[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Knowledge of the risk factors associated with adverse outcomes after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) may be helpful for developing PEG recommendations. The purpose of this study was to identify the clinical risk factors associated with adverse clinical outcomes after PEG, especially regarding the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs).
We retrospectively reviewed the data from PEG patients at seven university hospitals between June 2006 and January 2012. All patients were followed up through February 2012 after PEG, and the clinical risk factors for adverse clinical outcomes after PEG were analyzed.
Data from 1,021 PEG patients were analyzed. PPI users were more frequently included in the complication group than the noncomplication group (p=0.040). PEG-related complications (p=0.040) and mortality (p=0.003) were more frequent in the PPI group than in the control group. In the subgroup analysis of complicated PEG cases, infectious complications were more frequently found in the PPI group than in the control group (35.8% vs 27.8%). After adjustment for multiple possible confounding factors, PPI users (odds ratio, 1.531; 95% confidence interval, 1.017 to 2.305) and diabetic patients had increased mortality after PEG.
PPI use may be associated with adverse outcomes in patients with PEG; however, further prospective studies investigating this issue are warranted.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal (GI) lipomas are benign, slow-growing subepithelial tumors. Most lipomas are detected incidentally at endoscopy, but they can cause GI bleeding, abdominal pain, intestinal obstruction, and intussusception, particularly if they are larger than 2 cm in diameter. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy, safety, and long-term prognosis of endoscopic treatment of GI lipomas.
A total of 28 GI lipomas treated endoscopically from January 2005 to June 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Endoscopic treatment was performed by four methods: the unroofing technique, endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR), EMR after precutting (EMR-P), and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD).
Of 28 GI lipomas, 5 were located in the stomach, 2 in the duodenum, and 21 in the colon. Thirteen lipomas were <2 cm in diameter (small lipoma), and the other 15 were ≥2 cm (large lipoma). The unroofing technique was performed in 2 cases, EMR in 17 cases, EMR-P in 4 cases, and ESD in 5 cases. En bloc resection was performed with 21 lesions (75 %), and endoscopic complete resection was achieved with 26 lesions (93 %). Incomplete resection occurred in the 2 cases treated by the unroofing technique. On pathologic examination, complete resection was achieved with 21 lesions (75 %). Delayed bleeding was observed in one patient. There were no serious complications such as perforation or post-procedural stricture. During the mean follow-up period of 19 months (range 2-91 months), no recurrence was observed.
Endoscopic treatment appears to be a safe and effective treatment for GI lipomas, including large lipomas (≥2 cm in diameter).
No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Surgical Endoscopy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We validated candidate biomarkers using circulating miRNAs by analyzing serum miRNA concentrations from patients with gastric cancer (GC) to predict lymph node (LN) metastasis. In a pilot study, serum levels of miR-21, miR-27a, miR-106b, miR-146a, miR-148a, miR-223, and miR-433 were compared in 10 healthy donors, 16 LN-positive patients with GC, and 15 LN-negative patients with GC. Then, we compared the level of three miRNAs (miR-21, miR-146a, and miR-148a) with the total of 79 GC patients with or without LN metastasis. In the pilot study, miR-21, miR-27a, miR-106b, miR-146a, miR-148a, and miR-223 concentrations from LN-positive patients with GC were significantly different from those of LN-negative patients with GC (P < 0.001, P = 0.003, P = 0.033, P < 0.001, P <0.001, and P = 0.017, respectively). In the validation study, levels of miR-21, miR-146a, and miR-148a increased as pN stage increased (P < 0.001, P = 0.001, and P < 0.001, respectively). Levels of the miRNAs were significantly different between pN0 and pN0 in the pT1 group (P = 0.013, P = 0.004, and P = 0.035, respectively) and among clinical stages (P = 0.001, P = 0.002, and P < 0.001, respectively). No differences in miRNA levels were observed by pT stage, Lauren's classification, sex, or age. Serum concentrations of miR-21, miR-146a, and miR-148a were closely associated with GC pN stage. These serum miRNA levels could be biomarker candidates to predict the presence of LN metastasis.
Preview · Article · Jun 2013 · The Journal of molecular diagnostics: JMD
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
In Korea, endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has been widely accepted for the treatment of early gastric cancers (EGCs). However, the understanding of the long-term clinical outcome of ESD for EGC remains insufficient. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the long-term clinical outcome and efficacy of ESD for the treatment of EGCs, including the clinical application of the expanded criteria for ESD.
From January 2006 to December 2010, a total of 515 patients with 522 EGCs were treated by ESD in our hospital; study enrollment was based on the expanded criteria. Comparisons of resectability (en bloc or piecemeal resection), curability (curative or non-curative), and complications (bleeding and perforation) between the standard and expanded groups were assessed. Thereafter, 336 patients with 342 EGCs were finally included in a long-term analysis of local tumor recurrence, development of synchronous and metachronous cancers, and overall and disease-specific survival rates.
En bloc and curative resection rates of 96.7 % and 88.3 %, respectively, were achieved. The curative resection rate was significantly lower in the expanded group than in the standard group (82.1 % vs. 91.5 %, p = 0.001). During a median follow-up of 24 months, the local tumor recurrence rate was also higher in the expanded group than in the standard group (7.0 % vs. 1.8 %, p = 0.025). Local recurrence was more frequent in lesions with non-curative resection than in those with curative resection (20.0 % vs. 1.3 %, p < 0.001). The 5-year overall and disease-specific survival rates were 88 % and 100 %, respectively; the difference between the standard and expanded groups was not significant (p = 0.834).
ESD appears to be a feasible and effective method for treating EGCs, based on the standard and expanded criteria. Close follow-up surveillance, after ESD, should be standard for all patients.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Surgical Endoscopy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) in patients with elevated carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 levels of obscure origin.
Patients who had visited Pusan National University Hospital because of elevated serum CA 19-9 levels, between January 2007 and December 2009, were retrospectively enrolled. EUS had been performed on all subjects, in addition to routine blood tests, endoscopy, abdominal computed tomography (CT) and other clinical exams, which had not revealed any abnormal findings suggestive of the origin of the elevated CA 19-9 levels.
Of the 17 patients, gallbladder sludge was detected in 16 patients (94.1%) and common bile duct sludge was observed in 3 patients (17.6%). After the administration of ursodeoxycholic acid to 12 of the patients with gallbladder sludge, CA 19-9 levels normalized in 6 of the patients after a median of 4.5 mo.
EUS is a useful diagnostic method for patients with elevated CA 19-9 levels of obscure origin, even if the reason for abnormal levels of this serum marker cannot be determined through prior examinations, including abdominal CT.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is performed to provide nutrition to patients with swallowing difficulties. A multicenter study was conducted to evaluate the predictors of complications and mortality after PEG placement.
This study retrospectively analyzed patients who underwent initial PEG placement between January 2004 and December 2011 at seven tertiary hospitals in the Republic of Korea.
All 1,625 patients underwent PEG placement by the pull-string method. The median age of the patients was 66 years, and 1,108 of the patients were men. The median follow-up period was 254 days. The common indications were stroke (31.6 %) and malignancy (18.9 %). The complication rate was 13.2 %. The prophylactic use of antibiotics (odds ratio [OR], 0.58; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 0.38–0.88; p = 0.010) reduced the PEG-related infection rate, but the actual usage rate was 81.1 %. The use of anticoagulants (OR, 7.26; 95 % CI, 2.23–23.68; p = 0.001) and the presence of diabetes mellitus (OR, 4.02; 95 % CI, 1.49–10.87; p = 0.006) increased the risk of bleeding, but antiplatelet therapy did not. The procedural, 30-day, and overall mortality rates were 0.2, 2.4 and 14.0 %, respectively. Serum albumin levels lower than 31.5 g/L (OR, 8.55; 95 % CI, 3.11–23.45; p < 0.001) and C-reactive protein levels higher than 21.5 mg/L (OR, 3.01; 95 % CI, 1.27–7.16; p = 0.012) increased the risk of 30-day mortality, and the patients who had both risk factors had a significantly shorter median survival time than those who did not (1,740 vs 3,181 days) (p < 0.001, log-rank).
The findings showed PEG to be a safe and feasible procedure, but the patient’s nutritional and inflammatory status should be considered in predicting the outcomes of PEG placement.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) which includes ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) of the colon are at risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we analyzed the methylation status of selected genes as a risk marker in UC patients. We assessed methylation frequency of 4 genes [secreted frizzled-related protein 1 (SFRP1), transcription elongation regulator 1-like (TCERG1L), fibrillin 2 (FBN2) and tissue factor pathway inhibitor 2 (TFPI2)] in biopsies of 36 UC patients. SFRP1 and TCERG1L genes showed high methylation frequencies but FBN2 and TFPI2 genes showed methylation frequencies of 50% in UC patients which suggests that our sensitive selective markers could detect half of the UC patients. We also confirmed the methylation status in UC tissues by bisulfite sequencing analysis. We compared the levels of methylation in terms of quantification between UC patients and CRC tumors. Importantly, methylation levels of these 4 genes were found to be significantly higher in CRC compared to UC patients, even though we noted a frequent methylation pattern in UC patients. Our data suggest that sensitive DNA methylation markers are able to identify UC patients and this would implicate the risk of CRC. Therefore, assessing the methylation of these 4 genes in UC patients could contribute to prevent the progression of severe disease with regular colonoscopic surveillance.
No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · International Journal of Molecular Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is occasionally associated with malignancies located in other regions of the alimentary tract, as well as in the head, neck, and upper respiratory tract. The stomach is most commonly used for reconstruction of the alimentary tract after esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. When synchronous tumors are located in the stomach, it is often unsuitable for use in esophageal reconstruction. In such cases, an invasive procedure involving anastomosis between the esophagus and the colon must be performed. However, this procedure is associated with a high incidence of mortality and morbidity. Seven patients with synchronous esophageal cancer and gastric epithelial neoplasia were encountered. First, endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) was performed for the gastric epithelial neoplasia. Then, following successful ESD, Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy for esophageal cancer was planned 1 to 2 weeks later. A total of 11 gastric epithelial lesions were found in seven patients. En bloc resection by ESD was possible in all 11 lesions and histologically complete resection was achieved in all 11 lesions. Follow-up endoscopy was done 1-2 weeks after ESD; six patients with well-healing ulcers underwent esophagectomy the next day (8 or 15 days after ESD). In one patient with a poorly healed ulcer, a second follow-up endoscopy was done 1 week later and then esophagectomy was performed the next day (22 days after ESD). Post-surgical complications related to ESD, such as bleeding or mediastinal leak, were not seen in any of the seven patients. In patients with synchronous esophageal cancer and gastric epithelial neoplasia, ESD for gastric epithelial neoplasia followed by Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy 1 to 2 weeks later is an effective choice of treatment.
No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Diseases of the Esophagus
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM) usually appears in flat mucosa and shows few morphologic changes, making diagnosis using conventional endoscopy unreliable. Magnifying narrow-band imaging (NBI) endoscopy enables evaluation of detailed morphological features that correspond with the underlying histology. The aim of this study was to investigate and clarify the diagnostic efficacy of magnifying NBI endoscopic findings for the prediction and diagnosis of IM.
Forty-seven patients were prospectively enrolled, and magnifying NBI examinations were performed in the lesser curvature of the midbody and the greater curvature of the upper body. The marginal turbid band (MTB) was defined as an enclosing white turbid band on the epithelial surface/gyri; light blue crest (LBC), as a fine, blue-white line on the crest of the epithelial surface/gyri. Immediately after observation under magnifying endoscopy, biopsy specimens were obtained from the evaluated areas.
The degree of IM significantly increased with increasing MTB/LBC positivity (MTB-/LBC-, 0.00 ± 0.00; MTB+/LBC-, 0.44 ± 0.51; MTB+/LBC+, 0.94 ± 0.24; p < 0.001). Moderate-to-severe IM was more common in MTB+/LBC+ areas than in MTB+/LBC- areas (p < 0.001). For the diagnosis of IM, MTB had a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 100%, 66.0%, and 81.7%, respectively, and the corresponding values for LBC were 72.1%, 96.0%, and 84.9%.
MTB and LBC observed in the gastric mucosa with magnifying NBI endoscopy are highly accurate indicators of the presence of IM. MTB likely represents a sign of early gastric IM, while LBC appears with progression to severe IM.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · BMC Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastric hepatoid adenocarcinoma is a special type of gastric carcinoma, which produces AFP. We report a case of an metastatic gastric hepatoid adenocarcinoma mistaken for primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A 72 year-old woman was transferred to our hospital for treatment of the hepatic mass. She underwent subtotal gastrectomy for gastric cancer 2 years ago. A year ago, she was diagnosed with hepatic mass and treated with transhepatic chemoembolization under the suspicion of primary HCC in other hospital. The hepatic mass looked like primary HCC on CT, and serum AFP was elevated to 18,735 IU/mL. We did the transhepatic mass biopsy and compared it to the histology of the previous gastric cancer. The results of immunohistochemical staining between them was coincident, and so it was diagnosed as a hepatic metastasis of gastric hepatoid adenocarcinoma. (Korean J Gastroenterol 2012;60:262-266).
Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A high incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) has been observed in patients with cancer. However, few data are available on patients with cholangiocarcinoma.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and risk factors of VTE and to investigate whether VTE would affect the survival of patients with cholangiocarcinoma.
We retrospectively reviewed 273 patients who were diagnosed with cholangiocarcinoma from January 2004 to December 2008.
We observed 40 cases of VTE, among which 10 patients had VTE at diagnosis. There were 14 cases of pulmonary thromboembolism with or without deep vein thrombosis, 18 cases of portal vein thrombosis, four cases of inferior vena cava thrombosis, and four of hepatic vein thrombosis. We found that progression of stage, C-reactive protein, and chemotherapy were significantly associated with the occurrence of VTE (P=0.022, 0.006, and 0.014, respectively). The median survival in the VTE and non-VTE groups were 13.0 and 25.0 months, respectively (log-rank test, P=0.026). VTE was an unfavorable prognostic factor for cholangiocarcinoma (hazard ratio=1.626, P=0.042).
In our study, advanced stage, C-reactive protein, and treatment with chemotherapeutic agents were related to the occurrence of VTE in patients with cholangiocarcinoma. VTE was an independent unfavorable prognostic factor for survivors of cholangiocarcinoma.
No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Candida esophagitis is a rare disease, but its incidence is higher in patients with impaired immunity due to an underlying disease. Patients with candida esophagitis usually present with lower retrosternal pain or dysphagia, but they are sometimes asymptomatic. Several risk factors, including diabetes mellitus, malignancies, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and steroid therapy, have been shown to be associated with candida esophagitis. Candida esophagitis may mimic other disease processes and can thus be misdiagnosed.
This study describes a case of candida esophagitis with fever alone in the patient with stroke. After a stroke attack, a 53-year-old man was hospitalized for rehabilitation. He had a fever unexpectedly, but the cause could not be found for 2 weeks. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) was performed to find the cause of the fever and it was diagnosed as candida eosphagitis. Fever decreased respectively 4 days after anti-fungal therapy begun.
Dysphagia, unexplained anaemia, loss of appetite and dyspepsia may require EGD to make a confirmative diagnosis. If unexplained fever is persistent without any of these symptoms, it is advisable to consider EGD in patients with stroke.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Limited information is available on predictors of the response to proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Endoscopic grading of gastroesophageal flap valve (GEFV) is simple and reproducible, and can provide useful information on patients with suspected reflux undergoing an endoscopy. The aim of this study was to prospectively identify predictors, including endoscopic findings such as GEFV, for PPI treatment outcomes in patients with GERD.
One hundred and fifty consecutive patients with GERD were enrolled. All patients were treated with pantoprazole 40 mg daily for 8 weeks. Treatment response was defined as greater than 50% reduction in symptom scores between the two symptom assessments (i.e., over 4 or 8 weeks). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses between responders and non-responders were performed to identify variables predicting response to pantoprazole treatment.
Of the 150 consecutive patients considered for this study, 31 were excluded based on exclusion criteria and/or refusal to participate, leaving 119 eligible patients. After 4-week pantoprazole treatment, 70 of 119 (58.8%) patients were classified as responders. Patients with obesity and Helicobacter pylori infection demonstrated a higher response rate to 4-week pantoprazole treatment (odds ratio (OR) 5.28, p = 0.008; OR 3.76, p = 0.023, respectively). Patients with abnormal GEFV showed a lower response rate to 4-week treatment (OR 0.17, p = 0.016). After 8-week treatment, 86 of 119 (72.3%) patients were classified as responders. Abnormal GEFV and aspirin intake were associated with a lower response rate to 8-week treatment (OR 0.17, p = 0.021; OR 0.11, p = 0.020, respectively).
Abnormal GEFV was a significant independent factor predicting poor response to both 4-week and 8-week pantoprazole treatment. Endoscopic grading of GEFV provides useful information for predicting the response to PPI treatment in patients with GERD.
No preview · Article · May 2011 · Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Menetrier's disease is a rare entity characterized by large, tortuous gastric mucosal folds. The mucosal folds in Menetrier's disease are often most prominent in the body and fundus. Histologically, massive foveolar hyperplasia (hyperplasia of surface and glandular mucous cells) is noted, which replaces most of the chief and parietal cells. Profuse mucus is usually observed during the endoscopy but there have been few cases that show interesting endoscopic findings such as mucus bridge or water pearl. Herein, we report a case of Menetrier's disease showing mucus bridge by excessive mucus observed during the endoscopy.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radiation proctitis is a common complication of pelvic radiation for which an optimal treatment remains undetermined. We assessed the efficacy of oral and topical mesalazine combination therapy for patients with naive radiation proctitis.
A total of 23 patients with radiation proctitis were enrolled in the study over a period of 2 years. Three of these patients were excluded due to severe bleeding during the study. Twenty patients (mean age 60.3 years; two males, 18 females) were treated with oral mesalazine (3 × 1 g per day) plus a daily mesalazine suppository (1 g per day at bedtime) for 4 weeks. The efficacy of treatment was assessed according to the Subjective Objective Management Analytic (SOMA) scale for alleviation of clinical symptoms of rectal toxicity and sigmoidoscopic findings.
The mean bleeding score improved significantly from 2.10 to 1.70 (p = 0.002) with mesalazine treatment. However, scores were not improved for pain (0.30-0.20, p = 0.163), tenesmus (0.50-0.45, p = 0.577), or stool frequency (0.35-0.30, p = 0.577). The improvements in the mean telangiectasia score (1.80-1.45, p = 0.005), bleeding point score (1.60-1.05, p < 0.001), and friable mucosa score (1.35-1.00, p = 0.005) were all statistically significant. No side-effects were noted in any of the patients.
The combination of oral and topical mesalazine therapy for radiation proctitis may be a safe and effective treatment for naive radiation proctitis, especially for hemorrhagic proctitis. A large, randomized controlled trial is required to confirm the results of this pilot study.
No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Digestive Diseases and Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 63-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital with abdominal pain and nausea. Her abdomen was distended with obstructive bowel sounds on exam. There was diffuse abdominal tenderness but no palpable masses. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a large gallstone in the ileum. Surgical intervention was deferred given patient's known significant liver cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class B). Instead colonoscopy was performed and a large gallstone was found to be impacted at the ileocecal valve. The gallstone was fragmented using electrohydraulic lithotripsy (EHL) and then retrieved with snare and forceps. The patient made a full recovery and was eventually discharged home. This is the first reported case of an impacted gallstone at the ileocecal valve with successful colonoscopic treatment using electrohydraulic lithotripsy in Korea. This case highlights the potential therapeutic benefits for colonscopic retrieval of a gallstone impacted at the ileocecal valve in well selected individuals.
Preview · Article · Feb 2011 · The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Submucosal tumors (SMTs) are occasionally found in the esophagus during upper endoscopy. Granular cell tumors (GCTs) are reported to be the second most common esophageal mesenchymal tumors, after leiomyomas. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is an effective tool for predicting the histologic characteristics of SMTs by providing an accurate image of the layering structure of the esophagus, but it is hard to differentiate GCTs from submucosal leiomyomas accurately with conventional EUS. The aim of the present study was to characterize the EUS features of GCTs compared with those of submucosal leiomyomas using a high-frequency catheter probe EUS.
A total of 41 patients with GCTs or submucosal leiomyomas were included. All of the patients underwent EUS before histologic confirmation by endoscopic resection or biopsy.
There were 14 GCTs in 12 patients and 30 leiomyomas in 29 patients. GCTs had a white-to-yellow surface color more frequently than leiomyomas. In comparison with the surrounding normal proper muscle layer, the echogenicity of the leiomyomas was similar to that of the surrounding muscle layer, but more than half of the GCTs were hyperechoic compared to the surrounding muscle layer. Unclear borders were observed more frequently in GCTs than in leiomyomas. The presence of at least two of these three features in a given tumor had a sensitivity of 85.7%, a specificity of 96.7%, and an accuracy of 93.2% for predicting GCTs.
High-frequency probe EUS is helpful for differentiating esophageal GCTs from submucosal leiomyomas.
No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology