[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of quantitative analysis as an adjunctive diagnostic tool to contrast-enhanced ultrasound (US) for the differentiation of atypical benign focal liver lesions (FLLs) from malignancies in fatty liver. Twenty-seven benign FLLs and fifty-six malignant FLLs that appeared hyper-enhanced during the arterial phase with washout in the portal or late phase in fatty liver were analyzed. Chi-square tests and logistic regression were applied to identify the specific features. Three sets of criteria were assigned: 1) all FLLs subjected to routine contrast-enhanced US; 2) all FLLs subjected to quantification analysis and contrast-enhanced US; and 3) parts of FLLs that could not be diagnosed using contrast-enhanced US (n = 66, 75.9%) but instead were diagnosed using parametric features. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of the three sets of criteria were analyzed. The AUCs of the criterion set 2 were significantly higher than those of criterion set 1 (0.904 versus 0.792, P = 0.008). Criterion set 3 showed a relatively high sensitivity (90.2%) with a relatively high AUC (0.845). The quantification analysis offers improved diagnostic performance for the differential identification of atypical benign FLLs from malignancies in fatty liver.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
To prospectively investigate the usefulness of acoustic structure quantification (ASQ) for noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB).
Consecutive patients with CHB scheduled for liver biopsy or partial liver resection underwent standardized ASQ examinations. The ASQ parameter, named focal disturbance (FD) ratio, were compared with METAVIR scores. The analysis was based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and multiple regression analysis.
A total of 114 patients were enrolled in the final analysis. The area under the ROC curve for the FD ratio was 0.84 for significant fibrosis (≥ F2), 0.86 for severe fibrosis (≥ F3), and 0.83 for cirrhosis (= F4). The optimal cutoff values for the FD ratio were 0.25, 0.30 and 0.50 for fibrosis stages ≥ F2, ≥ F3 and = F4, respectively. The prevalence of a difference of at least two stages between the FD ratio and the histological stage was 12.3 % (14 of 114). The fibrosis stage (P < 0.001), degree of steatosis (P < 0.001) were independent factors associated with the FD ratio.
FD ratio should be an effective noninvasive imaging biomarker for the assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with CHB.
• Focal disturbance (FD) ratio increased with the increasing histological fibrosis stages. • FD ratio showed promising diagnostic accuracy in assessing liver fibrosis. • Degree of fibrosis and steatosis were independent factors associated with FD ratio.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · European Radiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose and methods:
The ability of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) to differentiate between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is still controversial. We reviewed the CEUS imaging of 819 patients (HCC=546, ICC=273) with an established pathological diagnosis. The enhancement patterns of lesions and the diagnostic performance of CEUS were analyzed.
Arterial hyperenhancement followed by washout was observed in 92.3% (504/546) of the HCC lesions and 85.7% (234/273) of the ICC lesions on CEUS (p<0.05). Additionally, the ICCs presented contrast washout much earlier than the HCCs, with an average time of 27.5 seconds after injecting the contrast agent compared with 70.1 seconds for the HCCs (p<0.05). Peripheral rim-like enhancement was observed in 68.5% (187/273) of the ICCs, which was significantly more common than that in the HCCs (2.0%, 11/546) (p<0.05). When using arterial hyperenhancement with a washout phase later than 43 seconds after injecting the contrast agent and with no peripheral rim-like enhancement as the diagnostic criteria for HCC ≤5 cm in diameter, the area under the curve was 0.808, with 64.1% sensitivity, 97.4% specificity and 73.6% accuracy.
Although ICC may show the typical enhancement pattern of HCC on CEUS, peripheral rim-like enhancement and quick contrast washout show high efficiency in the differentiation of HCC from ICC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate the value of sonography in working up or ruling out malrotation by 3 sonographic features (inversion of the superior mesenteric artery and superior mesenteric vein, the whirlpool sign, and an intraperitoneal transverse duodenum) and comparing it with an upper gastrointestinal (GI) contrast study.
A total of 70 pediatric patients who underwent detailed abdominal sonography to rule out intestinal malrotation were included. Twenty-three of them also underwent an upper GI contrast study. Surgery or clinical follow-up was taken as the reference standard. Statistical analysis was performed with the χ(2) test.
Twenty-three patients had a diagnosis of malrotation by surgical findings. With the combination of all 3 sonographic features, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of sonography for determining malrotation were 100% (23 of 23), 97.8% (46 of 47), and 98.6% (69 of 70), respectively, whereas the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the upper GI study were 40% (4 of 10), 64.3% (9 of 14), and 56.5% (13 of 23; P < .001). Combined anomalies in 2 patients and complications in 2 patients were also detected by sonography.
By combining inversion of the superior mesenteric artery and superior mesenteric vein, the whirlpool sign, and an intraperitoneal transverse duodenum, sonography might be more valuable for accurately working up or ruling out pediatric malrotation than an upper GI contrast study. In addition, sonography could provide extra information, such as combined anomalies and intestinal necrosis, to help management.
Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of ultrasound in medicine: official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging features of testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs) on baseline ultrasound (BUS).
The imaging features of 30 TART lesions pathologically or clinically confirmed in 15 patients who had undergone BUS were evaluated, and the sonographic characteristics of the lesions were analyzed.
All 15 cases were bilateral and located near the testicular mediastinum. Approximately 56.7% (17/30) of the TART lesions exhibited homogeneous hypoechogenicity, 36.7% (11/30) of the lesions exhibited heterogeneous hypoechogenicity, and 6.6% (2/30) of the lesions exhibited heterogeneous isoechogenicity. In addition, 76.7% (23/30) of the lesions exhibited a rich blood supply, whereas 23.3% (7/30) of the lesions exhibited a scarce blood supply.
The sonographic characteristics of the TARTs were bilateral growth, location adjacent to the testicular mediastinum, hypoechogenicity, and rich blood supply, which may play important roles in early clinical diagnosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to explore the principle of moblile echogenicities in epididymis in patients with a history of postvasectomy or infertility, which were reported as the characteristic sonographic sign of filarial infection.We reported a 38-year-old man presented with a 3-year history of infertility after marriage. Ultrasound imaging revealed an enlarged body in the inner left epididymis along with innumerable punctate mobile echogenicities, which showed random to-and-fro movements in the left epididymis. This had previously been recognized as the sonographic filarial dance sign of live filarial worms or microfilaria. The patient subsequently underwent needle aspiration of the left epididymis.Histopathological examination confirmed that the mobile echogenicities were a large number of macrophages with phagocytized sperm or clumps of agglutinated sperm. Our report includes a video clip that will help familiarize readers with this phenomenon.Our case highlighted that moblile echogenicities should be an important sign for epididymal obstruction to initiate corresponding treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to compare contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) with contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) for evaluating the treatment response to transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
Treatment responses of 130 patients who underwent TACE were evaluated by CEUS and CECT. We initially compared the abilities of CEUS and CECT to detect residual tumour, which were confirmed by histology or angiography. Then, we compared the tumour response to TACE assessed by CEUS and CECT, according to Modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (mRECIST).
The sensitivity and accuracy of detecting residual tumour by CEUS vs. CECT were 95.9 % vs. 76.2 % (p < 0.001) and 96.2 % vs. 77.7 % (p < 0.001), respectively. For target lesions, 13 patients were observed as complete response (CR) by CEUS, compared to 36 by CECT (p < 0.001). For nontarget lesions, 12 patients were observed as CR by CEUS, compared to 22 by CECT (p = 0.006). For overall response, eight patients were observed as CR by CEUS, compared to 31 by CECT (p < 0.001).
The diagnostic performance of CEUS was superior to CECT for detecting residual tumour after TACE. In clinical, CEUS should be recommended as an optional procedure for assessing the tumour response to TACE.
• The mRECIST are widely applied for evaluating the response of HCC. • Imaging method has been applied to assess the therapeutic response to TACE. • The diagnostic performance of CEUS was superior to CECT for residual tumours. • CEUS can be a valuable method for assessing tumour response to TACE.
No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · European Radiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
To evaluate diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced (CE) ultrasonography (US) and microflow (MF) imaging in differentiation of atypical hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH).
Materials and methods:
Institutional review board approval was obtained, and informed consent was waived. A total of 103 patients (mean age, 43.9 years; age range, 17-75 years) were included; 38 patients with HCC and 65 with FNH underwent CE US, and vascular architecture pattern (VAP) and arrival time parametric (ATP) images were analyzed. Resident and staff radiologists independently and retrospectively reviewed CE US, VAP, and ATP images. χ(2) test and logistic regression analysis were applied to identify specific features of FNH or HCC on CE US and MF images. To compare diagnostic performance of CE US with or without MF imaging, four sets of criteria were assigned: (a) routine CE US alone, (b) VAP and CE US, (c) ATP imaging and CE US, and (d) all three methods in combination. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of resident and staff radiologists were analyzed. Cohen κ statistic was used to assess agreement of CE US and MF imaging features between staff and resident radiologists.
MF imaging offered significant improvements over most detection rates achieved with routine CE US signs in both groups. For staff radiologists, AUCs from criteria sets 3 (AUC = 0.873, P < .05) and 4 (AUC = 0.887, P < .05) were significantly higher than AUC from criteria set 1 (AUC = 0.835). For resident radiologists, specificity (71% and 69% vs 25%, P < .01) and accuracy (78% and 79% vs 50%, P < .01) of criteria sets 3 and 4 were significantly higher than those of criteria set 1. Moreover, AUCs for criteria sets 2 (AUC = 0.728, P < .05), 3 (AUC = 0.823, P < .01), and 4 (AUC = 0.857, P < .01) were significantly higher than those for criteria set 1 (AUC = 0.667).
When compared with routine CE US, MF imaging can more effectively depict specific features and offers improved diagnostic performance in the differentiation of atypical HCC from FNH, especially when used by resident radiologists. Online supplemental material is available for this article.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the differential diagnosis of gallbladder wall (GBW) thickening and determine the predictors of malignant GBW thickening. One hundred fifty-nine patients with GBW thickening, including 76 men and 83 women, from eight institutions were enrolled. CEUS was performed after injection of a sulfur hexafluoride microbubble-based ultrasound contrast agent. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to reveal independent predictors associated with malignant GBW thickening. The final diagnoses were 48 gallbladder carcinomas and 111 benign gallbladder diseases. Maximal thicknesses of the GBW in malignant and benign GBW thickening were 17.3 ± 5.2 (6–30) mm and 8.6 ± 5.1 (4–26) mm respectively (p < 0.001). CEUS revealed significant differences in intra-lesional vessels, enhancement homogeneity, time to hypo-enhancement, inner layer discontinuity, outer layer discontinuity and adjacent liver involvement (all p-values < 0.05) between malignant and benign GBW thickening. Patient age > 46.5 y, focal GBW thickening, inner layer discontinuity and outer layer discontinuity were found to be associated with malignancy by multiple logistic regression analysis (all p-values < 0.05). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed Az values for patient age, focal GBW thickening, inner wall discontinuity and outer wall discontinuity of 0.709 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.627–0.790), 0.714 (95% CI: 0.630–0.798), 0.860 (95% CI: 0.791–0.928) and 0.858 (95% CI: 0.783–0.933), respectively. CEUS is useful in the differential diagnosis between malignant and benign GBW thickening. Focal GBW thickening, inner wall discontinuity and outer wall discontinuity observed on CEUS are diagnostic clues for malignant GBW thickening.
No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
To comparatively evaluate shear wave elastography (SWE) and real-time elastography (RTE) in distinguishing malignant from benign thyroid nodules.
49 patients with 64 focal thyroid nodules were enrolled and underwent SWE and RTE before surgery. SWE elasticity indices (mean, minimum and maximum value of 2-mm region of interest) of nodules were measured. For RTE, elastograms were assessed by Rago criteria and nodules with scores of 4 or 5 were classified as suspicious for malignancy. Surgery histopathologic results were adopted as diagnostic standard.
Of the 64 nodules, 19 were papillary thyroid carcinomas and 45 were benign. SWE indices were significantly higher in malignant than benign nodules (P < 0.05). Areas under the ROC curves (AUC) of SWE parameters were 0.840, 0.831 and 0.788, which were not significantly different from that of RTE showed as 0.880 (P = 0.148-0.482). When the most accurate cut-off, 38.3 kPa for mean value was applied to predict malignancy, the diagnostic specificity, sensitivity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of SWE and RTE were 68.4% versus 79.0%, 86.7% versus 84.4%, 81.3% versus 78.1%, 68.4% versus 64.7% and 86.7% versus 83.3%, respectively (P = 0.683-1.000).
SWE as a promising tool can be performed in differentiating thyroid nodules with comparable results to RTE.
No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · European journal of radiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the feasibility and efficiency of a perspective view technology (Fly Thru) for the detection of portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients.
Fly Thru was performed in 79 HCC patients. The images were reviewed off-site for evaluation of the imaging quality and diagnosis. Pathology and/or contrast-enhanced CT was used as the reference standard for PVTT. The diagnostic quality of the images, presences of PVTT, and patency of the target vessels were recorded by two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) and Fly Thru image. The diagnostic performances of resident and staff radiologists were compared between 2DUS with or without off-line Fly Thru.
Fly Thru was performed successfully in 43 of 79 patients (54.4%). The Fly Thru Imaging quality was good in 30/43 patients (69.8%), suboptimal but diagnostic in 10/43 (23.2%), and non-diagnostic in the remaining 3/43 (7.0%). PVTTs were detected in 31 patients according to the reference standard, with 8 in the main portal vein, 15 in the first branch, and 8 in the second branch of the portal vein. The agreement was good between conventional 2DUS and Fly Thru (κ = 0.783, p = 0.000). There was a significant association between the quality and the ability of Fly Thru in the detection of PVTTs (p = 0.001). The diagnostic performance for both readers between 2DUS with or without Fly Thru showed no statistically significant differences, except for the sensitivity for resident radiologist. The sensitivity of 2DUS (71.0%, 22/31) for resident radiologists was lower than that of Fly Thru as an adjunctive diagnostic tool (90.3%, 28/31) (p = 0.041).
Fly Thru is of diagnostic quality and can provide useful information for the detection of PVTT in HCC patients.
No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Abdominal Imaging
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypoxia and hypoxia-driven angiogenesis play an important role on the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after insufficient radiofrequency ablation. The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α/vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGFA) pathway plays an important part in this process. Sorafenib is a multikinase inhibitor with activity against several receptor tyrosine kinases. However, it is unclear whether sorafenib can affect the HIF-1α/VEGFA pathway. Here, we explore whether sorafenib affects HIF-1α and the change of invasion ability in this process. In this experiment, the control group, cobalt chloride (CoCl2)-treated group, sorafenib-treated group, and cobalt chloride combined with sorafenib-treated group were adopted. Western blot and PCR were performed to detect the protein and mRNA expression of HIF-1α and VEGFA in different groups. Transwell assay was used to test the changes of invasion ability. Flow cytometry was adopted to detect the apoptotic role of sorafenib on hepatoma cells. Cobalt chloride upregulated the expression of HIF-1α protein, and the upregulation effect was more obvious when the concentration was increased gradually. Sorafenib inhibited cobalt-induced HIF-1α and VEGFA expression in hepatoma cells. Sorafenib decreased the tumor cell invasiveness induced by cobalt chloride in vitro. Sorafenib inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in hepatoma cells. These results showed that sorafenib was an effective inhibitor of the HIF-1α/VEGFA pathway, which can provide new insight into the mechanism of its anticancer activity.
No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · DNA and cell biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
This study was aimed to investigate whether the tumor necrosis induced by radiofrequency ablation (RFA) can improve the ratio of tumor-to-normal tissue (T/NT) after intratumoral injection of (131)I-chTNT.
Materials and method:
Eighteen New Zealand rabbits bearing VX2 tumor on the thigh were randomly divided into two treatment groups (control group: intratumoral injection of (131)I-chTNT alone; RFA group: RFA + intratumoral injection of (131)I-chTNT 3 days after RFA) and each group was further divided into three subgroups I, II, and III (1-2 cm, 2-3 cm, and 3-4 cm in maximum diameter, respectively), by the tumor size. SPECT was performed to evaluate the T/NT on days 1, 8, and 15 after (131)I-chTNT injection.
After treatment, all rabbits underwent the SPECT whole-body scan and the T/NT was analyzed. The results showed that T/NT in the RFA group (55.45±41.83) was significantly higher compared with the control group (7.23±5.61) (F=18.89, p=0.001). Meanwhile, a linear ascending trend was found for T/NT in the RFA group along with the follow-up time (r=0.47, p=0.01). The tumor size or the dose of (131)I-TNT injection had no significant effect on the variation of T/NT in both groups (p>0.05).
RFA before intratumoral injection of (131)I-chTNT can dramatically improve T/NT, demonstrating the potential application of this combination therapy.
No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infantile hepatic hemangioendothelioma (IHH) and hepatoblastoma (HBL) are respectively the most common benign and malignant liver tumors in children.
To study the clinical manifestations and the ultrasound features of the pediatric patients for distinguishing IHH from HBL.
Between 2002 and 2012, thirteen children with IHH and 38 children with HBL under the age of 10 years were included. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and the ultrasound features of the two groups, especially including parameters as follows: age at diagnosis, gender, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) elevation, venous involvement and Doppler ultrasound.
Compared with HBL group, the age of IHH group was much younger (5.8 months vs. 35.1 months, P = 0.000), the AFP elevation was less likely to be detected in IHH group (23.1% vs. 89.5%, P = 0.000). Although the color flow were the same commonly observed (61.5% vs. 52.6%, P > 0.05), the spectral Doppler showed IHH was less likely to appear as arterial flow with resistance index (RI) > 0.7(12.5% vs. 75.0%, P < 0.05), characterized by arterial flow with RI < 0.7 and/or venous flow. Combined the clinical features including age (< 6 months) and normal AFP level yielded high capability in differential diagnosis, with sensitivity, specificity and Youden index of 77% (10/13), 95% (36/38), and 0.72, respectively. When combined clinical features (age and AFP) and spectral Doppler as the diagnostic criterion for distinguishing these cases with positive color flow signals, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and Youden Index were 88%, 95%, 89% and 0.83, respectively.
The clinical features are effective indicators for distinguishing IHH from HBL, and the spectral Doppler may be a useful adjunct parameter for differential diagnosis.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Hepatitis Monthly
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
To identify the vascular architecture of focal liver lesions using micro flow imaging and compare it with characteristics on contrast harmonic imaging during the arterial phase.
Micro flow imaging and contrast harmonic imaging were performed in 118 patients with various focal liver lesions: hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 70), metastasis(n = 19), intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (n = 3), lymphoma (n = 1), hemangioma (n = 17), and focal nodular hyperplasia (n = 8). The vascular architecture of the lesions on micro flow imaging was evaluated by 2 investigators independently to reveal 6 patterns (types IVI). Enhancement characteristics on contrast harmonic imaging were also evaluated.
Inter-reader agreement for delineating the vascular architecture was higher on contrast harmonic imaging (κ= 0.856) than micro flow imaging (κ= 0.613). On micro flow imaging, the vascular patterns of hepatocellular carcinomas were types I (28.6%), II (65.7%), and III (5.7%). On contrast harmonic imaging, 44 of 70 (62.9%) hepatocellular carcinomas showed chaotic vessels, of which 40 were type II and 4 were type II. The vascular patterns of metastases were types IV (78.9%), I (10.5%), and II (10.5%). Typical rim enhancement was identified in 57.9% of metastases on contrast harmonic imaging, and all were type IV. The vascular patterns of focal nodular hyperplasia were types VI (87.5%) and I (12.5%). Typical spoked wheel arteries were identified on contrast harmonic imaging in 2 focal nodular hyperplasia cases. The vascular patterns of hemangiomas were types V (94.1%) and II (5.9%). Typical peripheral nodular enhancement was identified in 88.2% of hemangiomas on contrast harmonic imaging, and all were type V. The χ(2) test revealed that differences in vascular architecture between the lesions were significant on micro flow imaging (P < .001).
Micro flow imaging permitted detailed delineation of the vascular architecture of focal liver lesions. Hepatocellular carcinoma, metastasis, focal nodular hyperplasia, and hemangioma showed characteristic vascular architecture.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Journal of ultrasound in medicine: official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine