[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The high convection dialytic techniques, such as hemodiafiltration (HDF), can cause the loss of important molecules such as growth factors, vitamins and amino acids. Hemodiafiltration reinfusion (HFR) is an HDF on-line process, using a sipping cartridge, able to remove uremic toxins and give back a "repaired" ultra-filtrate to the patient. We aimed to establish the plasmatic amino acid levels before and after dialysis in HFR vs. HDF on-line, with scrupulous attention to branched chain amino acids (BCAA) such as isoleucine, leucine and valine. These amino acids, often present with low plasmatic levels in hemodialyzed patients, seem to be related to a picture of malnourishment.
Eleven male patients on bicarbonate dialysis, for at least 1 yr, were evaluated (average dialytic age = 88 months, /average age = 67 yrs), with good dialytic efficiency and body mass levels, randomized in HFR or HDF on-line (filter PAN AN 69) for 1 week of treatment, respectively. The different results of each method were controlled for the same patient. Blood samples were taken before and after dialysis in each 2nd hemodialytic weekly session. Total amino acids, essential, non-essential and BCAA were determined by gas-chromatography.
There was no difference detected in pre-dialytic plasmatic levels of analyzed amino acids between the two groups. In post-dialysis, HDF patients demonstrated a total essential, non-essential amino acid and BCAA higher loss rate, compared to HFR patients. Post-dialysis amino acid level averages were: total amino acids in HDF 1852 +/- 302.6 micromol/L, in HFR 2395 +/- 492.8 micromol/L (p = 0.018); essential amino acids in HDF 428.8 +/- 118.2 micromol/L, in HFR 510.3 +/- 129.3 micromol/L (p = 0.022); non-essential amino acids in HDF 1176 +/- 213 micromol/L, in HFR 1546 +/- 339.2 micromol/L (p = 0.01); BCAA in HDF 242.7 +/- 83.42 micromol/L, and in HFR 286.7 +/- 89.9 micromol/L (p = 0.03).
Since low plasmatic BCAA levels are related to anorexia and malnourishment, the loss of these amino acids can be important in the dialytic technique choice. HFR can offer an outstanding advantage, combining a high convection treatment with medium molecule removal, without compromising physiologic molecule loss.
No preview · Article · Nov 2004 · Giornale italiano di nefrologia: organo ufficiale della Societa italiana di nefrologia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The search for quality in the health service cannot lead aside the safety of its operators and users, subject to the well defined parameters of Law 626. This study makes a preliminary examination of the accidents occurring in our Health District which comprises three hospitals, 600 beds and 1,800 employees. A total of 172 accidents have been reported. The percentages can be broken down between the various sectors: 73% of accidents involve nurses, 9% involve doctors and 1% administrative personnel. The greatest risk in hemodialysis is the biological factor (through accidental cuts or pricks which account for 67% of the accidents reported) and involves humans (both patients and personnel), monitors and environments as the sources of pathogens. The most frequently isolated germs are E. coli and Pseudomonas. It has been shown that prevention is above all based on the accuracy with which procedures are followed. The risk of hepatitis C has not yet been resolved, as is affinned in a review reported in the study. The HIV risk gives the greatest cause for concern, even if only 0.2% after exposure compared to 15-36 for HbsAg. Compliance with universal rules for prevention and post-exposure procedures provides an adequate guarantee for prevention.
No preview · Article · Oct 2000 · Minerva urologica e nefrologica = The Italian journal of urology and nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prednisone is the choice medicine in Nephrotic Syndrome (NS) treatment, possibly associated with immunosuppressor medicines (cyclophosphamide or chlorambucil), either in case of NS resistance at cortisone therapy or with frequent relapses. Cyclosporin A (CyA) use has been recently proposed, due to its inhibitory effect on the IL2 and lymphokine release, with a permeabilizing effect on the glomerular membrane. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the CyA antiproteinuric effectiveness with NS conventional therapy refractory patients.
Six patients (3 females and 3 males) have been treated with CyA (4 +/- 0.5 mg/Kg/die) associated with low corticosteroid dosages.
During the treatment, proteinuria reduced in 5 patients, at less than 1/3 of pre-treatment values, for 4 patients this happened starting from the 2nd month of therapy, while after the 12th for the fifth patient. The sixth patient has now a 2/3 reduction compared to the initial one and he is at the 3rd month of therapy. During the CyA treatment, further to the proteinuria reduction, a total proteinemia values increase and a cholesterolemia and tryglyceridemia reduction has been observed, while creatinine and PA have not changed.
Four out of the six treated patients have been respectively under therapy for 2,3,12,30 months. Two stopped CyA therapy: one after 18 months due to clinical stability, still present after 2 years from interruption; one after 9 months with a stable clinical picture for just three months, since she was longing for a pregnancy, achieving a quick proteinuria relapse.
No preview · Article · Jul 1999 · Minerva urologica e nefrologica = The Italian journal of urology and nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The congestive heart failure (IV cl. NYHA) refractory to medical therapy, can be treated with ultrafiltrative method such as extracorporeal ultrafiltration (UF), intermittent veno-venosus hemofiltration, intermittent peritoneal dialysis (IPD) or chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD).
Sixty-one patients suffering from SCC have been managed by combining medical therapy with ultrafiltrative treatment.
28% (17 patients) died within a week from ultrafiltrative therapy beginning. 39% (24 patients) took up to respond to medical therapy (responders). 33% (20 patients) didn't give a proper response to pharmacological therapy (non responders), therefore a ultrafiltration program with chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) has been undertaken. Among ultrafiltrative methods applied to patients, IVVH is the most effective. Clinical parameters analysis, relevant to dehydration acute phase, points out: an evident loss of corporeal weight between dehydration pre-post phases in all 3 groups, with statistically significant results; a SAP values reduction between the beginning and the end of treatment in all 3 groups; a PAD values reduction in the group of deceased and non responders. This value remains stable in responders group. Non responders patients, inserted in a ultrafiltration program with CAPD present the following survival rate: 55%: 6 months; 35%: 1 years; 15%: 4 years. These patients maintain a good self-management in 50%, sufficient in 35% and totally partner-dependent in 15%.
Ultrafiltration method together with pharmacological therapy allows a resetting of neuro-endocrine and electrolytic system in refractory congestive heart failure patients and a recovery of a pharmacological response. Without such a response a cardio-circulatory balance can be maintained through a CAPD method.
No preview · Article · Jul 1998 · Minerva urologica e nefrologica = The Italian journal of urology and nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The number of patients who develop heart failure (HF) is increasing and is expected to increase further in the next decade. Despite the availability of an ever-widening array of pharmacological therapy, patients with end-stage HF have a poor long-term prognosis. Little attention has been paid to alternative non-conventional therapy for these patients. The aim of this non-randomized study was to describe two non-conventional approaches in patients with HF, refractory to conventional medical therapy. The feasibility and long-term efficacy of a continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CPAD: 20 patients) or dobutamine intermittent infusions (DOB: 11 patients) was analysed: the mean dobutamin dose was 5 gamma/kg/min, and the interval period treatment ranged from 12 hours/day to 12 hours/week. RESULTS: Both treatments were feasible and non major procedure complications occurred. The 6 and 12 month survival rates were 55% (14/20 patients), 35% (9/20 patients) and 36% (6/11 patients), 18% (3/11 patients) in the CAPD patients and DOB patients, respectively. All patients survived at one year (38% = 12/31 patients) documented a significant functional improvement and quality of life. The conclusions is drawn that the use of CAPD and DOB should be considered in those with refractory HF, in whom medical therapy has failed and in whom home training is considered feasible. Further studies are necessary to define those patients who will benefit from one of these strategies and to confirm these preliminary data.
No preview · Article · Apr 1998 · Minerva urologica e nefrologica = The Italian journal of urology and nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors analyse the series of patients with medical nephropathy undergoing renal biopsy between 1973 and 1993 in order to make a diagnostic and prognostic comparison between the first (ID) and second (IID) decade. Clinical indications for biopsy, which became more precise during the second decade, led to the diagnosis of fewer patients with normal histology; the introduction of ME and IF allowed non-significant histological conditions to be reduced during IID; echo-guided biopsy has led to a reduced number of post-biopsy complications in IID compared to ID. Epidemiological analysis reveals the reduction of focal glomerulosclerosis in IID in favour of glomerulonephritis with IgA deposits in correlation with the use of IF; the increase in mebranous glomerulonephritis secondary to increased antigenic stimuli; reduced acute post-infective glomerulonephritis and membrane-proliferative glomerulonephritis owing to an improved prophylaxis of sources of infection. Among the patients undergoing renal biopsy and commencing dialysis an increase was observed in IID in the number of cases of membranous glomerulonephritis or caused by IgA deposits. There was an increased interval between biopsy and the start of dialysis in IID compared to ID, in spite of fewer patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy. This was probably due to the increased number of pathologies with a slower evolution, thus justifying the postponement of the start of dialysis.
No preview · Article · Oct 1996 · Minerva urologica e nefrologica = The Italian journal of urology and nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This work analyses the economic aspects of dialysis in Italy in relation to government resources allocated to the health service in general. The authors illustrate the procedures used to estimate the resources required by the dialytic programme. The costs of dialytic programmes in different cities and at different periods in the history of the Italian health service are compared. A concrete example is outlined of the economic management of dialysis and the authors demonstrate how the results were obtained using cost analysis.
No preview · Article · Apr 1994 · Minerva urologica e nefrologica = The Italian journal of urology and nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During this work through the total bacterial count and of the pseudomonas and the determination of the positive substances to Limulus Amebocyte Lysate test, bacterial pollution of the liquid bicarbonate concentrate has been determined together with the influence that preparation conditions and the entity of interval between the said preparation and utilization of concentrates have on it. Through the evaluation of the cardiac rate and the systemic arterial pressure, we have studied the influence of the bacterial pollution on the clinical of the patient. Analysing the obtained data we can point out that the liquid bicarbonate concentrate present an elevated degree of contamination which feels the effects of the production and storage procedures. The remark of inverse correlation between systemic arterial pressure and endotoxin level of the dialysate seems to reconfirm the importance of the bacterial contamination on the clinical of the patient.
No preview · Article · Jan 1990 · Minerva urologica e nefrologica = The Italian journal of urology and nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The paper assesses the existence of possible interference between dialysis and the response to human recombinant erythropoietin administered i.v. in a group of patients undergoing regular dialysis. The results obtained show that the time taken to reach the set hemoglobin target (Hb 10 g%) was shorter in hemodiafiltered (HDF) patients compared to those receiving bicarbonate dialysis (BD). A plausible explantation may be the different depurative characteristics and the greater degree of biocompatibility of alternative dialysis which is able to achieve a more rapid cellular response to pharmacological stimulation.
No preview · Article · · Minerva urologica e nefrologica = The Italian journal of urology and nephrology