Publications (24)

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We herein describe the case of a 68-year-old man who developed overt diabetes mellitus following the topical administration of dexamethasone 0.1%-containing ointment over a five-month period to treat oral lichen planus. The topical dexamethasone therapy was discontinued gradually, and the patient was subsequently treated with insulin for one month without clinical signs of overt adrenal insufficiency. An oral glucose tolerance test revealed impaired glucose tolerance after the treatment. The potential for the deterioration of glucose metabolism must be considered when patients with impaired glucose tolerance are treated with relatively low doses of topical corticosteroid ointment on the oral mucosa, even for short periods.
    Article · Aug 2014 · Internal Medicine
  • Toshio Kahara · Tomomi Ichikawa · Hirokazu Taniguchi · [...] · Rika Usuda
    Article · Sep 2013 · Internal Medicine
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 71-year-old man with diabetes mellitus visited our hospital with complaints of anorexia and weight loss (12 kg/3 months). He had megaloblastic anemia, cobalamin level was low, and autoantibody to intrinsic factor was positive. He was treated with intramuscular cyanocobalamin, and he was able to consume meals. GAD autoantibody and ICA were positive, and he was diagnosed with slowly progressive type 1 diabetes mellitus (SPIDDM). Thyroid autoantibodies were positive. According to these findings, he was diagnosed with autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3 with SPIDDM, pernicious anemia, and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Extended periods of cobalamin deficiency can cause serious complications such as ataxia and dementia, and these complications may not be reversible if replacement therapy with cobalamin is delayed. Although type 1 diabetes mellitus with coexisting pernicious anemia is very rare in Japan, physicians should consider the possibility of pernicious anemia when patients with diabetes mellitus have cryptogenic anorexia with the finding of significant macrocytosis (MCV > 100 fL).
    Full-text Article · Dec 2012 · Case Reports in Endocrinology
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thyroglobulin gene mutation is a rare cause of congenital hypothyroidism, but thyroglobulin gene mutations are thought to be associated with thyroid cancer development. A 21-year-old Japanese man treated with levothyroxine for congenital hypothyroidism had an enlarged thyroid gland with undetectable serum thyroglobulin despite elevated serum TSH level. The patient was diagnosed with thyroglobulin gene mutation, with compound heterozygosity for Gly304Cys missense mutation and Arg432X nonsense mutation. Ultrasonography showed a hypovascular large tumor in the left lobe that appeared as a cold nodule on thyroid scintigraphy. He underwent total thyroidectomy, but pathological study did not reveal findings of thyroid carcinoma, but rather a hyperplastic nodule with hemorrhage. Strong cytoplasmic thyroglobulin immunostaining was observed, but sodium iodide symporter immunostaining was hardly detected in the hyperplastic nodule. The clinical characteristics of patients with thyroglobulin gene mutations are diverse, and some patients are diagnosed by chance on examination of goiter in adults. The presence of thyroid tumors that appear as cold nodules on thyroid scintigraphy should consider the potential for thyroid carcinoma, if the patient has relatively low serum thyroglobulin concentration in relation to the degree of TSH without thyroglobulin autoantibody.
    Full-text Article · Jun 2012 · Case Reports in Endocrinology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 74-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for goiter and persistent thyrotoxicosis. She had no signs of ophthalmopathy. She was not taking thyroid hormone. Thyroid CT revealed multiple nodules. The thyroid gland was not detected on (99m)Tc scintigraphy, (123)I uptake rate was 4.5% at 24 hours without hot nodules, and aberrant goiter was negative. After partial thyroidectomy, she was treated with levothyroxine. TRAb was undetectable during the disease course, and focal destructive change or chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis on the pathological specimens was not evident. We report a rare case of toxic multinodular goiter with low radioactive iodine uptake.
    Article · Jan 2011 · Internal Medicine
  • Toshio Kahara · Noriko Iwaki · Hiroyasu Kaya · [...] · Rika Usuda
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thyroid MALT lymphoma is an extremely rare malignancy believed to arise against a background of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Rituximab is a monoclonal antibody directed against B cell specific antigen CD20. Recently, there have been reports that rituximab is effective for autoimmune thyroid diseases such as Graves' disease as well as for treatment of B cell malignant lymphoma. We present the changes in thyroid autoantibodies in Hashimoto's thyroiditis after rituximab administration for 3 cases of thyroid MALT lymphoma. Case 1 had been taking levothyroxine and was diagnosed with thyroid MALT lymphoma. She was treated with rituximab monotherapy, and her thyroid enlargement improved. Anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) turned negative after rituximab monotherapy, and TSH levels decreased with the same levothyroxine dosage. Case 2 was diagnosed with recurrent thyroid MALT lymphoma after chemotherapy (CHOP). He suffered from leg sensory disturbance because of vincristine sulfate. The patient was treated with rituximab. TPOAb decreased, but did not turn negative. TSH levels were within normal range during the disease course, but TSH levels were low in comparison with before rituximab therapy. Case 3 was diagnosed with thyroid MALT lymphoma after radiation therapy on the neck for laryngeal cancer. Thyroid enlargement improved after rituximab monotherapy, and thyroid autoantibody levels decreased. TSH increased transiently after radiation therapy, but TSH decreased gradually without levothyroxine after rituximab monotherapy. We report 3 cases in which thyroid autoantibody levels in Hashimoto's thyroiditis decreased after rituximab monotherapy for thyroid MALT lymphoma, but it is controversial whether thyroid dysfunction due to Hashimoto's thyroiditis is restored.
    Article · Nov 2010 · Endocrine Journal
  • Hitomi Wakakuri · Toshio Kahara · Akiko Shimizu · [...] · Rika Usuda
    Article · May 2010 · Internal Medicine
  • Satoshi Watanabe · Toshio Kahara · Chikashi Seto · [...] · Rika Usuda
    Article · Jan 2009 · Internal Medicine
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    Toshio Kahara · Ken-ichi Nakajima · Kozo Takahashi · [...] · Rika Usuda
    Full-text Article · Feb 2008 · Internal Medicine
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 54-year-old man with Graves' disease had been treated with thiamazole (5 mg/day). His thyroid hormone level was increased after exodontia in February 2006. Although his prescribed dose of thiamazole was increased after exodontia on the fourth day, he developed thyroid crisis on exodontia 52 nd day. Laboratory findings also showed renal dysfunction (from Cr 1.0 mg/dL in July 2005 to Cr 1.8 mg/dL on exodontia 37th day). His thyroid hormone level was normalized after subtotal thyroidectomy; however, serum Cr level was still high. He was diagnosed with interstitial nephritis as a result of renal biopsy, and he was treated with prednisolone 30 mg/day. This present case developed thyroid crisis even though the quantity of thiamazole was increased after exodontia. It seems that interstitial nephritis, as well as exodontia, is an aggravation factor of thyroid function. After a poor response to anti-thyroid drugs, it is necessary to prevent thyroid crisis by determining the aggravating factor and to then provide appropriate treatment.
    Article · Feb 2008 · Internal Medicine
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A right adrenal tumor was incidentally discovered on abdominal computed tomography performed on a 53-year-old Japanese man, who had been hospitalized with diabetic ketoacidosis. Normal values were obtained for adrenal hormones in the morning after an overnight fast and urinary cortisol excretion after treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis with insulin. However, overnight dexamethasone administration with 1 mg or 8 mg did not completely suppress serum cortisol levels. There were no remarkable physical findings related to Cushing's syndrome. The patient was diagnosed as having preclinical Cushing's syndrome (PCS). Histological examination of the adrenalectomy specimen demonstrated adrenal black adenoma. Blood glucose levels subsequently improved after adrenalectomy, and the patient never developed adrenal insufficiency after hydrocortisone withdrawal. The patient was treated with diet therapy alone, and maintained good glycemic control. However, the patient still showed a diabetic pattern in an oral glucose tolerance test. It seems that the existence of PCS in addition to the underlying type 2 diabetes mellitus contributed to aggravation of blood glucose levels. Although there are many aspects of the natural course of PCS that have not been thoroughly elucidated, it is necessary to remain aware that a PCS patient with abnormal glucose metabolism may develop diabetic ketoacidosis by environmental agents.
    Article · Sep 2007 · Endocrine Journal
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a case showing deterioration of glycemic control during octreotide long-acting release (LAR) treatment in an acromegalic Japanese patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The patient did not show much improvement of insulin sensitivity (QUICKI; 0.33 before treatment, 0.35 during octreotide LAR treatment), and showed a significant reduction in early insulin secretion (insulinogenic index; 0.28 before treatment, 0.08 during octreotide LAR treatment) on 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (75gOGTT), despite decreases in GH and IGF-I levels during the course of octreotide LAR treatment. Postoperatively, both insulin sensitivity and early insulin secretion on 75gOGTT were improved (QUICKI 0.59, insulinogenic index 0.35). There are some reports that insulinogenic index is lower in most Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and that early insulin secretions are significantly suppressed after administration of octreotide LAR. Although the influence of octreotide LAR on glucose metabolism varies among individuals, it is necessary to manage the deterioration of glucose tolerance during octreotide LAR treatment in acromegalic Japanese patients with decreased insulinogenic index.
    Article · May 2007 · Endocrine Journal
  • Masaaki Yano · Toshio Kahara · Hitoshi Abo · [...] · Rika Usuda
    Article · Feb 2007 · Internal Medicine
  • T. Kahara · C. Tahara · T. Tsuruki · [...] · R. Usuda
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied predictive factors in maintenance therapy for type 2 diabetic patients with poor glycemic control (HbA1c≧10%) and no treatment history. We classified 146 patients who maintained glycemic control of HbA1c<7.0% after 2-week in-hospital training in glycemic control into three groups : Group A : 84 undergoing diet therapy alone ; Group B : 23 administered drugs that do not easily cause hypoglycemia, such as biguanides, α-glucosidase inhibitor, and thiazolidinedione ; and Group C : 39 administered drugs that can induce hypoglycemic risk, such as sulphonylureas and insulin. In Group A, 41 maintained HbA1c<5.5% by diet therapy alone. No significant difference was seen in age, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, body mass index, or urinary excretion of C peptide during hospitalization among the three groups, and these were not regarded as predictive factors in maintenance therapy. The ratio of patients with diabetic retinopathy at hospitalization was high in Group C. The interval until HbA1c<7.0% was achieved was shorter in Group A than in Group C, and body weight loss until HbA1c<7.0% was achieved was greater in Group A than in Group C. No significant difference was seen in the interval until HbA1c<7.0% was achieved in the presence of retinopathy in Group C. The presence of diabetic retinopathy at initial diagnosis was a predictive factor in maintenance therapy in our study.
    Article · Jan 2007
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although pancreatic exocrine enzymes are often elevated in patients with fulminant type 1 diabetes, the onset of this elevation and its significance in disease development remain unclear. We therefore investigated the significance of elevated serum enzyme concentrations and pancreatic swelling in the development of fulminant type 1 diabetes. Serum pancreatic exocrine enzymes, including amylase, elastase-I, lipase and trypsin, were measured during the course of the disease in 11 patients with fulminant type 1 diabetes (3 men and 8 women; a range of age 24-73 years, median 33 years; a range of HbA1c at onset 4.5-6.7%, median 6.0%), all of whom developed ketotic diabetes requiring intensive insulin therapy within a month. At least one pancreatic exocrine enzyme was elevated in each patient during the course of the disease. The concentration of enzymes on admission could not be correlated with urinary excretion of C-peptide. The time course of increase in serum amylase varied in these patients. In conclusion, neither the level of serum amylase nor the swelling of pancreas was associated with the onset or severity of fulminant type 1 diabetes. The pancreatic exocrine and endocrine events may occur concomitantly but independently during the course of fulminant type 1 diabetes.
    Article · Apr 2006 · Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
  • Rika Horii · Toshio Kahara · Hiroshi Akahori · [...] · Rika Usuda
    Article · Feb 2006 · Internal Medicine
  • Article · Sep 2005 · Internal Medicine
  • Tsuguhito Ota · Toshinari Takamura · Yukihiro Nagai · [...] · Rika Usuda
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the presence and level of serum antibodies to IA-2 (IA-2A) in Japanese patients with adult type 1 diabetes in order to clarify its association with glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibody. Serum samples were obtained from 101 Japanese patients with type 1 diabetes, including 37 patients with slowly progressive form of type 1 diabetes. Serum levels of IA-2A and GADA were determined by radioimmunoassay. The study had a cross-sectional design. IA-2A and GADA were detected in 37 and 59% of these patients, respectively. Of the 37 slowly progressive form of patients, IA-2A and GADA were present in 49 and 86%, respectively (NS). GADA levels were significantly higher (P<0.05) in IA-2A positive than in IA-2A negative patients in slowly progressive form, but IA-2A levels did not differ significantly between GADA positive and GADA negative patients. Measuring IA-2A in combination with GADA is useful for the diagnosis and prognosis of type 1 diabetes in Japanese.
    Article · Feb 2005 · Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
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    Full-text Article · Nov 2003 · Diabetes Care
  • M Yokoyama · M Torita · M Yoshizawa · R Usuda
    Article · Dec 2001 · Diabetes & Metabolism