Manuela Ciarrocca

Sapienza University of Rome, Roma, Latium, Italy

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Publications (90)93.95 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Nickel (Ni) and Ni compounds are widely present in the urban air. The purpose of this study is to estimate exposure of individuals to Ni and the correlation between this exposure and the values of blood counts in outdoor workers. This study focused on a sample of 101 outdoor workers (55 male and 46 female; 65 nonsmokers and 36 smokers), all employed in the municipal police in a large Italian city. The personal levels of exposure to Ni were assessed through (a) environmental monitoring of Ni present in the urban air obtained from individual samples and (b) biological monitoring of urinary and blood Ni. The blood count parameters were obtained from the hemochromocytometric tests. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) were calculated to assess the association between the blood and urinary Ni and the complete blood count. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine the associations between the complete blood count and the independent variables (age, gender, years of work for current tasks, cigarette smoking habit (current and never smoker), values of airborne Ni, and blood and urinary Ni). Multiple linear regression analysis performed on the total group of 101 subjects confirms the association among the red blood cells count, the hematocrit, and the urinary Ni (R (2) = 0.520, p = 0.025 and R (2) = 0.530, p = 0.030). These results should lead to further studies on the effects of Ni in working populations exposed to urban pollutants. The possibility that the associations found in our study may be partially explained by other urban pollutants (such as benzene, toluene, and other heavy metals) not taken into consideration in this study cannot be ruled out.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Toxicology and Industrial Health
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate whether the exposure to arsenic (As) causes alterations of liver enzymes in two groups of outdoor workers. Total urinary As and the levels of AST/GOT, ALT/GPT, and GGT were measured on 80 traffic policemen and 50 police drivers. Personal air samples were obtained for assessing the exposure to As on a subgroup of 20 traffic policemen and 20 police drivers. Mean values of personal exposure to As, urinary As, AST/GOT, and ALT/GPT were significantly higher in traffic policemen than in the police drivers. Multiple linear regression models showed associations between urinary As and airborne As, ALT/GPT and the job variables, and BMI and urinary As. These findings contribute toward the evaluation of the hepatic effects of exposure to As in the urban workers.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between occupational exposure to airborne lead (Pb) and alterations in peripheral blood counts in workers of the Municipal Police assigned to different types of outdoor tasks. Then, 337 both male and female subjects were enrolled and divided on the basis of sex, cigarette smoking habit and kind of task. Exposure to airborne Pb, dosage of total blood Pb and peripheral blood count were carried out. A significant positive correlation was detected between the values of total blood Pb and values of plasma reticulocytes (%RET) both in the total sample and for all the classes of the subdivision except for police drivers. Some statistically significant correlations were present but discontinuous for other variables of peripheral blood counts. Results suggest that occupational exposure to low doses of airborne Pb is able to influence lines of the hematopoietic system in exposed workers, with special reference to %RET.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT The literature suggests that farmers nowadays are more likely to contract cardiovascular diseases than in the past. This study involved 79 farmers and 64 controls. The workers completed a questionnaire to identify exclusion factors for audiological and cardiovascular risk factors. The participants underwent medical examination, measurement of blood pressure, electrocardiogram, blood tests, audiometry, and measurement of noise exposure. The farmers were found to have a higher prevalence of systolic and diastolic arterial hypertension as well as electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities compared with the controls. A significant prevalence of arterial hypertension was detected in the farmers exposed to noise, when compared with those who were not exposed. These results suggest that farmers are at risk of cardiovascular effects and that noise is a cardiovascular risk factor for farmers.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Archives of Environmental and Occupational Health
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    ABSTRACT: In the general population, cadmium seems to be responsible for hypertension, atherosclerosis and an increase in acute coronary events. Therefore, the purpose of this meta-analysis was to analyze controlled studies conducted on cadmium and arterial pressure in occupationally-exposed workers. After analyzing all the relevant articles found in the literature, 6 publications were selected. A higher prevalence of hypertension and higher values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were recorded in the exposed subjects. Cadmium in occupationally-exposed individuals appears to induce an increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and an increase in the prevalence of hypertension.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The exposure to Cd has been linked to many disease and liver is the major target organ of Cd toxicity following acute or chronic exposure.No study has ever evaluated the association between liver function tests and exposure to Cd present in urban air in outdoor workers. Materials and methods: In order to assess the relationship between the exposure to urban Cd and the associated changes in liver functionality markers, we conducted a study on 110 municipal policemen divided into 2 groups according to their tasks: 60 traffic policemen and 50 drivers, underwent tests for the determination of the urinary values of Cd correlated with the blood levels of transaminases and ?-GT. Moreover we investigated the exposure to Cd in the air through a personal dosimetry on a subgroup of 40 subjects (20 traffic policemen 20 police drivers). Results: The results showed that the average personal exposure to air Cd was significantly higher in traffic policemen than drivers. Furthermore, in the subset of 40 subjects and in the total sample of 110 subjects, the mean values of urinary Cd were significantly higher in traffic policemen rather than in the police drivers. No significant difference was observed in the mean values of liver functionality in both groups. Conclusions: Due to the few studies on the effects of the exposure to Cd in big cities, the results of the present study offers useful information about occupational exposure to Cd on the road and in the car and the lack of effects on liver function.
    No preview · Article · May 2013 · Annali di igiene: medicina preventiva e di comunità
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    ABSTRACT: Urban pollution is a current problem, constituting a serious health risk. Many pollutants are present in the urban atmosphere, they are mainly anthropogenic, resulting from the combustion of coal. Several studies have shown the harmful effects of these pollutants, particularly on the respiratory system. Through a library review, we want to explore the effects on the health of general population and of outdoor workers exposed to the products resulting from the combustion of coal, in order to compare them with the estimated effects of the pollutants from the new generation coal plants, certainly less harmful to the environment. In recent years investments in "clean technologies" have resulted in a rapid and significant reduction of all polluting emissions: sulfur dioxide, dust, oxides of nitrogen, ash and gypsum resulting from the desulfurization process. To conclude in the light of the scientific literature we can say that the activation of coal plants based on technologies for the maximum containment and optimal treatment of the production cycle is essential to defend both the environment and the health of the population. Nevertheless it remains necessary to ensure a systematic monitoring of the environment of sanitation and food processing of the population living in the area, with a long-term follow-up. Clin Ter 2013; 164(2):e139-146. doi: 10.7417/CT.2013.1547.
    No preview · Article · May 2013 · La Clinica terapeutica
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT To assess the exposures to Cd in urban workers and association between Cd exposure and values of blood counts. Urinary Cd, blood Cd and blood counts were obtained from 355 outdoor workers; a subgroup of 99 subjects were monitored to evaluate personal exposure to airborne Cd. The mean value of personal exposure to Cd was 1.5 ng/m3 for traffic assistants and 1.2 ng/m3 for drivers. Urinary and blood Cd were correlated to the airborne Cd (respectively r = 0.3 and r = 0.4). The multiple linear regression models showed the associations among white blood cell, the percentage of neutrophils (NEU%), the percentage of lymphocytes (LYM%) and the concentrations of blood Cd (respectively R2 = 0.27, R2 = 0.37, R2 = 0.581). The subjects with blood Cd values higher than 1.2 μg /L showed an increase of LYM (%) mean values and a decrease of NEU (%) mean values respect to the group with blood Cd values lower than 1.1 μg/L.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Archives of Environmental and Occupational Health

  • No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Occupational Medicine
  • A Bacaloni · S Insogna · A Sancini · M Ciarrocca · F Sinibaldi
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    ABSTRACT: In order to monitor biogenic amines in human urine, a method based on field-amplified sample injection combined with capillary electrophoresis and direct UV absorption detection was developed. Dopamine, tyramine, tryptamine, serotonin and epinephrine were effectively separated and identified in human urine samples, and detection limits were 0.072, 0.010, 0.027, 0.010 and 0.120 µmol/L, respectively. Detection limits comparable to laser-induced fluorescence detection or solid phase extraction combined with capillary electrophoresis were achieved. Parameters affecting electrophoretic system detection sensitivity were investigated. Optimal separation conditions were obtained using as background electrolyte a pH 6.5 mixture of 2-(morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid 20 mmol/L and 30 mmol/L phosphate buffer, containing 0.05% hydroxypropylcellulose and 10% v/v methanol. Injections of the sample solution were performed by applying a voltage of 12 kV for 50 s. Recovery and accuracy ranged between 89.4 and 94.9%, and 89 and 112%, respectively. The method was successfully applied on actual urine samples (from a healthy volunteer): target bioamine content was consistent with endogenous levels reported in the literature. The proposed method is simple, fast and inexpensive and can be conveniently employed in work-related stress studies. The affordability and noninvasive sampling of the method allow epidemiological studies on large number of exposed persons to be performed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Biomedical Chromatography
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    ABSTRACT: Aim of this study is evaluating alteration of neuro-immune-endocrine parameters in exposed workers and estimating whether urban pollution can modify them. Literature research. Different categories of exposed workers were included in the study (7287) and compared with controls (8054). To calculate results Effect Size (ES) and confidence interval were used. A correlation between urban pollution exposition and some neurogenic mediators and metabolites alterations was demonstrated; blood values can be alterated by toxicity of benzene and by xenobiotic metabolites' mechanism; follicle stimulating hormone is significantly increased in exposed versus controls. High heterogeneity and literature limitations, together with results of this meta analysis, induce to believe that is necessary to deepen the research about urban pollution effects on these parameters.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Giornale italiano di medicina del lavoro ed ergonomia
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    ABSTRACT: The relation between stress and new technologies has always been a vexed question. Experts say technology is a sort of double-edged weapon; it increases the potential of human senses but on the other hand it also involves an adjustment to artificial, unnatural rhythms which have consequences on mental and physical health. Through tests with patients not too prone to socializing Cognitive Ergonomics shows that using web in a correct guided interactive way, instead of the passive way of using media, helps developing concentration and reactivity and improves the way we come into contact with the world around us.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Giornale italiano di medicina del lavoro ed ergonomia
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness and specificity of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHPu) as a biomarker of the exposure from urban pollution to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) among outdoor workers in a meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis was performed according to standard methods, and the results show that the concentrations of 1-OHPu tend to be higher in exposed workers than in unexposed workers (if we exclude two highly heterogeneous articles), in exposed non-smokers than in unexposed non-smokers and in exposed than in unexposed workers who were carriers of the CYP1A1 genotype and in those with the glutathione-S-transferase M1 (-)genotype. These genotypes enhance the effect of exposure, particularly in non-smokers. Smoking reduces the differences between exposed and unexposed subjects. In conclusion, our results suggest that the use of the 1-OHPu biomarker appears to be reliable for studying occupational exposure to PAHs from urban pollution, as long as environmental and behavioural factors are considered.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 9 January 2013; doi:10.1038/jes.2012.111.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the risk factors for upper extremity-work-related musculoskeletal disorders (UE-WMSD) on 13 production lines in an airbag factory using the threshold limit values-American conference of industrial hygienists- hand activity level (TLV-ACGIH-HAL) method and introduce the ergonomic improvement to reduce the repetitiveness and the peak force (Pf). Professional exposure level on 13 production lines in a automobile factory was measured using the TLV-ACGIH-HAL method and a further risk was assessed according to the ergonomic improvement. The first assessment of 9 production lines showed that the professional exposure level was above the TLV or HAL limit. The second assessment showed that the professional exposure level was below the AL limit on all production lines except 1, in which the professional exposure level was between TLV and HAL. The assessment of UE-WMSD-related risk can identify the riskiest emplacements and evaluate the reduction of risk in professional exposure through interventions of structural- organizational type.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Biomedical and Environmental Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the relationship between exposure to cadmium and circulating reproductive hormone levels in urban and rural male workers. Materials and methods: Urinary cadmium, blood cadmium, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone were obtained from 86 non-smoking traffic policemen and 86 subjects working as roadmen in a rural area. All subjects were monitored to evaluate airborne exposure to cadmium. Results: The mean value of exposure to cadmium was 1.3 ng m(-3) in traffic policemen, while the mean value was less than 0.5 ng m(-3) in roadmen. The mean concentrations of urinary cadmium (1.4 vs. 0.9 μg g(-1) creatinine; p=0.001), blood cadmium (1.1 vs. 0.7 μg l(-1); p=0.000), FSH (2.6 vs. 3.2 μlU ml(-1); p=0.02) and LH (2.6 vs. 3.1 μlU ml(-1); p=0.03) were significantly different between traffic policemen and roadmen. No differences were found in the mean values of testosterone between the two groups. Multiple linear regression models showed associations between (a) urinary cadmium, airborne cadmium, working life, job category and consumption of water from water supply (b) blood cadmium, airborne cadmium and job category (c) the values of FSH and age, working life, job category, urinary cadmium and blood cadmium (d) the values of LH and both the age and working life. Conclusion: The above results must be confirmed by further studies, but they indicate the influence of exposure to the cadmium present in urban air on the circulating FSH, even at low doses.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Chemosphere
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The aim of this study is to estimate the exposure to Cd in a group of roadmen compared to a group of drivers by environmental monitoring and biological monitoring of blood and urinary Cd. It aims to evaluate whether exposure to Cd can affect plasma cortisol. Materials and methods: The initial sample was composed by 130 employees of Municipal Police Force (roadmen and drivers). After administration of a clinical-anamnestic questionnaire were excluded 50 subjects who presented confounding factors and 30 subjects who weren't comparable. On a final sample of 25 drivers and 25 roadmen were conducted environmental monitoring of Cd, biological monitoring of urinary and blood Cd and assessment of cortisol. Results: Personal exposure to Cd in air was significantly higher in roadmen compared to drivers (p = 0.015). Urinary and blood Cd were significantly increased in roadmen compared to drivers (p = 0.18 and p = 0.025). There weren't significant differences in plasma cortisol between drivers and roadmen (p> 0.05). The multiple linear regression analysis shows that urinary and blood Cd are dependent on the environment Cd levels and on the job (driver or roadmen) (p = 0.014 and p = 0.012) and plasma cortisol isn't dependent on blood and urinary Cd. Conclusions: The results show a higher concentration of Cd in roadmen both in air and urine and they don't indicate an influence of exposure to low doses of Cd on plasma cortisol.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · La Clinica terapeutica
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to evaluate, using a questionnaire developed by our research group, whether occupational exposure to physical, chemical and psychosocial urban stressors can lead to alterations in perceived stress in a group of both male and female outdoor workers. The study also examines possible correlations between the levels of stress as inferred from the scores of the questionnaire and the levels of certain stress-related parameters (prolactin levels, consumption of coffee, chocolate, alcohol and cigarette smoking). We evaluated a final sample of 480 subjects (342 male and 138 female). All workers included in the study were divided into three groups on the basis of scores of the questionnaire. About 60% of workers showed a moderate or severe stress condition, with a statistically significant prevalence of female workers and younger subjects. There was a statistically significant correlation between the questionnaire score and the mean levels of stress-related parameters. The increase of perceived stress increases significantly the mean levels of prolactin and the consumption of coffee, chocolate and cigarettes. There was no statistically significant differences for alcohol consumption. The results show that exposure to chemical physical and psycho-social urban stressors can influence perceived stress in outdoor workers. The questionnaire used in our research could be an useful instruments for physicians during the health surveillance visits
    No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Annali di igiene: medicina preventiva e di comunità
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to estimate if low dose of occupational exposure to ionizing radiations can cause alterations of plasma concentrations of total white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes (eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils), in the health workers of a big hospital. 266 non smokers subjects of both sexes (133 health workers and 133 controls) were included in this study, compared on the basis of sex, age and working seniority. The complete blood count (CBC) was performed in all included workers. The differences between the mean values were compared using Student T-test for unpaired data. The frequencies of the single variables were compared using Chi (2) test with Yates correction. The differences were considered significant when the P values were < 0.05. The mean values and the distribution of the mean values of total white blood cell were significantly decreased in health workers of both sexes compared to controls. The average values of granulocytes neutrophils were significantly low in female health workers compared to female controls. The obtained results suggest that low dose of occupational exposure to ionizing radiations is able to influence some lines of the hematopoietic system in exposed workers.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Annali di igiene: medicina preventiva e di comunità
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose of this study is to evaluate and to compare the excretion of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHPu) in traffic policemen (TP) and drivers (D) of a large Italian city and to evaluate the existence and the degree of correlation between airborne exposure to 15 different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 1-OHPu levels in the examined population. 192 male workers, 115 TP and 77 D, were monitored for 1-HOPu. A subgroup of non-smoking workers (subgroup B: 59 TP and 15 D) was also examined and 15 environmental PAHs was monitored through the personal samplings for the measurement of the particulate phase. The 1-OHPu levels and the values of personal airborne exposure to PAHs were significantly higher among non-smoking TP than among non-smoking D (p < 0.05). In subgroup B the levels of environmental exposure to all the 15 PAHs measured in TP and only 6 of 15 PAHs measured in D were significantly correlated with the values of 1-OHPu (p < 0.05). Our results suggest that the use of 1-OHPu as an indicator of exposure to PAHs is reliable also for what concerns the study of the low-dose work-related exposure in urban outdoor workers.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Annali di igiene: medicina preventiva e di comunità
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The aims of this study are to evaluate the prevalence of disorders of the lumbar region and the temporo-mandibular district co-morbidity in drivers and workers of the State Police employed for different office activities. Materials and methods: The study population included 103 drivers as cases and 100 police officers as controls. The study was carried out through questionnaire and clinical evaluation of the spine and temporo-mandibular region. Results: At clinical examination, the drivers were found to have a higher prevalence (p < 0.05) of both symptoms and clinical signs at the spine and temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ), when compared with the controls. The results also showed a higher prevalence (p < 0.05) of co-morbidity in the two districts among the drivers, when compared with the controls. Conclusions: These results confirm that morbidity related to back and TMJ and increase in co-morbidity between the two districts are higher in professional drivers.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Acta odontologica Scandinavica