considered to be key measures for improvement.
The initial crude colonoscopy completion rate was 84.6%, with a range for individual endoscopists 80.4%-94%. Four endoscopists had a completion rate lower than 90%. The overall polyp detection rate was 34%, with a wide variation among endoscopists (range 14%-42%). Poor patient tolerance and differences in colonoscopist expertise were the main determinants of lack of completion and variation in polyp detection rate. Changes to sedation practice, greater access to endoscopy sessions for the endoscopists with the lowest performance rates, and other organizational arrangements, were implemented to improve quality performance. The crude completion rates improved consistently, up to 93.1%, over the study period. This trend was confirmed even when adjusted completion rates were calculated. All endoscopists reached a crude completion rate of 90% or more and a polyp detection rate of over 20%. The introduction of CQI did not significantly change the overall incidence of procedure-related complications.
The effectiveness of colonoscopy can be improved by implementing a CQI program in routine colonoscopy practice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) commonly affect women during the reproductive years. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reproductive histories of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) considering pregnancies occurring before and after the diagnosis.
Case-control study evaluating IBD patients, interviewed by questionnaire about outcome of pregnancy and course of disease.
A total of 502 pregnancies from 199 patients in the prediagnosis group and 121 pregnancies from 90 patients in the post-diagnosis group were respectively compared with 996 and 204 pregnancies recorded in a control population. In prediagnosis pregnancies, CD was associated with increased risk of preterm delivery (odds ratio [OR] 4.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.77-7.73; P < 0.001 vs controls and OR 3.52, 95% CI 1.75-7.07; P < 0.001 vs UC) and lower birthweight (P < 0.001 vs UC and controls). In post-diagnosis pregnancies, the rate of live births was lower, but not statistically significant in IBD (OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.04-1.25; P = 0.08) and the birthweight was significantly lower in CD than in UC (P < 0.03) and in controls (P < 0.02). In post-diagnosis pregnancies, a higher incidence of congenital abnormalities was found in IBD patients (5.5% vs 0.0%). The spontaneous abortion rate and therapeutic abortions were significantly higher in post than in prediagnosis pregnancies. Neither disease activity at conception nor treatment appeared to influence the outcome of pregnancy.
CD in the preclinical phase has some influence on pregnancy. In patients with IBD our data suggest that conception should not be discouraged. However, because of a modest increase in mild congenital abnormalities and abortions rates, pregnancy in IBD patients should be closely monitored.
No preview · Article · May 2007 · Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We performed a long-term follow-up study of patients with segmental colitis associated with diverticula, in order to clarify the natural history of this disease.
We identified 15 patients who were diagnosed as having segmental colitis associated with diverticula during 1997. We assessed these patients by means of periodic follow-up visits from 1997 to 2004.
Eight of the 15 patients had no clinical recurrence during follow-up. Five patients had sporadic recurrences that were clinically mild (on average, one in 5 years), which responded to topical therapy and often to self-medication. Only two patients were diagnosed during the follow-up period as having Crohn's disease; notably, these were the only patients who did not have hematochezia as the main symptom at onset.
The course of this disease appears to be substantially benign.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the efficacy and patient acceptance of an oral high dose of senna to conventional polyethylene glycol-electrolyte lavage solution (PEG-ES) in adults undergoing elective colonoscopy.
Consecutive outpatients referred for elective colonoscopy were prospectively randomly assigned to receive, the day before the procedure, either 24 tablets of 12 mg senna, divided into two doses at 1 p.m. and 9 p.m. (senna group, n=191), or standard 4-L PEG-ES (PEG-ES group, n=92). The overall quality of colon cleansing (primary outcome measure) and cleansing in the right colon were evaluated using the Aronchick scoring scale (1=excellent to 4=inadequate) by the investigator/endoscopist who was blinded to the treatment assignment. Patient acceptance and the safety of the preparation were assessed by a nurse, using a structured questionnaire covering compliance with the dosing, overall tolerance of the preparation (1=none or mild discomfort to 4=severely distressing), and adverse events.
The quality of colon cleansing, overall tolerance of the preparation, and compliance were significantly better with senna; overall cleansing was excellent or good in 90.6% of patients in the senna group and in 79.7% in the PEG-ES group (p= 0.003). The percentage of procedures rescheduled because of insufficient colon cleansing was 7.3% in the PEG-ES group and 2.6% in the senna group (p=0.035). Multivariate logistic regression modeling showed the PEG-ES preparation as negative independent predictor of unsuccessful bowel cleansing. The incidence of adverse reactions was similar in the two groups; patients who received senna experienced significantly less nausea and vomiting, but more abdominal pain.
An oral high dose of senna is a valid alternative to standard PEG-ES for outpatient colonoscopy preparation.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2006 · The American Journal of Gastroenterology